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Magnetic interactions in cubic-, hexagonal- and trigonal-barium iron oxide fluoride, BaFeO2F. - Journal of physics. Condensed matter : an Institute of Physics journal
(57)Fe MÃ¶ssbauer spectra have been recorded from the hexagonal (6H)- and trigonal (15R)- modifications of BaFeO2F and are compared with those previously recorded from the cubic form of BaFeO2F. The spectra, recorded over a temperature range from 15 to 650â€‰K show that all of the iron in all the compounds is in the Fe(3+) state. Spectra from the 6H- and 15R-modifications were successfully fitted with components that were related to the Fe(1) and Fe(2) structural sites in the 6H variant and to the Fe(1), Fe(2) and Fe(3) structural sites in the 15R form. The magnetic ordering temperatures were determined as 597â€‰â€‰Â±â€‰â€‰3â€‰K for 6H-BaFeO2F and 636â€‰â€‰Â±â€‰â€‰3â€‰K for 15R-BaFeO2F. These values are surprisingly close to the value of 645â€‰â€‰Â±â€‰â€‰5â€‰K determined for the cubic form. The magnetic interactions in the three forms are compared with a view to explaining this similarity of magnetic ordering temperature.
Vaccine protection against Zika virus from Brazil. - Nature
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a flavivirus that is responsible for an unprecedented current epidemic in Brazil and the Americas(1,2). ZIKV has been causally associated with fetal microcephaly, intrauterine growth restriction, and other birth defects in both humans(3-8) and mice(9-11). The rapid development of a safe and effective ZIKV vaccine is a global health priority(1,2), but very little is currently known about ZIKV immunology and mechanisms of immune protection. Here we show that a single immunization of a plasmid DNA vaccine or a purified inactivated virus vaccine provides complete protection in susceptible mice against challenge with a ZIKV outbreak strain from northeast Brazil. This ZIKV strain has recently been shown to cross the placenta and to induce fetal microcephaly and other congenital malformations in mice(11). We produced DNA vaccines expressing full-length ZIKV pre-membrane and envelope (prM-Env) as well as a series of deletion mutants. The full-length prM-Env DNA vaccine, but not the deletion mutants, afforded complete protection against ZIKV as measured by absence of detectable viremia following challenge, and protective efficacy correlated with Env-specific antibody titers. Adoptive transfer of purified IgG from vaccinated mice conferred passive protection, and CD4 and CD8 T lymphocyte depletion in vaccinated mice did not abrogate protective efficacy. These data demonstrate that protection against ZIKV challenge can be achieved by single-shot subunit and inactivated virus vaccines in mice and that Env-specific antibody titers represent key immunologic correlates of protection. Our findings suggest that the development of a ZIKV vaccine for humans will likely be readily achievable.
Impact of Weight Extremes on Clinical Outcomes in Pediatric Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome. - Critical care medicine
To determine whether weight extremes impact clinical outcomes in pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome.Post hoc analysis of a cohort created by combining five multicenter pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome studies.Forty-three academic PICUs worldwide.A total of 711 subjects prospectively diagnosed with pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome.Subjects more than 2 years were included and categorized by Center for Disease Control and Prevention body mass index z score criteria: underweight (< -1.89), normal weight (-1.89 to +1.04), overweight (+1.05 to +1.64), and obese (â‰¥ +1.65). Subjects were stratified by direct versus indirect lung injury leading to pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. In survivors, secondary analyses included duration of mechanical ventilation and ICU length of stay.A total of 331 patients met inclusion criteria; 12% were underweight, 50% normal weight, 11% overweight, and 27% obese. Overall mortality was 20%. By multivariate analysis, body mass index category was independently associated with mortality (p = 0.004). When stratified by lung injury type, there was no mortality difference between body mass index groups with direct lung injury; however, in the indirect lung injury group, the odds of mortality in the obese were significantly lower than normal weight subjects (odds ratio, 0.11; 95% CI, 0.02-0.84). Survivors with direct lung injury had no difference in the duration of mechanical ventilation or ICU length of stay; however, those with indirect lung injury, the overweight required longer duration of mechanical ventilation than other groups (p < 0.001).These data support the obesity paradox in pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome. Obese children with indirect lung injury pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome have a lower risk of mortality. Importantly, among survivors, the overweight with indirect lung injury requires longer duration of mechanical ventilation. Our data require prospective validation to further elucidate the pathobiology of this phenomenon.
