1501 Nw 49Th St Ste 140
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Feasibility and Usability Pilot Study of a Novel Irritable Bowel Syndrome Food and Gastrointestinal Symptom Journal Smartphone App. - Clinical and translational gastroenterology
Seventy percent of patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) identify certain foods as triggers for their symptom flare-ups. To help identify potential trigger foods, practitioners often rely on patient food and gastrointestinal (GI) symptom journaling. The aim of the study was to evaluate the feasibility and usability of a novel food and symptom journal app, specifically designed for patients with IBS. Secondary aims were to explore the effect of using the app on GI symptoms and to describe associations between diet and GI symptoms suggested by individual patient data.The feasibility and usability of the novel app was studied in 11 IBS patients (8 women), aged 21-65 years. Participants were asked to log GI symptoms (abdominal pain, bloating, diarrhea, constipation) using a 100-point color-graded sliding scale (green=none, red=severe) four times a day and to log every meal/snack they ate (at least three times a day) over a 2-week period. The app's feasibility as a data collection tool was evaluated by daily completion, compliance, data hoarding, and fatigability rates. Usability was evaluated with the System Usability Scale (SUS). To explore potential impact of using the app on bowel distress, we compared before and after intervention IBS-Symptom Severity Scale (IBS-SSS) scores. Meal entries were analyzed for nutrients using the Nutrition Data System for Research. Regression analyses were conducted for each participant journal to explore relationships between meal nutrients and subsequent GI symptoms.Daily average completion rates of the minimum requested entries for meal and GI symptoms were 112Â±47% and 78Â±44%, respectively. Average 24-h compliance rates were 90Â±19% and 94Â±12%, respectively. The SUS score was above average (mean 83, range 65-97.5; n=10). Most participants did not have a clinically significant decrease in IBS-SSS. At least one strong association (Pâ‰¤0.05) between GI symptoms and a meal nutrient was found in 73% of participants. The mean number of associations was 2 (range 0-7; n=11). Patterns of associations differed between individual participants.Our app appeared to be a feasible and usable tool for IBS patients. Our findings are in line with anecdotes that most IBS patients have food triggers and that these vary by individual. Future studies can explore whether individualized dietary changes guided by an app can result in IBS symptom improvement.
Rhizobium radiobacter: A Recently Recognized Cause of Bacterial Keratitis. - Cornea
To present the first reported cases of keratitis caused by Rhizobium radiobacter.A retrospective review of an observational case series from 2 institutions.There were 4 cases of microbiologically proven R. radiobacter. Three of these patients were contact lens wearers. The patient in case 4 defaulted from follow-up after receipt of the culture result. Keratitis in the other cases resolved with variable clinical courses once culture-directed therapy was instituted.R. radiobacter is a member of the genus Rhizobium. It is a gram-negative bacillus and was previously identified as an opportunistic pathogen in nonophthalmic infections and in a few cases of endophthalmitis. To our knowledge, we have described the clinical presentation, management, and treatment outcomes of the first reported cases of keratitis caused by R. radiobacter.
Dextromethorphan: An update on its utility for neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders. - Pharmacology & therapeutics
Dextromethorphan (DM) is a commonly used antitussive and is currently the only FDA-approved pharmaceutical treatment for pseudobulbar affect. Its safety profile and diverse pharmacologic actions in the central nervous system have stimulated new interest for repurposing it. Numerous preclinical investigations and many open-label or blinded clinical studies have demonstrated its beneficial effects across a variety of neurological and psychiatric disorders. However, the optimal dose and safety of chronic dosing are not fully known. This review summarizes the preclinical and clinical effects of DM and its putative mechanisms of action, focusing on depression, stroke, traumatic brain injury, seizure, pain, methotrexate neurotoxicity, Parkinson's disease and autism. Moreover, we offer suggestions for future research with DM to advance the treatment for these and other neurological and psychiatric disorders.Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Intestinal pseudo-obstruction in patients with systemic sclerosis: an analysis of the Nationwide Inpatient Sample. - Rheumatology (Oxford, England)
Intestinal pseudo-obstruction is a rare gastrointestinal complication in patients with SSc without large studies examining its prevalence or outcomes. We aimed to compare outcomes in SSc patients with intestinal pseudo-obstruction to patients with intestinal pseudo-obstruction secondary to other causes, and SSc patients without intestinal pseudo-obstruction.This is a case-control study using the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project Nationwide Inpatient Sample for the period 2002-2011. We included patients with the previously validated International Classification of Diseases-Clinical Modification-9 code 710.1 for SSc in combination with codes for intestinal pseudo-obstruction, and determined length of hospitalization and the risks for surgical procedures, use of total parenteral nutrition (TPN) and in-hospital mortality.A total of 193 610 SSc hospitalizations occurred in the USA between 2002 and 2011, of which 5.4% (n = 10 386) were associated with a concurrent intestinal pseudo-obstruction diagnosis (cases). In-hospital mortality was 7.3%. In multivariate analyses, cases were more likely to die during the inpatient stay and to receive TPN than patients with idiopathic intestinal pseudo-obstruction (control group 1), patients with intestinal pseudo-obstruction and diabetes (control group 2), and SSc patients without intestinal pseudo-obstruction (control group 3). Cases had longer in-hospital stay than control groups 2 and 3, and were less likely to undergo surgical procedures than control groups 1 and 2.Intestinal pseudo-obstruction is a rare cause of hospitalization in patients with SSc, but is associated with high in-hospital mortality in comparison with other SSc patients and those with intestinal pseudo-obstruction secondary to other causes.Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology 2015. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.
