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Pectic oligosaccharides from agricultural by-products: production, characterization and health benefits. - Critical reviews in biotechnology
Pectin containing agricultural by-products are potential sources of a new class of prebiotics known as pectic oligosaccharides (POS). In general, pectin is made up of homogalacturonan (HG, Î±-1,4-linked galacturonic acid monomers) and rhamnogalacturonan (RG, alternate galacturonic acid and rhamnose backbone with neutral side chains). Controlled hydrolysis of pectin containing agricultural by-products like sugar beet, apple, olive and citrus by chemical, enzymatic and hydrothermal can be used to produce oligo-galacturonides (GalpOS), galacto-oligosaccharides (GalOS), rhamnogalacturonan-oligosaccharides (RGOS), etc. However, extensive research is needed to establish the role of POS, both as a prebiotic as well as therapeutic agent. This review comprehensively covers different facets of POS, including the nature and chemistry of pectin and POS, potential agricultural residual sources of pectin, pre-treatment methods for facilitating selective extraction of pectin, identification and characterization of POS, health benefits and important applications of POS in food and feed. This review has been compiled to establish a platform for future research in the purification and characterization of POS and for in vivo and in vitro studies of important POS, so that they could be commercially exploited.
Sleep disordered breathing risk in childhood cancer survivors: an exploratory study. - Pediatric blood & cancer
Sleep disordered breathing (SDB) is emerging as a significant health condition for children. The purpose of this study is to evaluate SDB symptoms in childhood cancer survivors and identify associations with quality of life (QOL) and psychological symptoms.A sample of 62 survivors aged 8-18 years were recruited during routine survivorship visits. All subjects and their parents completed questionnaires to evaluate sleep, QOL and psychological symptoms; scales included were: Pediatric Sleep Questionnaire, Sleep Disordered Breathing Subscale (PSQ-SDBS), Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) and Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS-21). Continuous data were used for all scales and a threshold score of >0.33 on the PSA-SDBS was used to identify risk of SDB. The relationships between measures of sleep and independent variables were examined using Pearson correlations and multiple linear regression models for significant associations.Of the 62 subjects enrolled, underlying diagnoses included 29 leukemias, 30 solid tumors and 3 non-malignant diseases. Nineteen percent of subjects were identified as having SDB risk on the PSQ-SDBS. The lowest mean PedsQL subscale score for parent and child ratings were school QOL; Parent mean 73(Â±SD 19) and Child mean 71(Â±SD 20). The severity of SDB per the PSQ was significantly associated with reduced total and school QOL which remained significant after adjusting for stress.Symptoms suggestive of SDB are common in childhood cancer survivors with negative implications for overall quality of life and school performance.Â© 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Maximizing bone formation in posterior spine fusion using rhBMP-2 and zoledronic acid in wild type and NF1 deficient mice. - Journal of orthopaedic research : official publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
Spinal pseudarthrosis is a well described complication of spine fusion surgery in NF1 patients. Reduced bone formation and excessive resorption have been described in NF1 and anti-resorptive agents may be advantageous in these individuals. In this study, 16 wild type and 16 Nf1(+/-) mice were subjected to posterolateral fusion using collagen sponges containing 5â€‰Âµg rhBMP-2 introduced bilaterally. Mice were dosed twice weekly with 0.02â€‰mg/kg zoledronic acid (ZA) or sterile saline. The fusion mass was assessed for bone volume (BV) and bone mineral density (BMD) by microCT. Co-treatment using rhBMP-2 and ZA produced a significant increase (pâ€‰<â€‰0.01) in BV of the fusion mass compared to rhBMP-2 alone in both wild type mice (+229%) and Nf1(+/-) mice (+174%). Co-treatment also produced a significantly higher total BMD of the fusion mass compared to rhBMP-2 alone in both groups (pâ€‰<â€‰0.01). Despite these gains with anti-resorptive treatment, Nf1(+/-) deficient mice still generated less bone than wild type controls. TRAP staining on histological sections indicated an increased osteoclast surface/bone surface (Oc.S/BS) in Nf1(+/-) mice relative to wild type mice, and this was reduced with ZA treatment.Â© 2014 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Body affects mind? Preoperative behavioral and biological predictors for postoperative symptoms in mental health. - Journal of behavioral medicine
