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The M358R variant of Î±1-proteinase inhibitor inhibits coagulation factor VIIa. - Biochemical and biophysical research communications
The naturally occurring M358R mutation of the plasma serpin Î±1-proteinase inhibitor (API) changes both its cleavable reactive centre bond to Arg-Ser and the efficacy with which it inhibits different proteases, reducing the rate of inhibition of neutrophil elastase, and enhancing that of thrombin, factor XIa, and kallikrein, by several orders of magnitude. Although another plasma serpin with an Arg-Ser reactive centre, antithrombin (AT), has been shown to inhibit factor VIIa (FVIIa), no published data are available with respect to FVIIa inhibition by API M358R. Recombinant bacterially-expressed API M358R and plasma-derived AT were therefore compared using gel-based and kinetic assays of FVIIa integrity and activity. Under pseudo-first order conditions of excess serpin over protease, both AT and API M358R formed denaturation-resistant inhibitory complexes with FVIIa in reactions accelerated by TF; AT, but not API M358R, also required heparin for maximal activity. The second order rate constant for heparin-independent API M358R-mediated FVIIa inhibition was determined to be 7.8Â Â±Â 0.8Â Ã—Â 10(2)Â M(-1)sec(-1). We conclude that API M358R inhibits FVIIa by forming inhibitory complexes of the serpin type more rapidly than AT in the absence of heparin. The likely 20-fold excess of API M358R over AT in patient plasma during inflammation raises the possibility that it could contribute to the hemorrhagic tendencies manifested by rare individuals expressing this mutant serpin.Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Phosphatidylserine externalization and procoagulant activation of erythrocytes induced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa virulence factor pyocyanin. - Journal of cellular and molecular medicine
The opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa causes a wide range of infections in multiple hosts by releasing an arsenal of virulence factors such as pyocyanin. Despite numerous reports on the pleiotropic cellular targets of pyocyanin toxicity inÂ vivo, its impact on erythrocytes remains elusive. Erythrocytes undergo an apoptosis-like cell death called eryptosis which is characterized by cell shrinkage and phosphatidylserine (PS) externalization; this process confers a procoagulant phenotype on erythrocytes as well as fosters their phagocytosis and subsequent clearance from the circulation. Herein, we demonstrate that P.Â aeruginosa pyocyanin-elicited PS exposure and cell shrinkage in erythrocyte while preserving the membrane integrity. Mechanistically, exposure of erythrocytes to pyocyanin showed increased cytosolic Ca(2+) activity as well as Ca(2+) -dependent proteolytic processing of Î¼-calpain. Pyocyanin further up-regulated erythrocyte ceramide abundance and triggered the production of reactive oxygen species. Pyocyanin-induced increased PS externalization in erythrocytes translated into enhanced prothrombin activation and fibrin generation in plasma. As judged by carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl-ester labelling, pyocyanin-treated erythrocytes were cleared faster from the murine circulation as compared to untreated erythrocytes. Furthermore, erythrocytes incubated in plasma from patients with P.Â aeruginosa sepsis showed increased PS exposure as compared to erythrocytes incubated in plasma from healthy donors. In conclusion, the present study discloses the eryptosis-inducing effect of the virulence factor pyocyanin, thereby shedding light on a potentially important mechanism in the systemic complications of P.Â aeruginosa infection.Â© 2016 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.
