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How being busy can increase motivation and reduce task completion time. - Journal of personality and social psychology
This research tests the hypothesis that being busy increases motivation and reduces the time it takes to complete tasks for which people miss a deadline. This effect occurs because busy people tend to perceive that they are using their time effectively, which mitigates the sense of failure people have when they miss a task deadline. Studies 1 and 2 show that when people are busy, they are more motivated to complete a task after missing a deadline than those who are not busy, and that the perception that one is using time effectively mediates this effect. Studies 3 and 4 show that this process makes busy people more likely to complete real tasks than people who are not busy. Study 5 uses data from over half a million tasks submitted by thousands of users of a task management software application to show that busy people take less time to complete a task after they miss a deadline for completing it. The findings delineate the conditions under which being busy can mitigate the negative effects of missing a deadline and reduce the time it takes to complete tasks. (PsycINFO Database Record(c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Tree-ring Î´13C and Î´18O, leaf Î´13C and wood and leaf N status demonstrate tree growth strategies and predict susceptibility to disturbance. - Tree physiology
Understanding how tree growth strategies may influence tree susceptibility to disturbance is an important goal, especially given projected increases in diverse ecological disturbances this century. We use growth responses of tree rings to climate, relationships between tree-ring stable isotopic signatures of carbon (Î´(13)C) and oxygen (Î´(18)O), wood nitrogen concentration [N], and contemporary leaf [N] and Î´(13)C values to assess potential historic drivers of tree photosynthesis in dying and apparently healthy co-occurring northern red oak (Quercus rubra L. (Fagaceae)) during a region-wide oak decline event in Arkansas, USA. Bole growth of both healthy and dying trees responded negatively to drought severity (Palmer Drought Severity Index) and temperature; healthy trees exhibited a positive, but small, response to growing season precipitation. Contrary to expectations, tree-ring Î´(13)C did not increase with drought severity. A significantly positive relationship between tree-ring Î´(13)C and Î´(18)O was evident in dying trees (Pâ€…<â€…0.05) but not in healthy trees. Healthy trees' wood exhibited lower [N] than that of dying trees throughout most of their lives (Pâ€…<â€…0.05), and we observed a significant, positive relationship (Pâ€…<â€…0.05) in healthy trees between contemporary leaf Î´(13)C and leaf N (by mass), but not in dying trees. Our work provides evidence that for plants in which strong relationships between Î´(13)C and Î´(18)O are not evident, Î´(13)C may be governed by plant N status. The data further imply that historic photosynthesis in healthy trees was linked to N status and, perhaps, C sink strength to a greater extent than in dying trees, in which tree-ring stable isotopes suggest that historic photosynthesis was governed primarily by stomatal regulation. This, in turn, suggests that assessing the relative dominance of photosynthetic capacity vs stomatal regulation as drivers of trees' C accrual may be a feasible means of predicting tree responses to some disturbance events. Our work demonstrates that a dual isotope, tree-ring approach can be integrated with tree N status to begin to unravel a fundamental question in forest ecology: why do some trees die during a disturbance, while other conspecifics with apparently similar access to resources remain healthy?Â© The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Epigenetic suppression of neprilysin regulates breast cancer invasion. - Oncogenesis
In women, invasive breast cancer is the second most common cancer and the second cause of cancer-related death. Therefore, identifying novel regulators of breast cancer invasion could lead to additional biomarkers and therapeutic targets. Neprilysin, a cell-surface enzyme that cleaves and inactivates a number of substrates including endothelin-1 (ET1), has been implicated in breast cancer, but whether neprilysin promotes or inhibits breast cancer cell progression and metastasis is unclear. Here, we asked whether neprilysin expression predicts and functionally regulates breast cancer cell invasion. RT-PCR and flow cytometry analysis of MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines revealed decreased neprilysin expression compared with normal epithelial cells. Expression was also suppressed in invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) compared with normal tissue. In addition, in vtro invasion assays demonstrated that neprilysin overexpression decreased breast cancer cell invasion, whereas neprilysin suppression augmented invasion. Furthermore, inhibiting neprilysin in MCF-7 breast cancer cells increased ET1 levels significantly, whereas overexpressing neprilysin decreased extracellular-signal related kinase (ERK) activation, indicating that neprilysin negatively regulates ET1-induced activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling. To determine whether neprilysin was epigenetically suppressed in breast cancer, we performed bisulfite conversion analysis of breast cancer cells and clinical tumor samples. We found that the neprilysin promoter was hypermethylated in breast cancer; chemical reversal of methylation in MDA-MB-231 cells reactivated neprilysin expression and inhibited cancer cell invasion. Analysis of cancer databases revealed that neprilysin methylation significantly associates with survival in stage I IDC and estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer subtypes. These results demonstrate that neprilysin negatively regulates the ET axis in breast cancer, and epigenetic suppression of neprilysin in invasive breast cancer cells enables invasion. Together, this implicates neprilysin as an important regulator of breast cancer invasion and clarifies its utility as a potential biomarker for invasive breast cancer.
