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Measuring situational avoidance in older drivers: An application of Rasch analysis. - Accident; analysis and prevention
Situational avoidance is a form of driving self-regulation at the strategic level of driving behaviour. It has typically been defined as the purposeful avoidance of driving situations perceived as challenging or potentially hazardous. To date, assessment of the psychometric properties of existing scales that measure situational avoidance has been sparse. This study examined the contribution of Rasch analysis to the situational avoidance construct. Three hundred and ninety-nine Australian drivers (M=66.75, SD=10.14, range: 48-91 years) completed the Situational Avoidance Questionnaire (SAQ). Following removal of the item Parallel Parking, the scale conformed to a Rasch model, showing good person separation, sufficient reliability, little disordering of thresholds, and no evidence of differential item functioning by age or gender. The residuals were independent supporting the assumption of unidimensionality and in conforming to a Rasch model, SAQ items were found to be hierarchical or cumulative. Increased avoidance was associated with factors known to be related to driving self-regulation more broadly, including older age, female gender, reduced driving space and frequency, reporting a change in driving in the past five years and poorer indices of health (i.e., self-rated mood, vision and cognitive function). Overall, these results support the use of the SAQ as a psychometrically sound measure of situational avoidance. Application of Rasch analysis to this area of research advances understanding of the driving self-regulation construct and its practice by drivers in baby boomer and older adult generations.Copyright Â© 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
SATB2 expression is sensitive but may not be specific for osteosarcoma compared to other high-grade primary bone sarcomas. - Histopathology
Diagnosis of osteosarcoma, while important for eligibility in clinical trials and proper therapy, may be challenging when no bone or osteoid matrix is identified on biopsy. Therefore, other adjunct tests have been sought to help confirm the diagnosis. SATB2 has been shown as a reliable marker of osteoblastic differentiation. The aim of this study was to examine SATB2 expression in osteosarcomas and other primary bone sarcomas, to evaluate its diagnostic utility in discriminating osteogenic versus non-osteogenic sarcomas.Forty-eight pre-treated osteosarcoma biopsies, including 26 whole-section cases and 22 tumors on tissue microarrays (TMA), and 36 non-osteogenic bone sarcomas were evaluated. 45 of 48 cases (94%) of osteosarcomas demonstrated nuclear immunoreactivity for SATB2 (all whole slide sections showed expression). Positive SATB2 expression was observed in 11/22 (50%) undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma (UPS), 5/11 (45%) fibrosarcoma, 0/2 (0%) pleomorphic rhabdomyosarcomas, and 0/1 (0%) leiomyosarcoma. The sensitivity of SATB2 for osteosarcoma was 94% and the specificity was 55%. Stronger intensity staining was observed in osteosarcoma (p<0.0001).SATB2 is a sensitive marker for osteosarcoma; however, it is not specific, with expression observed in other high-grade primary bone sarcomas. Intriguingly, the lack of specificity may suggests that the undifferentiated sarcomas (UPS and fibrosarcomas) with SATB2 expression, in fact, represent osteosarcomas that produce too little matrix to detect with routine sampling or consist of osteoblast precursors that do not synthesize matrix. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
University-Community-Hospice Partnership to Address Organizational Barriers to Cultural Competence. - The American journal of hospice & palliative care
Research documents a lack of access to, utilization of, and satisfaction with hospice care for African Americans. Models for culturally competent hospice services have been developed but are not in general use. Major organizational barriers include (1) lack of funding/budgeting for additional staff for community outreach, (2) lack of applications from culturally diverse professionals, (3) lack of funding/budgeting for additional staff for development of culturally competent services, (4) lack of knowledge about diverse cultures, and (5) lack of awareness of which cultural groups are not being served. A participatory action research project addressed these organizational barriers through a multicultural social work student field placement in 1 rural hospice. The effectiveness of the student interventions was evaluated, including addressing organizational barriers, cultural competence training of staff, and community outreach. Results indicated that students can provide a valuable service in addressing organizational barriers through a hospice field placement.Â© The Author(s) 2015.
