Dr. Richard  Aplenc  Md image

Dr. Richard Aplenc Md

3401 Civic Center Blvd Children's Hospital Of Philadelphia - Hem/Onc
Philadelphia PA 19104
215 903-3535
Medical School: University Of Virginia School Of Medicine - 1994
Accepts Medicare: Yes
Participates In eRX: No
Participates In PQRS: No
Participates In EHR: No
License #: MD061538L
NPI: 1346268711
Taxonomy Codes:
208000000X 2080P0207X

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Collaborative Efforts Driving Progress in Pediatric Acute Myeloid Leukemia. - Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
Diagnosis, treatment, response monitoring, and outcome of pediatric acute myeloid leukemia (AML) have made enormous progress during the past decades. Because AML is a rare type of childhood cancer, with an incidence of approximately seven occurrences per 1 million children annually, national and international collaborative efforts have evolved. This overview describes these efforts and includes a summary of the history and contributions of each of the main collaborative pediatric AML groups worldwide. The focus is on translational and clinical research, which includes past, current, and future clinical trials. Separate sections concern acute promyelocytic leukemia, myeloid leukemia of Down syndrome, and relapsed AML. A plethora of novel antileukemic agents that have emerged, including new classes of drugs, are summarized as well. Finally, an important aspect of the treatment of pediatric AML-supportive care-and late effects are discussed. The future is bright, with a wide range of emerging innovative therapies and with more and more international collaboration that ultimately aim to cure all children with AML, with fewer adverse effects and without late effects.© 2015 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.
Atypical chronic myeloid leukemia in two pediatric patients. - Pediatric blood & cancer
Atypical chronic myeloid leukemia, BCR-ABL1-negative, (aCML) is a rare myeloid neoplasm. Recent adult data suggest the leukemic cells in a subset of patients are dependent on JAK/STAT signaling and harbor CSF3R-activating mutations. We hypothesized that, similar to adult patients, the presence of CSF3R-activating mutations would be clinically relevant in pediatric myeloid neoplasms as patients would be sensitive to the JAK inhibitor, ruxolitinib. We report two cases of morphologically similar pediatric aCML, BCR-ABL1-negative based on WHO 2008 criteria. One patient had CSF3R-activating mutation (T618I) and demonstrated a robust response to ruxolitinib, which was used to bridge to a successful stem cell transplant. The other patient did not have a CSF3R-activating mutation and succumbed to refractory disease <6 months from diagnosis. This report documents CSF3R-T618I in pediatric aCML and demonstrates the efficacy of ruxolitinib in a pediatric malignancy. As the third documented case successfully treating aCML with ruxolitinib, this case highlights the importance of prompt CSF3R sequencing analysis for myeloproliferative and myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasms. Pediatr Blood Cancer © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.© 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Concordance of copy number alterations using a common analytic pipeline for genome-wide analysis of Illumina and Affymetrix genotyping data: a report from the Children's Oncology Group. - Cancer genetics
Copy number alterations (CNAs) are a hallmark of pediatric cancer genomes. An increasing number of research groups use multiple platforms and software packages to detect and analyze CNAs. However, different platforms have experimental and analysis-specific biases that may yield different results. We sought to estimate the concordance of CNAs in children with de novo acute myeloid leukemia between two experimental platforms: Affymetrix SNP 6.0 array and Illumina OmniQuad 2.5 BeadChip. Forty-five paired tumor-remission samples were genotyped on both platforms, and CNAs were estimated from total signal intensity and allelic contrast values using the allele-specific copy number analysis of tumors (ASCAT) algorithm. The two platforms were comparable in detection of CNAs, each missing only two segments from a total of 42 CNAs (4.6%). Overall, there was an interplatform agreement of 96% for allele-specific tumor profiles. However, poor quality samples with low signal/noise ratios showed a high rate of false-positive segments independent of the genotyping platform. These results demonstrate that a common analytic pipeline can be utilized for SNP array data from these two platforms. The customized programming template for the preprocessing, data integration, and analysis is publicly available at by Elsevier Inc.
