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Robust Optical Recognition of Cursive Pashto Script Using Scale, Rotation and Location Invariant Approach. - PloS one
The presence of a large number of unique shapes called ligatures in cursive languages, along with variations due to scaling, orientation and location provides one of the most challenging pattern recognition problems. Recognition of the large number of ligatures is often a complicated task in oriental languages such as Pashto, Urdu, Persian and Arabic. Research on cursive script recognition often ignores the fact that scaling, orientation, location and font variations are common in printed cursive text. Therefore, these variations are not included in image databases and in experimental evaluations. This research uncovers challenges faced by Arabic cursive script recognition in a holistic framework by considering Pashto as a test case, because Pashto language has larger alphabet set than Arabic, Persian and Urdu. A database containing 8000 images of 1000 unique ligatures having scaling, orientation and location variations is introduced. In this article, a feature space based on scale invariant feature transform (SIFT) along with a segmentation framework has been proposed for overcoming the above mentioned challenges. The experimental results show a significantly improved performance of proposed scheme over traditional feature extraction techniques such as principal component analysis (PCA).
Hydroxypropylcellulose as a novel green reservoir for the synthesis, stabilization, and storage of silver nanoparticles. - International journal of nanomedicine
Polysaccharides are attracting the vigil eye of researchers in order to design the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) of diverse size, shape, and application. We report an environmentally friendly method to synthesize Ag NPs where no physical reaction conditions were employed. Hydroxypropylcellulose (HPC) was used as a template nanoreactor, stabilizer, and capping agent to obtain Ag NPs. Different concentrations of AgNO3 solutions (50 mmol, 75 mmol, and 100 mmol) were mixed with a concentrated aqueous solution of HPC and the progress of the reaction was monitored by noting color changes of the reaction mixture at different reaction times for up to 24 hours. Characteristic ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV/Vis) absorption bands of Ag NPs were observed in the range of 388-452 nm. The morphology of the Ag NPs was studied by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and atomic force microscopy. The TEM images confirmed that the size of the Ag NPs was in the range of 25-55 nm. Powder X-ray diffraction studies showed that the crystal phase of the Ag NPs was face-centered cubic. The as-prepared Ag NPs were found to be stable, and no changes in size and morphology were observed after storage in HPC thin films over 1 year, as indicated by UV/Vis spectra. So, the present work furnishes a green and economical strategy for the synthesis and storage of stable Ag NPs. As-synthesized Ag NPs showed significant antimicrobial activity against different bacterial (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus epidermidis, S. aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and fungal strains (Actinomycetes and Aspergillus niger).
Relationship between perceived social self-efficacy and depression in adolescents. - Iranian journal of psychiatry and behavioral sciences
The objective of the present study is to investigate the relationship of perceived social self-efficacy (PSSE) with depression in students.The sample of the present study consisted of 216 adolescent students including 120 males and 96 females randomly selected from different educational institutes of Karachi, Pakistan. The age of the participants ranged from 16 to 19 years old, with the mean age of 17.09 Â± 1.13 years. Personal information form, PSSE scale, and Siddiqui-Shah depression scale were administered on the adolescent students to check the following hypothesis; there would be a negative correlation between PSSE and depression in adolescents.Pearson product moment coefficient of correlation was applied to analyze the relationship between PSSE and level of depression in adolescent students. Findings of the study showed a significant negative correlation (r = -0.149, p < 0.05) between the variables of PSSE and depression.There is a relationship between PSSE and depression in adolescents.