Accelerated apoptotic death and in vivo turnover of erythrocytes in mice lacking functional mitogen- and stress-activated kinase MSK1/2. - Scientific reports
The mitogen- and stress-activated kinase MSK1/2 plays a decisive role in apoptosis. In analogy to apoptosis of nucleated cells, suicidal erythrocyte death called eryptosis is characterized by cell shrinkage and cell membrane scrambling leading to phosphatidylserine (PS) externalization. Here, we explored whether MSK1/2 participates in the regulation of eryptosis. To this end, erythrocytes were isolated from mice lacking functional MSK1/2 (msk(-/-)) and corresponding wild-type mice (msk(+/+)). Blood count, hematocrit, hemoglobin concentration and mean erythrocyte volume were similar in both msk(-/-) and msk(+/+) mice, but reticulocyte count was significantly increased in msk(-/-) mice. Cell membrane PS exposure was similar in untreated msk(-/-) and msk(+/+) erythrocytes, but was enhanced by pathophysiological cell stressors ex vivo such as hyperosmotic shock or energy depletion to significantly higher levels in msk(-/-) erythrocytes than in msk(+/+) erythrocytes. Cell shrinkage following hyperosmotic shock and energy depletion, as well as hemolysis following decrease of extracellular osmolarity was more pronounced in msk(-/-) erythrocytes. The in vivo clearance of autologously-infused CFSE-labeled erythrocytes from circulating blood was faster in msk(-/-) mice. The spleens from msk(-/-) mice contained a significantly greater number of PS-exposing erythrocytes than spleens from msk(+/+) mice. The present observations point to accelerated eryptosis and subsequent clearance of erythrocytes leading to enhanced erythrocyte turnover in MSK1/2-deficient mice.
Monovalent Fc receptor blockade by an anti-FcÎ³ receptor/albumin fusion protein ameliorates murine ITP with abrogated toxicity. - Blood
Patients with immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) commonly have antiplatelet antibodies that cause thrombocytopenia through FcÎ³ receptors (FcÎ³Rs). Antibodies specific for FcÎ³Rs, designed to inhibit antibody-FcÎ³R interaction, had been shown to improve ITP in refractory human patients. However, the development of such FcÎ³R-specific antibodies has stalled because of adverse events, a phenomenon recapitulated in mouse models. One hypothesis behind these adverse events involved the function of the Fc region of the antibody, which engages FcÎ³Rs, leading to inflammatory responses. Unfortunately, inhibition of Fc function by deglycosylation failed to prevent this inflammatory response. In this work, we hypothesize that the bivalent antigen-binding fragment regions of immunoglobulin G are sufficient to trigger adverse events and have reasoned that designing a monovalent targeting strategy could circumvent the inflammatory response. To this end, we generated a fusion protein comprising a monovalent human FcÎ³RIIIA-specific antibody linked in tandem to human serum albumin, which retained FcÎ³R-binding activity in vitro. To evaluate clinically relevant in vivo FcÎ³R-blocking function and inflammatory effects, we generated a murine version targeting the murine FcÎ³RIII linked to murine albumin in a passive murine ITP model. Monovalent blocking of FcÎ³R function dramatically inhibited antibody-dependent murine ITP and successfully circumvented the inflammatory response as assessed by changes in body temperature, basophil activation, and basophil depletion. Consistent with our hypothesis, in vivo cross-linking of the fusion protein induced these inflammatory effects, recapitulating the adverse events of the parent antibody. Thus, monovalent blocking of FcÎ³R function demonstrates a proof of concept to successfully treat FcÎ³R-mediated autoimmune diseases.Â© 2016 by The American Society of Hematology.
Comparison of mammalian and bacterial expression library screening to detect recombinant alpha-1 proteinase inhibitor variants with enhanced thrombin inhibitory capacity. - Journal of biotechnology
Serpins are a widely distributed family of serine proteases. A key determinant of their specificity is the reactive centre loop (RCL), a surface motif of âˆ¼20 amino acids in length. Expression libraries of variant serpins could be rapidly probed with proteases to develop novel inhibitors if optimal systems were available. The serpin variant alpha-1 proteinase inhibitor M358R (API M358R) inhibits the coagulation protease thrombin, but at sub-maximal rates compared to other serpins. Here we compared two approaches to isolate functional API variants from serpin expression libraries, using the same small library of API randomized at residue 358 (M358X): flow cytometry of transfected HEK 293 cells expressing membrane-displayed API; and a thrombin capture assay (TCA) performed on pools of bacterial lysates expressing soluble API. No enrichment for specific P1 residues was observed when the RCL codons of the 1% of sorted transfected 293 cells with the highest fluorescent thrombin-binding signals were subcloned and sequenced. In contrast, screening of 16 pools of bacterial API-expressing transformants led to the facile identification of API M358R and M358K as functional variants. Kinetic characterization showed that API M358R inhibited thrombin 17-fold more rapidly than API M358K. Reducing the incubation time with immobilized thrombin improved the sensitivity of TCA to detect supra-active API M358R variants and was used to screen a hypervariable library of API variants expressing 16 different amino acids at residues 352-357. The most active variant isolated, with TLSATP substituted for FLEAI, inhibited thrombin 2.9-fold more rapidly than API M358R. Our results indicate that flow cytometric approaches used in protein engineering of antibodies are not appropriate for serpins, and highlight the utility of the optimized TCA for serpin protein engineering.Copyright Â© 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Fluorous Analogue of Chloramine-T: Preparation, X-ray Structure Determination, and Use as an Oxidant for Radioiodination and s-Tetrazine Synthesis. - The Journal of organic chemistry
