4777 E Galbraith Rd
Cincinnati OH 45236
Medical School: Other - Unknown
Accepts Medicare: No
Participates In eRX: No
Participates In PQRS: No
Participates In EHR: No
License #: 35056532H
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Impact of surveillance stool culture guided selection of antibiotics in the management of pediatric small bowel transplant recipients. - Pediatric transplantation
Surveillance stool cultures (SSC) have been used in immunocompromised populations to predict the organisms associated with invasive infections and aid in the selection of empiric antibiotic regimens. To evaluate the utility of this approach in pediatric small bowel transplant (SBT) recipients, we conducted a retrospective review of 33 patients who underwent SBT, 16 of whom had SSC done. In no case was the same organism isolated from SSC and subsequent blood, peritoneal fluid or wound cultures. In the first month post-transplantation, blood cultures were positive in 44% and 35% of patients that had and did not have SSC done, respectively (p = 0.73); peritoneal fluid cultures in 44% and 65% (p = 0.30); and wound cultures in 44% and 24% (p = 0.28). There were no significant differences among both groups in time to first infection, duration of ICU stay following SBT, graft survival or long-term patient survival. We conclude that SSC-guided antibiotic selection does not have a significant impact on the incidence of invasive infections in the first month following SBT or on specific indicators of patient outcome. This suggests that empiric antibiotic regimens should be selected based on clinical presentation and hospital flora and susceptibility patterns.
PRO 2000 gel inhibits HIV and herpes simplex virus infection following vaginal application: a double-blind placebo-controlled trial. - The Journal of infectious diseases
Microbicides used to prevent the transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are advancing to clinical trials on the basis of activity observed in vitro and in animal models. However, no data demonstrate activity of microbicides after application in humans. This study was designed to determine the antiviral activity in cervicovaginal lavage (CVL) samples collected after intravaginal application of 0.5% PRO 2000 gel (Indevus).A randomized, double-blind study was conducted to assess the anti-HIV and anti-herpes simplex virus (HSV) activity of PRO 2000 in CVL samples obtained at screening (48 hours before) and 1 hour after application of study or placebo gel. HeLa cells or human macrophages were inoculated with CVL samples spiked with replication-defective HIV containing a luciferase indicator gene and pseudotyped with an R5 envelope. Human cervical epithelial cells were inoculated with CVL samples and challenged with HSV-2(G), and the virus titer was then determined.CVL samples obtained after application of PRO 2000 gel significantly inhibited HIV and HSV infection by at least 1000-fold, compared with CVL samples obtained at screening (P < .001). There were no differences in cytokine levels between the drug and placebo groups.PRO 2000 gel (0.5%) is sufficiently bioavailable and retains substantial antiviral activity after intravaginal application. This strategy provides a mechanism for testing the efficacy of a microbicide before embarking on large-scale clinical trials.
Cervicovaginal secretions contribute to innate resistance to herpes simplex virus infection. - The Journal of infectious diseases
Defining and preserving the innate antiviral activity found in cervicovaginal secretions is critical. Cervicovaginal lavage (CVL) samples were obtained from 20 healthy women and evaluated for anti-herpes simplex virus (HSV) activity. CVL samples reduced HSV-2 yields by 23-fold (median), and the anti-HSV activity of CVL samples correlated with the concentration of human neutrophil peptides (HNP)-1-3. Both CVL samples and HNP-1-3 interacted with virus and prevented entry after binding. Substantially less protective activity was observed in CVL samples obtained from 20 human immunodeficiency virus--infected subjects, but the addition of CVL samples from healthy subjects enhanced the antiviral activity. The significance of the innate activity was further demonstrated by showing that CVL samples prevented murine genital herpes. Fourteen of 15 mice were protected from genital herpes if they were challenged with HSV-2 pretreated with CVL samples from healthy subjects. In contrast, all 15 mice challenged with untreated HSV-2 died. These findings are evidence that cervicovaginal secretions contribute to innate resistance to HSV-2 and identify defensins as contributors to this activity.
Candidate topical microbicides bind herpes simplex virus glycoprotein B and prevent viral entry and cell-to-cell spread. - Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy
Topical microbicides designed to prevent acquisition of sexually transmitted infections are urgently needed. Nonoxynol-9, the only commercially available spermicide, damages epithelium and may enhance human immunodeficiency virus transmission. The observation that herpes simplex virus (HSV) and human immunodeficiency virus bind heparan sulfate provided the rationale for the development of sulfated or sulfonated polymers as topical agents. Although several of the polymers have advanced to clinical trials, the spectrum and mechanism of anti-HSV activity and the effects on soluble mediators of inflammation have not been evaluated. The present studies address these gaps. The results indicate that PRO 2000, polystyrene sulfonate, cellulose sulfate, and polymethylenehydroquinone sulfonate inhibit HSV infection 10,000-fold and are active against clinical isolates, including an acyclovir-resistant variant. The compounds formed stable complexes with glycoprotein B and inhibit viral binding, entry, and cell-to-cell spread. The effects may be long lasting due to the high affinity and stability of the sulfated compound-virus complex, as evidenced by surface plasmon resonance studies. The candidate microbicides retained their antiviral activities in the presence of cervical secretions and over a broad pH range. There was little reduction in cell viability following repeated exposure of human endocervical cells to these compounds, although a reduction in secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor levels was observed. These studies support further development and rigorous evaluation of these candidate microbicides.
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4777 E Galbraith Rd Cincinnati, OH 45236
4777 E Galbraith Rd
8251 Pine Rd Ste 220