Cutaneous manifestations of IgG4-related disease (RD): A systematic review. - Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
IgG4-related disease (RD) is a recently described fibroinflammatory condition with both cutaneous and systemic manifestations. To our knowledge, the cutaneous manifestations have not been well characterized or systematically investigated to date in the literature.We sought to describe the cutaneous manifestations of IgG4-RD to guide clinical practice, aid in the diagnosis of IgG4-RD, and contribute to the creation of robust cutaneous diagnostic criteria.A systematic search of peer-reviewed publications pertaining to cutaneous manifestations of IgG4-RD yielded 56 cases from 32 case reports and series. The clinical findings among the diagnostic categories were compared.Forty cases of IgG4-RD with cutaneous disease were identified. Cutaneous head and neck involvementÂ was significantly associated with a diagnosis of IgG4-RD (PÂ =Â .02). Macules and bullae were not described in anyÂ of the included cases. Among cases of systemic IgG4-RD, cutaneous head and neck involvement was mostÂ common and statistically significantly associated with the diagnosis of IgG4-RD (PÂ =Â .001).These findings are limited by reporting and publication bias of particular cases and by small sample size.Papules, plaques, and nodules of the head and neck appear to characterize patients with cutaneous IgG4-RD, which nevertheless usually presents with systemic manifestations.Copyright Â© 2016 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Rationale, design and methodology of a trial evaluating three strategies designed to improve sedation quality in intensive care units (DESIST study). - BMJ open
To describe the rationale, design and methodology for a trial of three novel interventions developed to improve sedation-analgesia quality in adult intensive care units (ICUs).8 clusters, each a Scottish ICU. All mechanically ventilated sedated patients were potentially eligible for inclusion in data analysis.Cluster randomised design in 8 ICUs, with ICUs randomised after 45â€…weeks baseline data collection to implement one of four intervention combinations: a web-based educational programme (2 ICUs); education plus regular sedation quality feedback using process control charts (2 ICUs); education plus a novel sedation monitoring technology (2 ICUs); or all three interventions. ICUs measured sedation-analgesia quality, relevant drug use and clinical outcomes, during a 45-week preintervention and 45-week postintervention period separated by an 8-week implementation period. The intended sample size was >100 patients per site per study period.The primary outcome was the proportion of 12â€…h care periods with optimum sedation-analgesia, defined as the absence of agitation, unnecessary deep sedation, poor relaxation and poor ventilator synchronisation. Secondary outcomes were proportions of care periods with each of these four components of optimum sedation and rates of sedation-related adverse events. Sedative and analgesic drug use, and ICU and hospital outcomes were also measured.Multilevel generalised linear regression mixed models will explore the effects of each intervention taking clustering into account, and adjusting for age, gender and APACHE II score. Sedation-analgesia quality outcomes will be explored at ICU level and individual patient level. A process evaluation using mixed methods including quantitative description of intervention implementation, focus groups and direct observation will provide explanatory information regarding any effects observed.The DESIST study uses a novel design to provide system-level evaluation of three contrasting complex interventions on sedation-analgesia quality. Recruitment is complete and analysis ongoing.NCT01634451.Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Effect of Medial Patellofemoral Ligament Reconstruction Method on Patellofemoral Contact Pressures and Kinematics. - The American journal of sports medicine
There remains a lack of evidence regarding the optimal method when reconstructing the medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) and whether some graft constructs can be more forgiving to surgical errors, such as overtensioning or tunnel malpositioning, than others.The null hypothesis was that there would not be a significant difference between reconstruction methods (eg, graft type and fixation) in the adverse biomechanical effects (eg, patellar maltracking or elevated articular contact pressure) resulting from surgical errors such as tunnel malpositioning or graft overtensioning.Controlled laboratory study.Nine fresh-frozen cadaveric knees were placed on a customized testing rig, where the femur was fixed but the tibia could be moved freely from 0Â° to 90Â° of flexion. Individual quadriceps heads and the iliotibial tract were separated and