The study examined differential effects of preoperative biomarkers (cotisol, C-reactive protein/CRP, and interleukin-6/IL-6) on postoperative symptoms in mental health (depressed mood, anxiety and hostility) 1 month following open-heart surgery, controlling for known predictors. Preoperative and postoperative interviews were conducted on 162 patients. Peripheral venous blood samples were collected between 8 and 10 a.m. prior to surgery. Cardiac indices were obtained from the Society of Thoracic Surgeons' national database. Preoperative anxiety contributed to all outcomes about 1 month postoperatively. Patients with high preoperative plasma IL-6 used more avoidant coping and experienced greater depressed mood. Patients with increased plasma CRP and with hope were less depressed. Elevated plasma cortisol predicted hostility. Finally, medical comorbidities predicted anxiety and hostility. The combination of anxiety and stress-sensitive biomarkers may be one way to predict postoperative symptoms following open-heart surgery. Our findings emphasize the importance of investigating the mind-body interplay to come up with better interventions.
Mental health, concurrent disorders, and health care utilization in homeless women. - Journal of psychiatric practice
This study assessed lifetime and current prevalence rates of mental disorders and concurrent mental and substance use disorders in a sample of homeless women. Current suicide risk and recent health service utilization were also examined in order to understand the complex mental health issues of this population and to inform the development of new treatment strategies that better meet their specific needs.A cross-sectional survey of 196 adult homeless women in three different Canadian cities was done. Participants were assessed using DSM-IV-based structured clinical interviews. Current diagnoses were compared to available mental health prevalence rates in the Canadian female general population.Current prevalence rates were 63% for any mental disorder, excluding substance use disorders; 17% for depressive episode; 10% for manic episode; 7% for psychotic disorder; 39% for anxiety disorders, 28% for posttraumatic stress disorder; and 19% for obsessive-compulsive disorder; 58% had concurrent substance dependence and mental disorders. Lifetime prevalence rates were notably higher. Current moderate or high suicide risk was found in 22% of the women. Participants used a variety of health services, especially emergency rooms, general practitioners, and walk-in clinics.Prevalence rates of mental disorders among homeless participants were substantially higher than among women from the general Canadian population. The percentage of participants with moderate or high suicide risk and concurrent disorders indicates a high severity of mental health symptomatology. Treatment and housing programs need to be accompanied by multidisciplinary, specialized interventions that account for high rates of complex mental health conditions.
[Prospective comparative study of sentinel lymph node mapping in gastric cancer -- submucosal versus subserosal marking method]. - Magyar sebeÌszet
Forty percent of patients with gastric cancer undergo unnecessary extended lymph node dissection which may result in higher rate of morbidity and mortality. Successful sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping may help to reduce the number of extended lymphadenectomy. Various marking methods are in use to detect the sentinel lymph node in gastric cancer.Forty consecutive patients underwent open gastric resection with blue dye mapping and modified D2 lymph node dissection. Sixteen patients (group A) were marked submucosally with endoscopy and 24 patients (group B) were labelled by the surgeon subserosally. The staining method and the lymphadenectomy were supervised by the same surgeon.A total of 795 lymph nodes were removed and examined. The mean number of blue nodes was 4.1 per patient in group A and 4.8 in group B. The false negative rate was 0% in group A and 7.7% in group B. The sensitivity and specificity of SLN mapping was 100% in the submucosal group. The specificity of subserosal marking method was 100%, while the seÃnsitivity was 92.3%. Submucosal and subserosal marking methods were proven to be equivalent in detection rate, sensitivity and specificity based on 90% confidence interval of the ratio of indicators.Our results suggest that sentinel lymph node mapping with blue dye alone represents a safety procedure and seems to be adaptable with high sensitivity and specificity, especially in cases of T1 and T2 tumors.