Review of key telepsychiatry outcomes. - World journal of psychiatry
To conduct a review of the telepsychiatry literature.We conducted a systematic search of the literature on telepsychiatry using the search terms, "telepsychiatry", "telemental health", "telecare", "telemedicine", "e-health", and "videoconferencing". To meet criteria for inclusion, studies had to: (1) be published in a peer-reviewed journal after the year 2000; (2) be written in English; (3) use videoconferencing technology for the provision of mental health assessment or treatment services; and (4) use an adequately-powered randomized controlled trial design in the case of treatment outcome studies. Out of 1976 studies identified by searches in PubMed (Medline database), Ovid medline, PsychInfo, Embase, and EBSCO PSYCH, 452 met inclusion criteria. Studies that met all inclusion criteria were organized into one of six categories: (1) satisfaction; (2) reliability; (3) treatment outcomes; (4) implementation outcomes; (5) cost effectiveness; and (6) and legal issues. All disagreements were resolved by reassessing study characteristics and discussion.Overall, patients and providers are generally satisfied with telepsychiatry services. Providers, however, tend to express more concerns about the potentially adverse of effects of telepsychiatry on therapeutic rapport. Patients are less likely to endorse such concerns about impaired rapport with their provider. Although few studies appropriately employ non-inferiority designs, the evidence taken together suggests that telepsychiatry is comparable to face-to-face services in terms of reliability of clinical assessments and treatment outcomes. When non-inferiority designs were appropriately used, telepsychiatry performed as well as, if not better than face-to-face delivery of mental health services. Studies using both rudimentary and more sophisticated methods for evaluating cost-effectiveness indicate that telepsychiatry is not more expensive than face-to-face delivery of mental health services and that telepsychiatry is actually more cost-effective in the majority of studies reviewed. Notwithstanding legal concerns about loss of confidentiality and limited capacity to respond to psychiatric emergencies, we uncovered no published reports of these adverse events in the use of telepsychiatry.A large evidence base supports telepsychiatry as a delivery method for mental health services. Future studies will inform optimal approaches to implementing and sustaining telepsychiatry services.
Cross-sectional analysis of deprivation and ideal cardiovascular health in the Paris Prospective Study 3. - Heart (British Cardiac Society)
We hypothesised that deprivation might represent a barrier to attain an ideal cardiovascular health (CVH) as defined by the American Heart Association (AHA).The baseline data of 8916 participants of the Paris Prospective Study 3, an observational cohort on novel markers for future cardiovascular disease, were used. The AHA 7-item tool includes four health behaviours (smoking, body weight, physical activity and optimal diet) and three biological measures (blood cholesterol, blood glucose and blood pressure). A validated 11-item score of individual material and psychosocial deprivation, the Evaluation de la PrÃ©caritÃ© et des InÃ©galitÃ©s dans les Centres d'Examens de SantÃ©-Evaluation of Deprivation and Inequalities in Health Examination centres (EPICES) score was used. The mean age was 59.5â€…years (standard deviation 6.2), 61.2% were men and 9.98% had an ideal CVH. In sex-specific multivariable polytomous logistic regression, the odds ratio (OR) for ideal behavioural CVH progressively decreased with quartile of increasing deprivation, from 0.54 (95% CI 0.41 to 0.72) to 0.49 (0.37 to 0.65) in women and from 0.61 (0.50 to 0.76) to 0.57 (0.46 to 0.71) in men. Associations with ideal biological CVH were confined to the most deprived women (OR=0.60; 95% CI 0.37 to 0.99), whereas in men, greater deprivation was related to higher OR of intermediate biological CVH (OR=1.28; 95% CI 1.05 to 1.57 for the third quartile vs the first quartile).Higher material and psychosocial deprivation may represent a barrier to reach an ideal CVH.NCT00741728.Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