Traumatic brain injury and epilepsy: Underlying mechanisms leading to seizure. - Seizure
Post-traumatic epilepsy continues to be a major concern for those experiencing traumatic brain injury. Post-traumatic epilepsy accounts for 10-20% of epilepsy cases in the general population. While seizure prophylaxis can prevent early onset seizures, no available treatments effectively prevent late-onset seizure. Little is known about the progression of neural injury over time and how this injury progression contributes to late onset seizure development. In this comprehensive review, we discuss the epidemiology and risk factors for post-traumatic epilepsy and the current pharmacologic agents used for treatment. We highlight limitations with the current approach and offer suggestions for remedying the knowledge gap. Critical to this pursuit is the design of pre-clinical models to investigate important mechanistic factors responsible for post-traumatic epilepsy development. We discuss what the current models have provided in terms of understanding acute injury and what is needed to advance understanding regarding late onset seizure. New model designs will be used to investigate novel pathways linking acute injury to chronic changes within the brain. Important components of this transition are likely mediated by toll-like receptors, neuroinflammation, and tauopathy. In the final section, we highlight current experimental therapies that may prove promising in preventing and treating post-traumatic epilepsy. By increasing understanding about post-traumatic epilepsy and injury expansion over time, it will be possible to design better treatments with specific molecular targets to prevent late-onset seizure occurrence following traumatic brain injury.Copyright Â© 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Off-label use of transmucosal ketamine as a rapid-acting antidepressant: a retrospective chart review. - Neuropsychiatric disease and treatment
This study evaluated the effectiveness and safety of subanesthetic doses of ketamine using an off-label, transmucosal administration route in patients with treatment-resistant depression.A retrospective chart review was conducted to identify patients who met the inclusion criteria for treatment-resistant major depressive disorder. Seventeen such patients who received subanesthetic doses of ketamine were included. Patient demographics, efficacy (drug refill, clinician notes), side effects, and concurrent medications were assessed.Benefit from low-dose transmucosal ketamine was noted in 76% of subjects (average age 48 years, 88% female), with a dose duration lasting 7-14 days. No notable side effects were noted. The most common classes of concurrent medications to which ketamine was added were serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (59%), stimulants (47%), folate replacement (47%), and benzodiazepines (47%).Our results provide preliminary evidence of the effectiveness and safety of low-dose transmucosal ketamine in treatment-resistant patients. A controlled, prospective pilot study is warranted to validate these findings.
Endoplasmic reticulum stress implicated in chronic traumatic encephalopathy. - Journal of neurosurgery
OBJECT Chronic traumatic encephalopathy is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by neurofibrillary tau tangles following repetitive neurotrauma. The underlying mechanism linking traumatic brain injury to chronic traumatic encephalopathy has not been elucidated. The authors investigate the role of endoplasmic reticulum stress as a link between acute neurotrauma and chronic neurodegeneration. METHODS The authors used pharmacological, biochemical, and behavioral tools to assess the role of endoplasmic reticulum stress in linking acute repetitive traumatic brain injury to the development of chronic neurodegeneration. Data from the authors' clinically relevant and validated rodent blast model were compared with those obtained from postmortem human chronic traumatic encephalopathy specimens from a National Football League player and World Wrestling Entertainment wrestler. RESULTS The results demonstrated strong correlation of endoplasmic reticulum stress activation with subsequent tau hyperphosphorylation. Various endoplasmic reticulum stress markers were increased in human chronic traumatic encephalopathy specimens, and the endoplasmic reticulum stress response was associated with an increase in the tau kinase, glycogen synthase kinase-3Î². Docosahexaenoic acid, an endoplasmic reticulum stress inhibitor, improved cognitive performance in the rat model 3 weeks after repetitive blast exposure. The data showed that docosahexaenoic acid administration substantially reduced tau hyperphosphorylation (t = 4.111, p < 0.05), improved cognition (t = 6.532, p < 0.001), and inhibited C/EBP homology protein activation (t = 5.631, p < 0.01). Additionally the data showed, for the first time, that endoplasmic reticulum stress is involved in the pathophysiology of chronic traumatic encephalopathy. CONCLUSIONS Docosahexaenoic acid therefore warrants further investigation as a potential therapeutic agent for the prevention of chronic traumatic encephalopathy.
