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Phagosomal Acidification Prevents Macrophage Inflammatory Cytokine Production to Malaria, and Dendritic Cells Are the Major Source at the Early Stages of Infection: IMPLICATION FOR MALARIA PROTECTIVE IMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT. - The Journal of biological chemistry
Inflammatory cytokines produced at the early stages of malaria infection contribute to shaping protective immunity and pathophysiology. To gain mechanistic insight into these processes, it is important to understand the cellular origin of cytokines because both cytokine input and cytokine-producing cells play key roles. Here, we determined cytokine responses by monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells (DCs) to purified Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium berghei ANKA, and by spleen macrophages and DCs from Plasmodium yoelii 17NXL-infected and P. berghei ANKA-infected mice. The results demonstrate that monocytes and macrophages do not produce inflammatory cytokines to malaria parasites and that DCs are the primary source early in infection, and DC subsets differentially produce cytokines. Importantly, blocking of phagosomal acidification by inhibiting vacuolar-type H(+)-ATPase enabled macrophages to elicit cytokine responses. Because cytokine responses to malaria parasites are mediated primarily through endosomal Toll-like receptors, our data indicate that the inability of macrophages to produce cytokines is due to the phagosomal acidification that disrupts endosomal ligand-receptor engagement. Macrophages efficiently produced cytokines to LPS upon simultaneously internalizing parasites and to heat-killed Escherichia coli, demonstrating that phagosomal acidification affects endosomal receptor-mediated, but not cell surface receptor-mediated, recognition of Toll-like receptor agonists. Enabling monocytes/macrophages to elicit immune responses to parasites by blocking endosomal acidification can be a novel strategy for the effective development of protective immunity to malaria. The results have important implications for enhancing the efficacy of a whole parasite-based malaria vaccine and for designing strategies for the development of protective immunity to pathogens that induce immune responses primarily through endosomal receptors.Â© 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.
CD36 contributes to malaria parasite-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine production and NK and T cell activation by dendritic cells. - PloS one
The scavenger receptor CD36 plays important roles in malaria, including the sequestration of parasite-infected erythrocytes in microvascular capillaries, control of parasitemia through phagocytic clearance by macrophages, and immunity. Although the role of CD36 in the parasite sequestration and clearance has been extensively studied, how and to what extent CD36 contributes to malaria immunity remains poorly understood. In this study, to determine the role of CD36 in malaria immunity, we assessed the internalization of CD36-adherent and CD36-nonadherent Plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells (IRBCs) and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines by DCs, and the ability of DCs to activate NK, and T cells. Human DCs treated with anti-CD36 antibody and CD36 deficient murine DCs internalized lower levels of CD36-adherent IRBCs and produced significantly decreased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines compared to untreated human DCs and wild type mouse DCs, respectively. Consistent with these results, wild type murine DCs internalized lower levels of CD36-nonadherent IRBCs and produced decreased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines than wild type DCs treated with CD36-adherent IRBCs. Further, the cytokine production by NK and T cells activated by IRBC-internalized DCs was significantly dependent on CD36. Thus, our results demonstrate that CD36 contributes significantly to the uptake of IRBCs and pro-inflammatory cytokine responses by DCs, and the ability of DCs to activate NK and T cells to produce IFN-Î³. Given that DCs respond to malaria parasites very early during infection and influence development of immunity, and that CD36 contributes substantially to the cytokine production by DCs, NK and T cells, our results suggest that CD36 plays an important role in immunity to malaria. Furthermore, since the contribution of CD36 is particularly evident at low doses of infected erythrocytes, the results imply that the effect of CD36 on malaria immunity is imprinted early during infection when parasite load is low.