Effect of trace metals and electron shuttle on simultaneous reduction of reactive black-5 azo dye and hexavalent chromium in liquid medium by Pseudomonas sp. - Chemosphere
This study demonstrates the role of electron shuttles and trace metals in the biotransformation of azo dye reactive black-5 and hexavalent chromium (CrVI) that are released simultaneously in tannery effluent. Previously isolated bacterial strain Pseudomonas putida KI was used for the simultaneous reduction of the dye (100 mg L(-1)) and CrVI (2 mg L(-1)) in a mineral salts medium (MSM). Among various trace metals, only Cu(II) had a stimulating effect on the bacterial-mediated reduction process. Application of electron shuttles such as hydroquinone and uric acid at a low concentration (1mM) had a positive effect on the reduction process and caused simultaneous reduction of 100% dye and 97% CrVI in 12-18 h. Mannitol, EDTA and sodium benzoate at all concentrations (ranging from 1 to 9 mM) showed an inhibitory effect on the reduction of reactive black-5 and CrVI. An inverse linear relationship between the velocity of reaction (V) and the concentration [S] of electron shuttles was observed. The results imply that both types and concentration of an electron shuttle and trace metals can affect the simultaneous reduction of reactive black-5 and CrVI.Copyright Â© 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Development of tumor lysis syndrome (TLS): A potential risk factor in cancer patients receiving anticancer therapy. - Bioinformation
Tumor lysis syndrome (TLS) is characterized by hyperuricaemia, hyperphosphatemia, hyperkalaemia, as well as hypocalcaemia due to the breakdown of tumor cells undergoing cancer therapy (chemo/radio). Therefore it is of interest to evaluate oxidative stress using selective biological markers [Malondialdehyde (MDA), Superoxide Dismutase (SOD), Glutathione (GSH) and Catalase (CAT)] in TLS. We report the marked differences (statistically significant with control) observed among a selected set of biomarkers of oxidative stress (MDA = 8.66Â±1.37; SOD = 0.15Â±0.11; GSH = 2.25Â±.77; CAT = 0.76Â±.57) in TLS patients in addition to other conventional biomarkers. Moreover, correlation was investigated among the parameters of oxidative stress and other circulating biomarkers of TLS. Data suggest the use of SOD, MDA, and GSH as potential diagnostic biomarker for TLS with other biomarkers.
Medial patellofemoral ligament reconstruction: a technique with a "v"-shaped patellar tunnel. - Arthroscopy techniques
Patellofemoral dislocation is a common problem affecting the young and active population. The medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) is torn when the patella dislocates as it acts as a checkrein to lateral displacement. This leads to patellar instability, and MPFL reconstruction is required if the dislocation recurs after a trial of rehabilitation. We describe a "V"-shaped patellar tunnel technique to reconstruct the MPFL using an autologous gracilis graft. This modification of the patellar tunnel does not breach the lateral cortex of the patella, and it allows a broader attachment of the tendon graft to the patella, which mimics the normal anatomic attachment of the MPFL to the patella.
Resveratrol mitigate structural changes and hepatic stellate cell activation in N'-nitrosodimethylamine-induced liver fibrosis via restraining oxidative damage. - Chemico-biological interactions
Resveratrol, a polyphenol, found in skin of red grapes, peanuts and berries possesses anti-inflammatory, anti-carcinogenic and lipid modulation properties. Here, we demonstrate in vivo antifibrotic activity of resveratrol in a mammalian model, wherein hepatic fibrosis was induced by N'-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) administration. Apart from being a potent hepatotoxin, NDMA is a known mutagen and carcinogen, as well. To induce hepatic fibrosis, rats were administered NDMA (i.p.) in 10mg/kgb.wt thrice/week for 21 days. Another group of animals received resveratrol supplement (10mg/kgb.wt) subsequent to NDMA administration and were sacrificed weekly. The changes in selected biomarkers were monitored to compare profibrotic effects of NDMA and antifibrotic activity of resveratrol. The selected biomarkers were: sera transaminases, ALP, bilirubin, liver glycogen, LPO, SOD, protein carbonyl content, ATPases (Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Na(+)/K(+)) and hydroxyproline/collagen content. Alterations in liver architecture were assessed by H&E, Masson's trichrome and reticulin staining of liver biopsies. Immuno-histochemistry and immunoblotting were employed to examine expression of Î±-SMA. Our results demonstrate that during NDMA-induced liver fibrosis transaminases, ALP, bilirubin, hydroxyproline and liver collagen increases, while liver glycogen is depleted. The decline in SOD (>65%) and ATPases, which were concomitant with the elevation in MDA and protein carbonyls, strongly indicate oxidative damage. Fibrotic transformation of liver in NDMA-treated rats was verified by histopathology, immuno-histochemistry and immunoblotting data, with the higher expressivity of Î±-SMA-positive HSCs being most established diagnostic immuno-histochemical marker of HSCs. Resveratrol-supplement refurbished liver architecture by significantly restoring levels of biomarkers of oxidative damage (MDA, SOD, protein carbonyls and membrane-bound ATPases). Therefore, we conclude that antifibrotic effect of resveratrol is due to restrained oxidative damage and down-regulation of Î±-SMA, which inhibits HSC activation to obstruct liver fibrosis.Copyright Â© 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Glucoxylan-mediated green synthesis of gold and silver nanoparticles and their phyto-toxicity study. - Carbohydrate polymers