Outcomes and Factors Associated With Reduced Symptoms in Patients With Gastroparesis. - Gastroenterology
Gastroparesis is a chronic clinical syndrome characterized by delayed gastric emptying. However, little is known about patient outcomes or factors associated with reduction of symptoms.We studied adult patients with gastroparesis (of diabetic or idiopathic type) enrolled in the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases Gastroparesis Clinical Research Consortium Gastroparesis Registry, seen every 16 weeks and treated according to the standard of care with prescribed medications or other therapies at 7 tertiary care centers. Characteristics associated with reduced symptoms, based on a decrease of 1 or more in the gastroparesis cardinal symptom index (GCSI) score after 48 weeks of care, were determined from logistic regression models. Data were collected from patients for up to 4 years (median, 2.1 y).Of 262 patients, 28% had reductions in GCSI scores of 1 or more at 48 weeks. However, there were no significant reductions in GCSI score from weeks 48 through 192. Factors independently associated with reduced symptoms at 48 weeks included male sex, age 50 years and older, initial infectious prodrome, antidepressant use, and 4-hour gastric retention greater than 20%. Factors associated with no reduction in symptoms included overweight or obesity, a history of smoking, use of pain modulators, moderate to severe abdominal pain, a severe gastroesophageal reflex, and moderate to severe depression.Over a median follow-up period of 2.1 years, 28% of patients treated for gastroparesis at centers of expertise had reductions in GCSI scores of 1 or greater, regardless of diabetes. These findings indicate the chronic nature of gastroparesis. We identified factors associated with reduced symptoms that might be used to guide treatment. ClinicalTrials.gov no: NCT00398801.Copyright Â© 2015 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sleep disruption and the sequelae associated with traumatic brain injury. - Neuroscience and biobehavioral reviews
Sleep disruption, which includes a loss of sleep as well as poor quality fragmented sleep, frequently follows traumatic brain injury (TBI) impacting a large number of patients each year in the United States. Fragmented and/or disrupted sleep can worsen neuropsychiatric, behavioral, and physical symptoms of TBI. Additionally, sleep disruption impairs recovery and can lead to cognitive decline. The most common sleep disruption following TBI is insomnia, which is difficulty staying asleep. The consequences of disrupted sleep following injury range from deranged metabolomics and blood brain barrier compromise to altered neuroplasticity and degeneration. There are several theories for why sleep is necessary (e.g., glymphatic clearance and metabolic regulation) and these may help explain how sleep disruption contributes to degeneration within the brain. Experimental data indicate disrupted sleep allows hyperphosphorylated tau and amyloid Î² plaques to accumulate. As sleep disruption may act as a cellular stressor, target areas warranting further scientific investigation include the increase in endoplasmic reticulum and oxidative stress following acute periods of sleep deprivation. Potential treatment options for restoring the normal sleep cycle include melatonin derivatives and cognitive behavioral therapy.Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Development and validation of a simple and robust method for arsenic speciation in human urine using HPLC/ICP-MS. - Journal of AOAC International
In order to better distinguish the different toxic inorganic and organic forms of arsenic (As) exposure in individuals, we have developed and validated a simple and robust analytical method for determining the following six As species in human urine: arsenous (III) acid (As-III), As (V) acid, monomethylarsonic acid, dimethylarsinic acid, arsenobetaine (AsB), and arsenocholine. In this method, human urine is diluted using a pH 5.8 buffer, separation is performed using an anion exchange column with isocratic HPLC, and detection is achieved using inductively coupled plasma-MS. The method uses a single mobile phase consisting of low concentrations of both phosphate buffer (5 mM) and ammonium nitrate salt (5 mM) at pH 9.0; this minimizes the column equilibration time and overcomes challenges with separation between AsB and As-III. In addition, As-III oxidation is prevented by degassing the sample preparation buffer at pH 5.8, degassing the mobile phase online at pH 9.0, and by the use of low temperature (-70 Â°C) and flip-cap airtight tubes for long term storage of samples. The method was validated using externally provided reference samples. Results were in agreement with target values at varying concentrations and successfully passed external performance test criteria. Internal QC samples were prepared and repeatedly analyzed to assess the method's long-term precision, and further analyses were completed on anonymous donor urine to assess the quality of the method's baseline separation. Results from analyses of external reference samples agreed with target values at varying concentrations, and results from precision studies yielded absolute CV values of 3-14% and recovery from 82 to 115% for the six As species. Analysis of anonymous donor urine confirmed the well-resolved baseline separation capabilities of the method for real participant samples.
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