Kinetics and thermodynamics of glycans and glycoproteins binding to Holothuria scabra lectin: a fluorescence and surface plasmon resonance spectroscopic study. - Journal of fluorescence
Holothuria scabra produces a monomeric lectin (HSL) of 182Â kDa. HSL showed strong antibacterial activity and induced bacterial agglutination under in vitro conditions, indicating its role in animals' innate immune responses. Very few lectins have been reported from echinoderms and none of these lectins have been explored in detail for their sugar-binding kinetics. Affinity, kinetics and thermodynamic analysis of glycans and glycoproteins binding to HSL were studied by fluorescence and surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy. Lectin binds with higher affinity to O-linked than N-linked asialo glycans, and the affinities were relatively higher than that for sialated glycans and glycoproteins. T-antigen Î±-methyl glycoside was the most potent ligand having the highest affinity (Ka 8.32 Ã—10(7) M(-1)). Thermodynamic and kinetic analysis indicated that the binding of galactosyl Tn-antigen and asialo glycans is accompanied by an enthalpic contribution in addition to higher association rate coupled by low activation energy for the association process. Presence of sialic acid or protein matrix inhibits binding. Higher affinity of HSL for O-glycans than N-glycans had biological implications; since HSL specifically recognizes bacteria, which have mucin or O-glycan cognate on their cell surfaces and play a major role in animal innate immunity. Since, HSL had higher affinity to T-antigen, makes it a useful tool for cancer diagnostic purpose.
TLR9 and MyD88 are crucial for the development of protective immunity to malaria. - Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950)
Effective resolution of malaria infection by avoiding pathogenesis requires regulated pro- to anti-inflammatory responses and the development of protective immunity. TLRs are known to be critical for initiating innate immune responses, but their roles in the regulation of immune responses and development of protective immunity to malaria remain poorly understood. In this study, using wild-type, TLR2(-/-), TLR4(-/-), TLR9(-/-), and MyD88(-/-) mice infected with Plasmodium yoelii, we show that TLR9 and MyD88 regulate pro/anti-inflammatory cytokines, Th1/Th2 development, and cellular and humoral responses. Dendritic cells from TLR9(-/-) and MyD88(-/-) mice produced significantly lower levels of proinflammatory cytokines and higher levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines than dendritic cells from wild-type mice. NK and CD8(+) T cells from TLR9(-/-) and MyD88(-/-) mice showed markedly impaired cytotoxic activity. Furthermore, mice deficient in TLR9 and MyD88 showed higher Th2-type and lower Th1-type IgGs. Consequently, TLR9(-/-) and MyD88(-/-) mice exhibited compromised ability to control parasitemia and were susceptible to death. Our data also show that TLR9 and MyD88 distinctively regulate immune responses to malaria infection. TLR9(-/-) but not MyD88(-/-) mice produced significant levels of both pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, including IL-1Î² and IL-18, by other TLRs/inflammasome- and/or IL-1R/IL-18R-mediated signaling. Thus, whereas MyD88(-/-) mice completely lacked cell-mediated immunity, TLR9(-/-) mice showed low levels of cell-mediated immunity and were slightly more resistant to malaria infection than MyD88(-/-) mice. Overall, our findings demonstrate that TLR9 and MyD88 play central roles in the immune regulation and development of protective immunity to malaria, and have implications in understanding immune responses to other pathogens.
IÎºb-Î¶ plays an important role in the ERK-dependent dysregulation of malaria parasite GPI-induced IL-12 expression. - IUBMB life
Plasmodium falciparum glycosylphosphatidylinositols (GPIs) have been proposed as malaria pathogenic factors based on their ability to induce proinflammatory responses in macrophages and malaria-like symptoms in mice. Parasite GPIs induce the production of inflammatory cytokines by activating the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and NF-ÎºB signaling pathways. Importantly, inhibition of the extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway upregulates a subset of cytokines, including IL-12. We investigated the role of nuclear transcription factor, IÎºB-Î¶, in the GPI-induced dysregulated expression of IL-12 on inhibition of the ERK pathway. GPIs efficiently induced the expression of IÎºB-Î¶ in macrophages regardless of whether cells were pretreated or untreated with ERK inhibitors, indicating that ERK has no role in IÎºB-Î¶ expression. However, on ERK inhibition followed by stimulation with GPIs, NF-ÎºB binding to Il12b promoter ÎºB site was markedly increased, suggesting that the ERK pathway regulates Il12b transcription. Knockdown of IÎºB-Î¶ using siRNA markedly reduced the GPI-induced IL-12 production and abrogated the dysregulated IL-12 production in ERK inhibited cells. Together these results demonstrate that ERK modulates IL-12 expression by regulating IÎºB-Î¶-dependent binding of NF-ÎºB transcription factors to Il12b gene promoter. Additionally, our finding that IÎºB-Î¶ can be knocked down efficiently in primary macrophages is valuable for studies aimed at gaining further insights into IÎºB-Î¶ function.Copyright Â© 2011 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.