A comparison of resource utilization following chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukemia in children discharged versus children that remain hospitalized during neutropenia. - Cancer medicine
Comparisons of early discharge and outpatient postchemotherapy supportive care in pediatric acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients are limited. We used data from the Pediatric Health Information System on a cohort of children treated for newly diagnosed AML to compare course-specific mortality and resource utilization in patients who were discharged after chemotherapy to outpatient management during neutropenia relative to patients who remained hospitalized. Patients were categorized at each course as early or standard discharge. Discharges within 3 days after chemotherapy completion were considered "early". Resource utilization was determined based on daily billing data and reported as days of use per 1000 hospital days. Inpatient mortality, occurrence of intensive care unit (ICU)-level care, and duration of hospitalization were compared using logistic, log-binomial and linear regression methods, respectively. Poisson regression with inpatient days as offset was used to compare resource use by discharge status. The study population included 996 patients contributing 2358 treatment courses. Fewer patients were discharged early following Induction I (7%) than subsequent courses (22-24%). Across courses, patients discharged early experienced high readmission rates (69-84%), yet 9-12 fewer inpatient days (all P < 0.001). Inpatient mortality was low across courses and did not differ significantly by discharge status. The overall risk for ICU-level care was 116% higher for early compared to standard discharge patients (adjusted risk ratio: 2.16, 95% confidence interval: 1.50, 3.11). Rates of antibiotic, vasopressor, and supplemental oxygen use were consistently elevated for early discharge patients. Despite similar inpatient mortality to standard discharge patients, early discharge patients may be at greater risk for life-threatening chemotherapy-related complications, including infections.© 2015 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Comparison of in-patient costs for children treated on the AAML0531 clinical trial: A report from the Children's Oncology Group. - Pediatric blood & cancer
A better understanding of drivers of treatment costs may help identify effective cost containment strategies and prioritize resources. We aimed to develop a method for estimating inpatient costs for pediatric patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) enrolled on NCI-funded Phase III trials, compare costs between AAML0531 treatment arms (standard chemotherapy ± gemtuzumab ozogamicin (GMTZ)), and evaluate primary drivers of costs for newly diagnosed pediatric AML.Patients from the AAML0531 trial were matched on hospital, sex, and dates of birth and diagnosis to the Pediatric Health Information Systems (PHIS) database to obtain daily billing data. Inpatient treatment costs were calculated as adjusted charges multiplied by hospital-specific cost-to-charge ratios. Generalized linear models were used to compare costs between treatment arms and courses, and by patient characteristics.Inpatient costs did not differ by randomized treatment arm. Costs varied by course with stem cell transplant being most expensive, followed by Intensification II (cytarabine/mitoxantrone) and Induction I (cytarabine/daunorubicin/etoposide). Room/board and pharmacy were the largest contributors to inpatient treatment cost, representing 74% of the total cost. Higher AML risk group (P = 0.0003) and older age (P < 0.0001) were associated with significantly higher daily inpatient cost.Costs from external data sources can be successfully integrated into NCI-funded Phase III clinical trials. Inpatient treatment costs did not differ by GMTZ exposure but varied by chemotherapy course. Variation in cost by course was driven by differences in duration of hospitalization through room/board charges as well as increased clinical and pharmacy charges in specific courses. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2015;62:1775-1781. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.© 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Patient-Reported Outcome Coordinator Did Not Improve Quality of Life Assessment Response Rates: A Report from the Children's Oncology Group. - PloS one
Health related quality of life (HRQL) assessments during therapy for pediatric cancer provide valuable information to better understand the patient experience. Our objective was to determine the impact of a patient-reported outcome (PRO) coordinator on HRQL questionnaire completion rates during a pediatric acute myeloid leukemia (AML) trial.AAML1031 is a multicenter Children's Oncology Group therapeutic trial for de novo AML with a secondary aim to assess HRQL of children and adolescents treated with chemotherapy and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Parents/guardians are the primary respondents and four questionnaires are administered at eight time points. The questionnaires are the PedsQL 4.0 Generic Core Scales, PedsQL 3.0 Acute Cancer Module, PedsQL Multidimensional Fatigue Scale, and the Pediatric Inventory for Parents. To improve response rates, a central PRO coordinator was instituted and reminded sites about upcoming and delinquent questionnaires. The proportion of HRQL questionnaires completed were compared prior to, and following institution of the PRO coordinator. This analysis evaluated the first five assessment time points.There were231 families who consented to participate in the HRQL aim. Overall response rates for all questionnaires were 73-83%. At time point 1, within 14 days of chemotherapy initiation, post-PRO coordinator completion rates were significantly higher for three of four questionnaires. However, the effect was not sustained and at time point 4, one month following last chemotherapy or HSCT, completion rates were significantly lower post-PRO coordinator for all four questionnaires.Addition of a central PRO coordinator did not result in sustained improvement in HRQL questionnaire completion rates. Efforts to improve response rates must consider other strategies.