A fluorous oxidant that can be used to introduce radioiodine into small molecules and proteins and generate iodinated tetrazines for bioorthogonal chemistry has been developed. The oxidant was prepared in 87% overall yield by combining a fluorous amine with tosyl chloride, followed by chlorination using aqueous sodium hypochlorite. A crystal structure of the oxidant, which is a fluorous analogue of chloramine-T, was obtained. The compound was shown to be stable for 7 days in EtOH and for longer than three months as a solid. The oxidant was effective at promoting the labeling of arylstannanes using [(125)I]NaI, where products were isolated in high specific activity in yields ranging from 46% to 86%. Similarly, iodinated biologically active proteins (e.g., thrombin) were successfully produced, as well as a radioiodinated tetrazine, through a concomitant oxidation-halodemetalation reaction. Because of its fluorous nature, unreacted oxidant and associated reaction byproducts can be removed quantitatively from reaction mixtures by passing solutions through fluorous solid phase extraction cartridges. This feature enables rapid and facile purification, which is critical when working with radionuclides and is similarly beneficial for general synthetic applications.
Plasma and Plasma Protein Product Transfusion: A Canadian Blood Services Centre for Innovation Symposium. - Transfusion medicine reviews
Plasma obtained via whole blood donation processing or via apheresis technology can either be transfused directly to patients or pooled and fractionated into plasma protein products that are concentrates of 1 or more purified plasma protein. The evidence base supporting clinical efficacy in most of the indications for which plasma is transfused is weak, whereas high-quality evidence supports the efficacy of plasma protein products in at least some of the clinical settings in which they are used. Transfusable plasma utilization remains composed in part of applications that fall outside of clinical practice guidelines. Plasma contains all of the soluble coagulation factors and is frequently transfused in efforts to restore or reinforce patient hemostasis. The biochemical complexities of coagulation have in recent years been rationalized in newer cell-based models that supplement the cascade hypothesis. Efforts to normalize widely used clinical hemostasis screening test values by plasma transfusion are thought to be misplaced, but superior rapid tests have been slow to emerge. The advent of non-vitamin K-dependent oral anticoagulants has brought new challenges to clinical laboratories in plasma testing and to clinicians needing to reverse non-vitamin K-dependent oral anticoagulants urgently. Current plasma-related controversies include prophylactic plasma transfusion before invasive procedures, plasma vs prothrombin complex concentrates for urgent warfarin reversal, and the utility of increased ratios of plasma to red blood cell units transfused in massive transfusion protocols. The first recombinant plasma protein products to reach the clinic were recombinant hemophilia treatment products, and these donor-free equivalents to factors VIII and IX are now being supplemented with novel products whose circulatory half-lives have been increased by chemical modification or genetic fusion. Achieving optimal plasma utilization is an ongoing challenge in the interconnected worlds of transfusable plasma, plasma protein products, and recombinant and engineered replacements.Copyright Â© 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The fibrinogen but not the Factor VIII content of transfused plasma determines its effectiveness at reducing bleeding in coagulopathic mice. - Transfusion
The evidence supporting plasma transfusion as a means to restore hemostatic control and prevent or treat bleeding is weak, leading to uncertainties as to which proteins affect the therapeutic quality of plasma. Some regulators focus on coagulation Factor (F)VIII activity, but whether this measure reflects overall transfusable plasma efficacy is questionable. We developed a mouse model of coagulopathy in which bleeding outcomes were responsive to plasma transfusion and addressed the relative contributions of FVIII and fibrinogen (Fg) to plasma quality.Anesthetized mice were rendered coagulopathic by four rounds of exchange of whole blood for washed red blood cells (RBCs) in 5% human albumin solution (HAS), which reduced RBCs, platelets, and plasma protein levels by 55, 66, and 80% of starting levels, in a blood exchange-induced coagulopathy approach (BECA). Before tail vein transection, BECA mice were transfused with HAS, wild-type murine fresh-frozen plasma (WT mFFP), or mFFP from FVIII-/- or Fg-/- knockout mice. BECA mice were also subjected to laser-induced arteriolar injury and thrombus formation quantified by intravital microscopy.Transfusion of WT or FVIII-/- mFFP reduced blood loss by fourfold in BECA mice relative to HAS; Fg-/- mFFP had no effect. WT or FVIII-/- mFFP transfusion, but not that of Fg-/- mFFP, increased thrombus size in laser-injured BECA mice arterioles. Extended refrigerated storage of mFFP did not reduce its antihemorrhagic effects.The content of Fg, but not FVIII, determined the efficacy of plasma transfusion in coagulopathic mice.Â© 2014 AABB.