The nucleosome (histone-DNA complex) is the TLR9-specific immunostimulatory component of Plasmodium falciparum that activates DCs. - PloS one
The systemic clinical symptoms of Plasmodium falciparum infection such as fever and chills correspond to the proinflammatory cytokines produced in response to the parasite components released during the synchronized rupture of schizonts. We recently demonstrated that, among the schizont-released products, merozoites are the predominant components that activate dendritic cells (DCs) by TLR9-specific recognition to induce the maturation of cells and to produce proinflammatory cytokines. We also demonstrated that DNA is the active constituent and that formation of a DNA-protein complex is essential for the entry of parasite DNA into cells for recognition by TLR9. However, the nature of endogenous protein-DNA complex in the parasite is not known. In this study, we show that parasite nucleosome constitute the major protein-DNA complex involved in the activation of DCs by parasite nuclear material. The parasite components were fractionated into the nuclear and non-nuclear materials. The nuclear material was further fractionated into chromatin and the proteins loosely bound to chromatin. Polynucleosomes and oligonucleosomes were prepared from the chromatin. These were tested for their ability to activate DCs obtained by the FLT3 ligand differentiation of bone marrow cells from the wild type, and TLR2(-/-), TLR9(-/-) and MyD88(-/-) mice. DCs stimulated with the nuclear material and polynucleosomes as well as mono- and oligonucleosomes efficiently induced the production of proinflammatory cytokines in a TLR9-dependent manner, demonstrating that nucleosomes (histone-DNA complex) represent the major TLR9-specific DC-immunostimulatory component of the malaria parasite nuclear material. Thus, our data provide a significant insight into the activation of DCs by malaria parasites and have important implications for malaria vaccine development.
Plasmodium falciparum: differential merozoite dose requirements for maximal production of various inflammatory cytokines. - Experimental parasitology
The ligand specificity of TLRs and the details of signaling pathways that are activated by ligand-receptor engagements have been studied extensively. However, it is not known whether the signaling events initiated by defined doses of ligand are uniformly effective in producing various cytokines. In this study, we investigated the dose requirement for the saturated production of representative inflammatory cytokines, TNF-Î±, IL-6 and IL-12, by DCs stimulated with Plasmodium falciparum merozoites/protein-DNA complex or a CpG ODN TLR9 ligand. The data demonstrate that the ligand doses required for the maximal expression of TNF-Î± and IL-6 are substantially higher than those required for the maximal production of IL-12. The data also demonstrate that the uptake capacity of malaria parasite by plasmacytoid DCs is markedly lower than that of myeloid DCs, and that, like myeloid DCs, plasmacytoid DCs produce significant levels of TNF-Î± and IL-12 when the uptake of malarial DNA is facilitated by carrier molecules such as polylysine or cationic lipids. These results have implications for enhancing the effectiveness of vaccine against malaria by modulating the innate immune responses of plasmacytoid DCs to malaria parasites.Copyright Â© 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Protein-DNA complex is the exclusive malaria parasite component that activates dendritic cells and triggers innate immune responses. - Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950)