Comparison of administrative/billing data to expected protocol-mandated chemotherapy exposure in children with acute myeloid leukemia: A report from the Children's Oncology Group. - Pediatric blood & cancer
Recently investigators have used analysis of administrative/billing datasets to answer clinical and pharmacoepidemiology questions in pediatric oncology. However, the accuracy of pharmacy data from administrative/billing datasets have not yet been evaluated. The primary objective of this study was to determine the concordance of Pediatric Health Information System (PHIS) administrative/billing chemotherapy data with Children's Oncology Group (COG) protocol-mandated chemotherapy and to assess the implications of this level of concordance for further PHIS research.Data from 384 pediatric patients (1,060 courses of chemotherapy) with acute myeloid leukemia treated on COG clinical trial AAML0531 were previously merged with PHIS data. PHIS chemotherapy administrative/billing data were reviewed for the first three courses of chemotherapy. Accuracy was assessed using three metrics: recognizability of chemotherapy pattern by course, chemotherapy administration pattern by individual medication, and concordance with the number of days of protocol-defined chemotherapy.The chemotherapy pattern was recognizable in 87.3% of courses when course-wide accuracy was assessed. Chemotherapy administration pattern varied by medication. Cytarabine had perfect concordance 70.9% of the time, daunorubicin had perfect concordance 77.4% of the time, and etoposide had perfect concordance 67.8% of the time.The accuracy of chemotherapy administrative/billing data supports the continued use of PHIS data for epidemiology studies as long as investigators perform data quality control checks and evaluate each specific medication prior to undertaking definitive analyses.© 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
The impact of chemotherapy shortages on COG and local clinical trials: a report from the Children's Oncology Group. - Pediatric blood & cancer
Oncology drug shortage is associated with increased patient adverse events and decreased enrollment on clinical trials for adult patients; however, the impact of oncology drug shortages has not been well studied in children with cancer.The Children's Oncology Group (COG) distributed a 5-item survey to 226 COG site-specific principal investigators (PI's) and 14-item survey to 161 COG pharmacists to gather data the impact of chemotherapeutic shortages on clinical trials and patient care.The response rate was 66.4% (150/226) for PI's and 29.8% (48/161) for pharmacists. COG PI's reported daunorubicin (73%), methotrexate (56%), asparaginase/PEG-asparaginase (42%), doxorubicin (26%), thiotepa (21%), and cytarabine (20%) were most commonly in shortage, while COG pharmacists reported daunorubicin (80%), methotrexate (66%), vincristine (21%), thiotepa (41%), asparaginase/PEG-asparaginase (34%), and cytarabine (34%) were most commonly in shortage over the past two years. Pharmacists were twice as likely to report a shortage compared with PI's (OR 2.1, 95% CI: 1.6-2.7, P < 0.0001). Fifty percent (74/147) of COG PI's reported at least one patient enrolled on a clinical trial was impacted by drug shortage, and 66% (98/148) of COG PI's reported at least one patient had clinical care impacted by drug shortage.Chemotherapy shortages remain widespread across institutions, hinder clinical trials, and may contribute to adverse events in children with cancer. The increased frequency of chemotherapy shortages reported by pharmacists suggests that pharmacist efforts may mitigate negative impact chemotherapy shortages. Over half of pediatric institutions are implementing recommendations to address shortages, such as cross-institutional collaboration and center-level guidelines.© 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Oxidant stress regulatory genetic variation in recipients and donors contributes to risk of primary graft dysfunction after lung transplantation. - The Journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery
Oxidant stress pathway activation during ischemia reperfusion injury may contribute to the development of primary graft dysfunction (PGD) after lung transplantation. We hypothesized that oxidant stress gene variation in recipients and donors is associated with PGD.Donors and recipients from the Lung Transplant Outcomes Group (LTOG) cohort were genotyped using the Illumina IBC chip filtered for oxidant stress pathway genes. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) grouped into SNP sets based on haplotype blocks within 49 oxidant stress genes selected from gene ontology pathways and literature review were tested for PGD association using a sequencing kernel association test. Analyses were adjusted for clinical confounding variables and population stratification.Three hundred ninety-two donors and 1038 recipients met genetic quality control standards. Thirty percent of patients developed grade 3 PGD within 72 hours. Donor NADPH oxidase 3 (NOX3) was associated with PGD (P = .01) with 5 individual significant loci (P values between .006 and .03). In recipients, variation in glutathione peroxidase (GPX1) and NRF-2 (NFE2L2) was significantly associated with PGD (P = .01 for both). The GPX1 association included 3 individual loci (P values between .006 and .049) and the NFE2L2 association included 2 loci (P = .03 and .05). Significant epistatic effects influencing PGD susceptibility were evident between 3 different donor blocks of NOX3 and recipient NFE2L2 (P = .026, P = .017, and P = .031).Our study has prioritized GPX1, NOX3, and NFE2L2 genes for future research in PGD pathogenesis, and highlights a donor-recipient interaction of NOX3 and NFE2L2 that increases the risk of PGD.Copyright © 2015 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Chimeric antigen receptor T cells for sustained remissions in leukemia. - The New England journal of medicine
Relapsed acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is difficult to treat despite the availability of aggressive therapies. Chimeric antigen receptor-modified T cells targeting CD19 may overcome many limitations of conventional therapies and induce remission in patients with refractory disease.We infused autologous T cells transduced with a CD19-directed chimeric antigen receptor (CTL019) lentiviral vector in patients with relapsed or refractory ALL at doses of 0.76×10(6) to 20.6×10(6) CTL019 cells per kilogram of body weight. Patients were monitored for a response, toxic effects, and the expansion and persistence of circulating CTL019 T cells.A total of 30 children and adults received CTL019. Complete remission was achieved in 27 patients (90%), including 2 patients with blinatumomab-refractory disease and 15 who had undergone stem-cell transplantation. CTL019 cells proliferated in vivo and were detectable in the blood, bone marrow, and cerebrospinal fluid of patients who had a response. Sustained remission was achieved with a 6-month event-free survival rate of 67% (95% confidence interval [CI], 51 to 88) and an overall survival rate of 78% (95% CI, 65 to 95). At 6 months, the probability that a patient would have persistence of CTL019 was 68% (95% CI, 50 to 92) and the probability that a patient would have relapse-free B-cell aplasia was 73% (95% CI, 57 to 94). All the patients had the cytokine-release syndrome. Severe cytokine-release syndrome, which developed in 27% of the patients, was associated with a higher disease burden before infusion and was effectively treated with the anti-interleukin-6 receptor antibody tocilizumab.Chimeric antigen receptor-modified T-cell therapy against CD19 was effective in treating relapsed and refractory ALL. CTL019 was associated with a high remission rate, even among patients for whom stem-cell transplantation had failed, and durable remissions up to 24 months were observed. (Funded by Novartis and others; CART19 numbers, NCT01626495 and NCT01029366.).

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