loaded to 205 N of tension using a weighted pulley system. Patellofemoral contact pressures and patellar tracking were measured at 0Â°, 10Â°, 20Â°, 30Â°, 60Â°, and 90Â° of flexion using pressure-sensitive film inserted between the patella and trochlea, in conjunction with an optical tracking system. The MPFL was transected and then reconstructed in a randomized order using a (1) double-strand gracilis tendon, (2) quadriceps tendon, and (3) tensor fasciae latae allograft. Pressure maps and tracking measurements were recorded for each reconstruction method in 2 N and 10 N of tension and with the graft positioned in the anatomic, proximal, and distal femoral tunnel positions. Statistical analysis was undertaken using repeated-measures analyses of variance, Bonferroni post hoc analyses, and paired t tests.Anatomically placed grafts during MPFL reconstruction tensioned to 2 N resulted in the restoration of intact medial joint contact pressures and patellar tracking for all 3 graft types investigated (P > .050). However, femoral tunnels positioned proximal or distal to the anatomic origin resulted in significant increases in the mean medial joint contact pressure, medial patellar tilt, and medial patellar translation during knee flexion or extension, respectively (P < .050), regardless of graft type, as did tensioning to 10 N.The importance of the surgical technique, specifically correct femoral tunnel positioning and graft tensioning, in restoring normal patellofemoral joint (PFJ) kinematics and articular cartilage contact stresses is evident, and the type of MPFL graft appeared less important.The correct femoral tunnel position and graft tension for restoring normal PFJ kinematics and articular cartilage contact stresses appear to be more important than graft selection during MPFL reconstruction. These findings emphasize the importance of the surgical technique when undertaking this procedure.Â© 2016 The Author(s).
Dysfunctional error-related processing in incarcerated youth with elevated psychopathic traits. - Developmental cognitive neuroscience
Adult psychopathic offenders show an increased propensity towards violence, impulsivity, and recidivism. A subsample of youth with elevated psychopathic traits represent a particularly severe subgroup characterized by extreme behavioral problems and comparable neurocognitive deficits as their adult counterparts, including perseveration deficits. Here, we investigate response-locked event-related potential (ERP) components (the error-related negativity [ERN/Ne] related to early error-monitoring processing and the error-related positivity [Pe] involved in later error-related processing) in a sample of incarcerated juvenile male offenders (n=100) who performed a response inhibition Go/NoGo task. Psychopathic traits were assessed using the Hare Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL:YV). The ERN/Ne and Pe were analyzed with classic windowed ERP components and principal component analysis (PCA). Using linear regression analyses, PCL:YV scores were unrelated to the ERN/Ne, but were negatively related to Pe mean amplitude. Specifically, the PCL:YV Facet 4 subscale reflecting antisocial traits emerged as a significant predictor of reduced amplitude of a subcomponent underlying the Pe identified with PCA. This is the first evidence to suggest a negative relationship between adolescent psychopathy scores and Pe mean amplitude.Copyright Â© 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Effect of temperature and precipitation on salmonellosis cases in South-East Queensland, Australia: an observational study. - BMJ open
Foodborne illnesses in Australia, including salmonellosis, are estimated to cost over $A1.25 billion annually. The weather has been identified as being influential on salmonellosis incidence, as cases increase during summer, however time series modelling of salmonellosis is challenging because outbreaks cause strong autocorrelation. This study assesses whether switching models is an improved method of estimating weather-salmonellosis associations.We analysed weather and salmonellosis in South-East Queensland between 2004 and 2013 using 2 common regression models and a switching model, each with 21-day lags for temperature and precipitation.The switching model best fit the data, as judged by its substantial improvement in deviance information criterion over the regression models, less autocorrelated residuals and control of seasonality. The switching model estimated a 5Â°C increase in mean temperature and 10â€…mm precipitation were associated with increases in salmonellosis cases of 45.4% (95% CrI 40.4%, 50.5%) and 24.1% (95% CrI 17.0%, 31.6%), respectively.Switching models improve on traditional time series models in quantifying weather-salmonellosis associations. A better understanding of how temperature and precipitation influence salmonellosis may identify where interventions can be made to lower the health and economic costs of salmonellosis.Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