A phase III clinical study to compare the immunogenicity and safety of the 9-valent and quadrivalent HPV vaccines in men. - Vaccine
A nine-valent human papilloma virus (9vHPV) vaccine has been developed to prevent infections and diseases related to HPV 6/11/16/18 (as per the licensed quadrivalent HPV (qHPV) vaccine) as well as to five additional oncogenic HPV types (HPV 31/33/45/52/58). The 9vHPV vaccine has the potential to prevent 90% of cervical cancers, HPV-related anal, vaginal and vulval cancers and anogenital warts. We compared the immunogenicity and safety of the 9vHPV vaccine versus the qHPV vaccine in 16-26-year-old men.Participants (N=500) were randomised to receive 9vHPV or qHPV vaccines on day 1, month 2 and month 6. Serology testing was performed on day 1 and month 7. HPV type-specific antibody titres (anti-HPV 6/11/16/18/31/33/45/52/58) were determined by competitive Luminex immunoassay and expressed as geometric mean titres and seroconversion rates. Vaccine safety was also assessed.The HPV 6/11/16/18 immune responses elicited by the 9vHPV vaccine were comparable with those elicited by the qHPV vaccine. All participants receiving the 9vHPV vaccine seroconverted for HPV 31/33/45/52/58. The 9vHPV and qHPV vaccines showed comparable safety profiles.In addition to immune responses to HPV 31/33/45/52/58, a three-dose regimen of the 9vHPV vaccine elicited a similar immune response to HPV 6/11/16/18 when compared with the qHPV vaccine in men aged 16-26years. The safety profile was also similar for the two vaccines. The results from this study support extending the efficacy findings with qHPV vaccine to 9vHPV vaccine in men aged 16-26years. NCT02114385.Copyright Â© 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Role of Adjuvant Radiation Therapy After Surgery for Abdominal Desmoplastic Small Round Cell Tumors. - International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
To identify the prognostic role of adjuvant abdominal radiation therapy (RT) on oncologic outcomes as a part of multimodal treatment in the management of desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSRCT) and to determine its impact according to the quality of surgical resection.All patients treated for primary abdominal DSRCT in 8 French centers from 1991 to 2014 were included. Patients were retrospectively staged into 3 groups: group A treated with adjuvant RT after cytoreductive surgery, group B without RT after cytoreductive surgery, and group C by exclusive chemotherapy. Peritoneal progression-free survival (PPFS), progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS) were evaluated. We also performed a direct comparison between groups A and B to evaluate RT after cytoreductive surgery. Radiation therapy was also evaluated according to completeness of surgery: complete cytoreductive surgery (CCS) or incomplete cytoreductive surgery (ICS).Thirty-seven (35.9%), thirty-six (34.9%), and thirty (28.0%) patients were included in groups A, B, and C, respectively. Three-year OS was 61.2% (range, 41.0%-76.0%), 37.6% (22.0%-53.1%), and 17.3% (6.3%-32.8%) for groups A, B, and C, respectively. Overall survival, PPFS, and PFS differed significantly among the 3 groups (P<.001, P<.001, and P<.001, respectively). Overall survival and PPFS were higher in group A (RT group) compared with group B (no RT group) (P=.045 and P=.006, respectively). Three-year PPFS was 23.8% (10.3%-40.4%) for group A and 12.51% (4.0%-26.2%) for group B. After CCS, RT improved PPFS (P=.024), but differences in OS and PFS were not significant (P=.40 and P=.30, respectively). After ICS, RT improved OS (P=.044). A trend of PPFS and PFS increase was observed, but the difference was not statistically significant (P=.073 and P=.076).Adjuvant RT as part of multimodal treatment seems to confer oncologic benefits for patients treated for abdominal DSRCT after cytoreductive surgery and perioperative chemotherapy.Copyright Â© 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.