Correlates of male involvement in maternal and newborn health: a cross-sectional study of men in a peri-urban region of Myanmar. - BMC pregnancy and childbirth
Evidence suggests that increasing male involvement in maternal and newborn health (MNH) may improve MNH outcomes. However, male involvement is difficult to measure, and further research is necessary to understand the barriers and enablers for men to engage in MNH, and to define target groups for interventions. Using data from a peri-urban township in Myanmar, this study aimed to construct appropriate indicators of male involvement in MNH, and assess sociodemographic, knowledge and attitude correlates of involvement.A cross-sectional study of married men with one or more children aged up to one year was conducted in 2012. Structured questionnaires measured participants' involvement in MNH, and their sociodemographic characteristics, knowledge and attitudes. An ordinal measure of male involvement was constructed describing the subject's participation across five areas of MNH, giving a score of 1-4. Proportional-odds regression models were developed to determine correlates of male involvement.A total of 210 men participated in the survey, of which 203 provided complete data. Most men reported involvement level scores of either 2 or 3 (64 %), with 13 % reporting the highest level (score of 4). Involvement in MNH was positively associated with wives' level of education (AOR = 3.4; 95 % CI: 1.9-6.2; p < 0.001) and men's level of knowledge of MNH (AOR = 1.2; 95 % CI: 1.1-1.3; p < 0.001), and negatively correlated with number of children (AOR = 0.78; 95 % CI: 0.63-0.95; p = 0.016).These findings can inform the design of programs aiming to increase male involvement, for example by targeting less educated couples and addressing their knowledge of MNH. The composite index proved a useful summary measure of involvement; however, it may have masked differential determinants of the summed indicators. There is a need for greater understanding of the influence of gender attitudes on male involvement in Myanmar and more robust indicators that capture these gender dynamics for use both in Myanmar and globally.
Development and validation of an app-based cell counter for use in the clinical laboratory setting. - Journal of pathology informatics
For decades cellular differentials have been generated exclusively on analog tabletop cell counters. With the advent of tablet computers, digital cell counters - in the form of mobile applications ("apps") - now represent an alternative to analog devices. However, app-based counters have not been widely adopted by clinical laboratories, perhaps owing to a presumed decrease in count accuracy related to the lack of tactile feedback inherent in a touchscreen interface. We herein provide the first systematic evidence that digital cell counters function similarly to standard tabletop units.We developed an app-based cell counter optimized for use in the clinical laboratory setting. Paired counts of 188 peripheral blood smears and 62 bone marrow aspirate smears were performed using our app-based counter and a standard analog device. Differences between paired data sets were analyzed using the correlation coefficient, Student's t-test for paired samples and Bland-Altman plots.All counts showed excellent agreement across all users and touch screen devices. With the exception of peripheral blood basophils (r = 0.684), differentials generated for the measured cell categories within the paired data sets were highly correlated (all r â‰¥ 0.899). Results of paired t-tests did not reach statistical significance for any cell type (all P > 0.05), and Bland-Altman plots showed a narrow spread of the difference about the mean without evidence of significant outliers.Our analysis suggests that no systematic differences exist between cellular differentials obtained via app-based or tabletop counters and that agreement between these two methods is excellent.
Susceptibility loci revealed for bovine respiratory disease complex in pre-weaned holstein calves. - BMC genomics
Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) is an infectious disease of cattle that is caused by a combination of viral and/or bacterial pathogens. Selection for cattle with reduced susceptibility to respiratory disease would provide a permanent tool for reducing the prevalence of BRDC. The objective of this study was to identify BRDC susceptibility loci in pre-weaned Holstein calves as a prerequisite to using genetic improvement as a tool for decreasing the prevalence of BRDC. High density SNP genotyping with the Illumina BovineHD BeadChip was conducted on 1257 male and 757 female Holstein calves from California (CA), and 767 calves identified as female from New Mexico (NM). Of these, 1382 were classified as BRDC cases, and 1396 were classified as controls, with all phenotypes assigned using the McGuirk health scoring system. During the acquisition of blood for DNA isolation, two deep pharyngeal and one mid-nasal diagnostic swab were obtained from each calf for the identification of bacterial and viral pathogens. Genome-wide association analyses were conducted using four analytical approaches (EIGENSTRAT, EMMAX-GRM, GBLUP and FvR). The most strongly associated SNPs from each individual analysis were ranked and evaluated for concordance. The heritability of susceptibility to BRDC in pre-weaned Holstein calves was estimated.The four statistical approaches produced highly concordant results for 373 top ranked SNPs that defined 126 chromosomal regions for the CA population. Similarly, in NM, 370 SNPs defined 138 genomic regions that were identified by all four approaches. When the two populations were combined (i.e., CA + NM) and analyzed, 324 SNPs defined 116 genomic regions that were associated with BRDC across all analytical methods. Heritability estimates for BRDC were 21% for both CA and NM as individual populations, but declined to 13% when the populations were combined.Four analytical approaches utilizing both single and multi-marker association methods revealed common genomic regions associated with BRDC susceptibility that can be further characterized and used for genomic selection. Moderate heritability estimates were observed for BRDC susceptibility in pre-weaned Holstein calves, thereby supporting the application of genomic selection to reduce the prevalence of BRDC in U.S. Holsteins.