The Use of Sonographically Guided Botulinum Toxin Type A (Dysport) Injections Into the Tensor Fasciae Latae for the Treatment of Lateral Patellofemoral Overload Syndrome. - The American journal of sports medicine
Pain in the anterior and lateral parts of the knee during exercise is a common clinical problem for which current management strategies are often unsuccessful.To investigate the effect of an ultrasound-guided botulinum toxin (BT) injection into the tensor fasciae latae (TFL), followed by physical therapy, in patients classified with lateral patellofemoral overload syndrome (LPOS) who failed to respond to conventional treatment.Case series; Level of evidence, 4.A total of 45 patients (mean Â± SD age, 32.4 Â± 8.6 years) who met the inclusion criteria of (1) activity-related anterolateral knee symptoms, (2) symptoms lasting longer than 3 months, (3) a pathological abnormality confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging, and (4) previous failed physical therapy received an ultrasound-guided injection of BT into the TFL followed by physical therapy. Patient-reported outcomes were collected at 5 intervals: before the injection; at 1, 4, and 12 weeks after the injection; and at a mean 5 years after the injection. In 42 patients, relative iliotibial band (ITB) length changes were assessed using the modified Ober test at the first 4 time points. A computational model was run to simulate the effect of TFL weakening on gluteus medius (GMed) activity. Statistical analysis was undertaken using 1-way analysis of variance and paired t tests with Bonferroni post hoc correction.There was a significant improvement in Anterior Knee Pain Scale scores from before the injection (61 Â± 15) to 1 (67 Â± 15), 4 (70 Â± 16), and 12 weeks (76 Â± 16) after the injection and in 87% of patients (39/45 patients available for follow-up) at approximately 5 years (from 62.9 Â± 15.4 to 87.0 Â± 12.5) after the injection (all P < .010). A significant effect on the modified Ober test was identified as a result of the intervention, with an increase in leg drop found at 1 (3Â° Â± 5Â°), 4 (4Â° Â± 5Â°), and 12 (7Â° Â± 6Â°) weeks after the injection compared with before the injection (all P < .010). Simulating a progressive reduction in TFL strength resulted in corresponding increases in GMed activity during gait.An injection of BT into the TFL, combined with physical therapy, resulted in a significant improvement of symptoms in patients with LPOS, which was maintained at 5-year follow-up. This may result from reduced lateral TFL/ITB tension or to an increase in GMed activity in response to inhibition of the TFL.Â© 2016 The Author(s).
Reliability of Shear-Wave Elastography Estimates of the Young Modulus of Tissue in Follicular Thyroid Neoplasms. - AJR. American journal of roentgenology
The purpose of this study is to determine the reliability of shear-wave elastographic estimates of the Young modulus in thyroid follicular neoplasms.In this study, 35 adults with follicular nodules diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy were enrolled. A single sonographer examined all nodules in three planes (sagittal, transverse, and transverse center). Two raters independently placed ROIs in each nodule. Intra- and interrater reliability were computed as intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) and were reported using the Guidelines for Reporting Reliability and Agreement Studies.Thirty-five subjects with 35 follicular pattern nodules diagnosed by FNA biopsy were enrolled; 23 (65.7%) patients were female, with a mean age of 55.1 years (range, 23-85 years). For rater 1, intrarater agreement showed ICCs for single measurements of 0.87, 0.87, and 0.90 in the sagittal, transverse, and transverse center plans, respectively; ICCs for the median of multiple measurements were 0.97, 0.94, and 0.96 in the sagittal, transverse, and transverse center planes, respectively. For rater 2, intrarater agreement showed ICCs for single measurements of 0.94, 0.86, and 0.92 in the sagittal, transverse, and transverse center planes, respectively; ICCs for the median of multiple measurements were 0.97, 0.92, and 0.96 in the sagittal, transverse, and transverse center planes, respectively. Interrater agreement between measurements performed for the same subject showed ICCs for single measurements of 0.87, 0.87, and 0.80 in the sagittal, transverse, and transverse center planes, respectively; ICCs for the median of multiple measurements were 0.96, 0.93, and 0.92 in the sagittal, transverse, and transverse center planes, respectively.ROI placement is a reliable method for estimating the Young modulus of tissue in follicular thyroid nodules.
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