Complementary feeding for infants 6 to 12 months. - The journal of family health care
Complementary feeding, also known as weaning, mixed feeding or introduction of solid foods, should begin for infants by six months of age (26 weeks) but not before 17 weeks. Breast milk or infant formula should continue during the complementary feeding period with amounts gradually reduced as the variety of foods increases. As all infants' needs are different, health care professionals have to be aware of key nutrients and foods needed at the same time as monitoring growth and understanding the needs of parents and the resources available to them.
[The abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) in general surgery]. - Magyar sebeÌszet
Mortality due to the abdominal compartment syndrome is extremely high (38-71%). It may be defined as adverse physiologic consequences that occur as a result of an acute increase in the intraabdominal pressure. The most common causes of abdominal compartment syndrome are retroperitoneal haemorrhage, visceral oedema, pancreatitis, bowel distension, venous mesenterial obstruction, tense ascites, peritonitis, tumor. The mostly affected organ systems include cardiovascular, pulmonary, renal, central nervous and splanchnic. The diagnosis depends on the recognition of the clinical syndrome followed by an objective measurement of intraabdominal pressure, preferably that of the urinary bladder. The treatment consist of adequate fluid resuscitation and surgical decompression when necessary.
Differential expression of P2X-purinoceptor subtypes in circular and longitudinal muscle of canine colon. - Neurogastroenterology and motility : the official journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) mediates excitatory junction potentials through P2X receptors in many smooth muscles. However, relatively little is known about postjunctional intestinal P2X receptors. We examined the effect of exogenous ATP on circular and longitudinal myocytes of canine colon using the patch clamp technique at 32 degrees C. In both cell types, ATP induced inward currents (I(ATP)) at -70 mV in a concentration-dependent manner. The potency profile of ATP analogues in circular myocytes was: ATP approximately 2-methylthio-ATP > alpha,beta-methylene ATP, and that in longitudinal myocytes was: alpha,beta-methylene ATP approximately ATP > 2-methylthio-ATP. Pretreatment of circular myocytes with alpha,beta-methylene ATP inhibited the response to subsequent ATP, suggesting receptor desensitization. I-V relationships of I(ATP) were linear with inward rectification and E(rev) of -13 mV. I(ATP) at -70 mV was carried predominantly by Na+ as determined by shifts in E(rev) when extracellular Na+ was lowered. In RT-PCR, circular myocytes expressed mRNAs encoding P2X2, 3 and 4, while longitudinal myocytes expressed mRNAs for P2X3 and 5. P2X7 was absent in both cells. Fragments of each subtype were cloned and sequenced. We failed to clone P2X1 and P2X6 genes. Overall, different P2X receptor subtypes are expressed in circular and longitudinal canine colonic myocytes. Their activation produces non-selective cation currents that can depolarize and excite muscles of both layers.
Design and characterization of a compact dual channel virus counter. - Cytometry. Part A : the journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology
Although there is a growing need in the field of biotechnology to rapidly and accurately quantify viruses, time-consuming techniques such as the plaque titer method remain the "gold standard." Flow cytometric methods for virus quantification offer the advantages of rapid analysis and statistical treatment. The technique presented in this work represents the first demonstration of a flow cytometric determination of a viral count that is directly related to the count obtained by plaque titer.A flow cytometric instrument for rapid quantification of virus particles was designed, constructed, and thoroughly characterized. A two-color method, which involved staining the viral genome and the protein coat for baculoviruses, was developed in addition to an algorithm to identify simultaneous events on the DNA and protein channels.The instrument was fully characterized, which included analysis of the data acquisition rate, sampling time, flow rate, detection efficiency, linear dynamic range, channel cross-talk, and the limit of detection. Baculovirus samples were analyzed and the results were compared with concentrations obtained by a one-channel flow cytometer and plaque assay.The dual channel virus counter yields a representative value for the concentration of active viruses in an unpurified sample when compared with plaque assay and a one-channel flow cytometer. The technique is rapid (within minutes), requires only minimal sample preparation and minimum sample size (approximately 100 microl).Copyright (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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