An empirical evaluation of three vibrational spectroscopic methods for detection of aflatoxins in maize. - Food chemistry
Three commercially available vibrational spectroscopic techniques, including Raman, Fourier transform near infrared reflectance (FT-NIR), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) were evaluated to help users determine the spectroscopic method best suitable for aflatoxin analysis in maize (Zea mays L.) grain based on their relative efficiency and predictive ability. Spectral differences of Raman and FTIR spectra were more marked and pronounced among aflatoxin contamination groups than those of FT-NIR spectra. From the observations and findings in our current and previous studies, Raman and FTIR spectroscopic methods are superior to FT-NIR method in terms of predictive power and model performance for aflatoxin analysis and they are equally effective and accurate in predicting aflatoxin concentration in maize. The present study is considered as the first attempt to assess how spectroscopic techniques with different physical processes can influence and improve accuracy and reliability for rapid screening of aflatoxin contaminated maize samples.Copyright Â© 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
An approach to monitor food and nutrition from "factory to fork". - Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
Accurate, adequate, and timely food and nutrition information is necessary in order to monitor changes in the US food supply and assess their impact on individual dietary intake.Our aim was to develop an approach that links time-specific purchase and consumption data to provide updated, market representative nutrient information.We utilized household purchase data (Nielsen Homescan, 2007-2008), self-reported dietary intake data (What We Eat in America [WWEIA], 2007-2008), and two sources of nutrition composition data. This Factory to Fork Crosswalk approach connected each of the items reported to have been obtained from stores from the 2007-2008 cycle of the WWEIA dietary intake survey to corresponding food and beverage products that were purchased by US households during the equivalent time period. Using nutrition composition information and purchase data, an alternate Crosswalk-based nutrient profile for each WWEIA intake code was created weighted by purchase volume of all corresponding items. Mean intakes of daily calories, total sugars, sodium, and saturated fat were estimated.Differences were observed in the mean daily calories, sodium, and total sugars reported consumed from beverages, yogurts, and cheeses, depending on whether the Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies 4.1 or the alternate nutrient profiles were used.The Crosswalk approach augments national nutrition surveys with commercial food and beverage purchases and nutrient databases to capture changes in the US food supply from factory to fork. The Crosswalk provides a comprehensive and representative measurement of the types, amounts, prices, locations and nutrient composition of consumer packaged goods foods and beverages consumed in the United States. This system has potential to be a major step forward in understanding the consumer packaged goods sector of the US food system and the impacts of the changing food environment on human health.Copyright Â© 2015 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Results of the BRD CAP project: progress toward identifying genetic markers associated with BRD susceptibility. - Animal health research reviews / Conference of Research Workers in Animal Diseases
The Bovine Respiratory Disease Coordinated Agricultural Project (BRD CAP) is a 5-year project funded by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), with an overriding objective to use the tools of modern genomics to identify cattle that are less susceptible to BRD. To do this, two large genome wide association studies (GWAS) were conducted using a case:control design on preweaned Holstein dairy heifers and beef feedlot cattle. A health scoring system was used to identify BRD cases and controls. Heritability estimates for BRD susceptibility ranged from 19 to 21% in dairy calves to 29.2% in beef cattle when using numerical scores as a semi-quantitative definition of BRD. A GWAS analysis conducted on the dairy calf data showed that single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) effects explained 20% of the variation in BRD incidence and 17-20% of the variation in clinical signs. These results represent a preliminary analysis of ongoing work to identify loci associated with BRD. Future work includes validation of the chromosomal regions and SNPs that have been identified as important for BRD susceptibility, fine mapping of chromosomes to identify causal SNPs, and integration of predictive markers for BRD susceptibility into genetic tests and national cattle genetic evaluations.
Development and validation of an OECD reproductive toxicity test guideline with the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis (Mollusca, Gastropoda). - Regulatory toxicology and pharmacology : RTP
The OECD test guideline development program has been extended in 2011 to establish a partial life-cycle protocol for assessing the reproductive toxicity of chemicals to several mollusk species, including the great pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis. In this paper, we summarize the standard draft protocol for a reproduction test with this species, and present inter-comparison results obtained in a 56-day prevalidation ring-test using this protocol. Seven European laboratories performed semi-static tests with cultured snails of the strain RenilysÂ® exposed to nominal concentrations of cadmium chloride (from 53 to 608Î¼gCdL(-1)). Cd concentrations in test solutions were analytically determined to confirm accuracy in the metal exposure concentrations in all laboratories. Physico-chemical and biological validity criteria (namely dissolved oxygen content >60% ASV, water temperature 20Â±1Â°C, control snail survival >80% and control snail fecundity >8 egg-masses per snail over the test period) were met in all laboratories which consistently demonstrated the reproductive toxicity of Cd in snails using the proposed draft protocol. Effect concentrations for fecundity after 56days were reproducible between laboratories (68
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