A single-step acid catalyzed reaction for rapid assembly of NH-1,2,3-triazoles. - Chemical communications (Cambridge, England)
NH-1,2,3-Triazole moieties are a part of the design of various biologically active compounds, pharmaceutical agents and functional materials. Unfortunately, the applications of this heterocycle are still underexplored due to the lack of a general synthetic protocol. Here we outline a novel, general and facile metal-free pathway that enables the direct synthesis of these heterocycles by combining readily accessible and abundant precursors such as enolizable ketones and NH4OAc with high levels of regioselectivity via an organocascade process. The developed chemistry has been successfully applied to the synthesis of several structurally diverse products, pharmaceutical agents and supramolecular receptors.
Could 3D Bioprinted tissues offer future hope for Microtia treatment? - International journal of surgery (London, England)
Microtia is a congenital deformity where the pinna is underdeveloped. Contraindications to rib surgery for microtia reconstruction include high-risk surgical status and chest-wall deformities [1-2]. However does stem-cell-based 3D Bioprinting offer revolutionary therapeutic options for patients with such tissue abnormalities. As a technology, 3D-bioprinting is being developed to generate homogeneous tissues by depositing a low viscosity printable cellular-active gel which matures into a tissue . Currently on-going research is developing the process towards producing cartilage tissues for use in reconstructive surgery. This process focuses on using the natural self-organising properties of cells in order to produce a functional tissue which has measurable: mechanical, metabolic and functional properties.Copyright Â© 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Plasmid Dynamics in KPC-Positive Klebsiella pneumoniae during Long-Term Patient Colonization. - mBio
Carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae strains are formidable hospital pathogens that pose a serious threat to patients around the globe due to a rising incidence in health care facilities, high mortality rates associated with infection, and potential to spread antibiotic resistance to other bacterial species, such as Escherichia coli Over 6Â months in 2011, 17 patients at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Clinical Center became colonized with a highly virulent, transmissible carbapenem-resistant strain of K.Â pneumoniae Our real-time genomic sequencing tracked patient-to-patient routes of transmission and informed epidemiologists' actions to monitor and control this outbreak. Two of these patients remained colonized with carbapenemase-producing organisms for at least 2 to 4Â years, providing the opportunity to undertake a focused genomic study of long-term colonization with antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Whole-genome sequencing studies shed light on the underlying complex microbial colonization, including mixed or evolving bacterial populations and gain or loss of plasmids. Isolates from NIH patient 15 showed complex plasmid rearrangements, leaving the chromosome and the blaKPC-carrying plasmid intact but rearranging the two other plasmids of this outbreak strain. NIH patient 16 has shown continuous colonization with blaKPC-positive organisms across multiple time points spanning 2011 to 2015. Genomic studies defined a complex pattern of succession and plasmid transmission across two different K.Â pneumoniae sequence types and an E.Â coli isolate. These findings demonstrate the utility of genomic methods for understanding strain succession, genome plasticity, and long-term carriage of antibiotic-resistant organisms.In 2011, the NIH Clinical Center had a nosocomial outbreak involving 19 patients who became colonized or infected with blaKPC-positive Klebsiella pneumoniae Patients who have intestinal colonization with blaKPC-positive K.Â pneumoniae are at risk for developing infections that are difficult or nearly impossible to treat with existing antibiotic options. Two of those patients remained colonized with blaKPC-positive Klebsiella pneumoniae for over a year, leading to the initiation of a detailed genomic analysis exploring mixed colonization, plasmid recombination, and plasmid diversification. Whole-genome sequence analysis identified a variety of changes, both subtle and large, in the blaKPC-positive organisms. Long-term colonization of patients with blaKPC-positive Klebsiella pneumoniae creates new opportunities for horizontal gene transfer of plasmids encoding antibiotic resistance genes and poses complications for the delivery of health care.Copyright Â© 2016 Conlan et al.
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