Whole blood treated with riboflavin and ultraviolet light: quality assessment of all blood components produced by the buffy coat method. - Transfusion
Pathogen inactivation (PI) technologies are currently licensed for use with platelet (PLT) and plasma components. Treatment of whole blood (WB) would be of benefit to the blood banking community by saving time and costs compared to individual component treatment. However, no paired, pool-and-split study directly assessing the impact of WB PI on the subsequently produced components has yet been reported.In a "pool-and-split" study, WB either was treated with riboflavin and ultraviolet (UV) light or was kept untreated as control. The buffy coat (BC) method produced plasma, PLT, and red blood cell (RBC) components. PLT units arising from the untreated WB study arm were treated with riboflavin and UV light on day of production and compared to PLT concentrates (PCs) produced from the treated WB units. A panel of common in vitro variables for the three types of components was used to monitor quality throughout their respective storage periods.PCs derived from the WB PI treatment were of significantly better quality than treated PLT components for most variables. RBCs produced from the WB treatment deteriorated earlier during storage than untreated units. Plasma components showed a 3% to 44% loss in activity for several clotting factors.Treatment of WB with riboflavin and UV before production of components by the BC method shows a negative impact on all three blood components. PLT units produced from PI-treated WB exhibited less damage compared to PLT component treatment.Â© 2014 AABB.
Alpha-1 proteinase inhibitor M358R reduces thrombin generation when displayed on the surface of cells expressing tissue factor. - Thrombosis research
The M358R variant of alpha-1-proteinase inhibitor (API) is a potent soluble inhibitor of thrombin. Previously we engineered AR-API M358R, a membrane-bound form of this protein and showed that it inhibited exogenous thrombin when expressed on transfected cells lacking tissue factor (TF). To determine the suitability of AR-API M358R for gene transfer to vascular cells to limit thrombogenicity, we tested the ability of AR-API M358R to inhibit endogenous thrombin generated in plasma via co-expression co-expressing it on the surface of cells expressing TF. Transfected AR-API M358R formed inhibitory complexes with thrombin following exposure of recalcified, defibrinated plasma to TF on T24/83 cells, but discontinuously monitored thrombin generation was unaffected. Similarly, AR-API M358R expression did not reduce continuously monitored thrombin generation by T24/83 cell suspensions exposed to recalcified normal plasma in a Thrombogram-Thrombinoscope-type thrombin generation assay (TGA); in contrast, 1 Î¼M hirudin variant 3 or soluble API M358R abolished thrombin generation. Gene transfer of TF to HEK 293 conferred the ability to support TF-dependent thrombin generation on HEK 293 cells. Co-transfection of HEK 293 cells with a 9:1 excess of DNA encoding AR-API M358R to that encoding TF reduced peak thrombin generation approximately 3-fold compared to controls. These in vitro results suggest that surface display of API M358R inhibits thrombin generation when the tethered serpin is expressed in excess of TF, and suggest its potential to limit thrombosis in appropriate vascular beds in animal models.Copyright Â© 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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