A green synthesis of gold and silver nanoparticles having exceptional high stability is reported. The synthesis involves the use of glucoxylans isolated from seeds of Mimosa pudica and excludes the use of conventional reducing and capping agents. The average particle sizes were 40 and 6 nm for gold and silver, respectively. The size of gold particles obtained in this work is suitable for drug delivery as they are non-cytotoxic. In phyto-toxicity tests the gold and silver nanoparticles did not show any significant effect on germination of radish seeds, whereas in radish seedling root growth assay the two particles behaved differently. The silver nanoparticles exhibited a concentration-dependent stimulatory effect on root length, whereas the gold nanoparticles had no significant effect in this test. The likely mechanism of these effects is discussed.Copyright Â© 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Vitamin B12 supplement alleviates N'-nitrosodimethylamine-induced hepatic fibrosis in rats. - Pharmaceutical biology
Abstract Context: Altered vitamin B12 levels have been correlated with hepatotoxicity; however, further evidence is required to establish its protective role. Objective: To evaluate the effects of vitamin B12 supplement in protecting N'-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA)-induced hepatic fibrosis in Wistar rats. Materials and methods: Hepatic fibrosis was induced by administering NDMA in doses of 10â€‰mg/kg body weight thrice a week for 21â€‰days. Another group received equal doses (10â€‰mg/kg body weight) of vitamin B12 subsequent to NDMA treatment. Animals from either group were sacrificed weekly from the start of the treatment along with their respective controls. Progression of hepatic fibrosis, in addition to the effect of vitamin B12, was assessed biochemically for liver function biomarkers, liver glycogen, hydroxyproline (HP) and B12 reserves along with histopathologically by hematoxylin and eosin (H & E) as well immunohistochemical staining for Î±-SMA expression. Results and discussion: Elevation in the levels of aminotransferases, SALP, total bilirubin and HP was observed in NDMA treated rats, which was concomitant with remarkable depletion in liver glycogen and B12 reserves (pâ€‰<â€‰0.05). Liver biopsies also demonstrated disrupted lobular architecture, collagen amassing and intense fibrosis by NDMA treatment. Immunohistochemical staining showed the presence of activated stellate cells that was dramatically increased up to day 21 in fibrotic rats. Following vitamin B12 treatment, liver function biomarkers, glycogen contents and hepatic vitamin B12 reserves were restored in fibrotic rats, significantly. Vitamin B12 administration also facilitated restoration of normal liver architecture. Conclusion: These findings provide interesting new evidence in favor of protective role for vitamin B12 against NDMA-induced hepatic fibrosis in rats.
Impact of intermittent pneumatic foot pumps on delay to surgery following ankle fracture. - Foot and ankle surgery : official journal of the European Society of Foot and Ankle Surgeons
Ankle fractures requiring open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) are common and place considerable burden on inpatient beds. ORIF cannot be performed once the associated swelling is too excessive to permit tension-free wound closure. Where ORIF cannot be performed before the onset of swelling in the first 24-48h, patients typically require up to 7 days of inpatient bed-rest and elevation to reduce swelling to an acceptable level for ORIF. The primary aim of this study was to determine whether delay to ORIF could be reduced with the pre-operative application of an intermittent pneumatic foot pump (IPF). These devices were designed as anti-embolic adjuncts, but have also been shown to be effective in the reduction of swelling. We compared 12 patients managed with an IPF to 12 matched historical controls who were not. No previous studies have addressed this question in unselected patients requiring ankle ORIF.We performed a retrospective, controlled, before and after study of 24 patients who underwent ankle ORIF at our orthopaedic unit. Foot pumps were applied in the Accident and Emergency Department to ankle fracture patients requiring admission, and kept in place until ORIF. Data was collected from patient case notes for all patients. Patients were matched for age, gender, American Society of Anaesthesiologists (ASA) Grade, and pre-injury mobility. The primary outcome measure was time to surgery. We also recorded total hospital stay, and calculated cost savings.Patients managed with IPFs had a statistically significant 50% reduction in time from presentation to surgery compared to those managed without (p=0.024), and had a reduced hospital stay (p=0.116). This resulted in a net saving of Â£10,480 (Â£953 per patient).We conclude that foot pumps reduce the time to surgery and total hospital stay of patients requiring ankle ORIF, and are cost effective.Copyright Â© 2013 European Foot and Ankle Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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