Dendritic cells (DCs) play a crucial role in the development of protective immunity to malaria. However, it remains unclear how malaria parasites trigger immune responses in DCs. In this study, we purified merozoites, food vacuoles, and parasite membrane fragments released during the Plasmodium falciparum schizont burst to homogeneity and tested for the activation of bone marrow-derived DCs from wild-type and TLR2(-/-), TLR4(-/-), TLR9(-/-), and MyD88(-/-) C57BL/6J mice. The results demonstrate that a protein-DNA complex is the exclusive parasite component that activates DCs by a TLR9-dependent pathway to produce inflammatory cytokines. Complex formation with proteins is essential for the entry of parasite DNA into DCs for TLR9 recognition and, thus, proteins convert inactive DNA into a potent immunostimulatory molecule. Exogenous cationic polymers, polylysine and chitosan, can impart stimulatory activity to parasite DNA, indicating that complex formation involves ionic interactions. Merozoites and DNA-protein complex could also induce inflammatory cytokine responses in human blood DCs. Hemozoin is neither a TLR9 ligand for DCs nor functions as a carrier of DNA into cells. Additionally, although TLR9 is critical for DCs to induce the production of IFN-gamma by NK cells, this receptor is not required for NK cells to secret IFN-gamma, and cell-cell contact among myeloid DCs, plasmacytoid DCs, and NK cells is required for IFN-gamma production. Together, these results contribute substantially toward the understanding of malaria parasite-recognition mechanisms. More importantly, our finding that proteins and carbohydrate polymers are able to confer stimulatory activity to an otherwise inactive parasite DNA have important implications for the development of a vaccine against malaria.
ICH guidance in practice: validated reversed-phase HPLC method for the determination of active mangiferin from extracts of Mangifera indica Linn. - Journal of chromatographic science
This study presents the development and validation of a reversed-phase liquid chromatographic method for the determination of mangiferin (MGN) in alcoholic extracts of mangifera indica. A Lichrospher 100 C(18)-ODS (250 x 4.6 mm, 5 microm size) (Merck, Whitehouse Station, NJ) prepacked column and a mobile phase of potassium dihydrogen orthophosphate (0.01M) pH 2.7 +/- 0.2-acetonitrile (15:85, v/v) with the flow rate of 1 mL/min was used. MGN detection was achieved at a wavelength monitored at 254 nm with SPD-M 10A vp PDA detector or SPD 10AD vp UV detector in combination with class LC 10A software. The proposed method was validated as prescribed by International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) with respect to linearity, specificity, accuracy, precision, stability, and quantification. The method validation was realized using alcoholic extracts and raw materials of leaves and barks. All the validation parameters were within the acceptable limits, and the developed analytical method can successfully be applied for MGN determination.
Validation and application of high-performance liquid chromatographic and spectrophotometric methods for simultaneous estimation of nebivolol and hydrochlorothiazide: a novel approach to multivariate calibrations by R-Software Environment. - Journal of AOAC International
A fast, simple reversed-phase HPLC method and two spectrophotometric methods based on principal component regression and partial least squares calibrations were developed for determination of nebivolol (NEB) and hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) in formulations without prior separation or masking. The HPLC assay utilized a Phenomenex-Luna RP-18(2) 250 x 4.6 mm, 5 microm column with acetonitrile--0.03% aqueous formic acid, pH 3.3 (65 + 35, v/v), mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min, and UV detection at 277 nm. The retention times of NEB and HCTZ were 2.133 and 2.877 min, respectively. The total run time was < 4 min. Chemometric calibrations were constructed by using an absorption data matrix corresponding to a concentration data matrix, with measurements in the range of 231-310 nm (Delta lambda = 1 nm) in their zero-order spectra using 16 samples in a training set. The chemometric numerical computations were obtained by using R-Software Environment (Version 2.1.1). The proposed methods were validated for various International Conference on Harmonization regulatory parameters like linearity, range, accuracy, precision, robustness, LOD, LOQ, and HPLC system suitability. Laboratory-prepared mixtures and commercial tablet formulations were successfully analyzed using the developed methods. All results were acceptable and confirmed that the method is suitable for its intended use.
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