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MicroRNA-21 (miR-21) expression in hypothermic machine perfusate may be predictive of early outcomes in kidney transplantation. - Clinical transplantation
Hypothermic machine perfusion is effective in improving outcome following kidney transplantation. Molecular analyses of hypothermic machine perfusate (HMP) have the potential to identify biomarkers of organ viability prior to transplantation, offering significant advantages to the transplant surgeon, and leading to a potential increase in the organ donor pool. MicroRNAs are emerging as important biomarkers in the context of kidney injury and transplantation. Recent data demonstrate increased microRNA-21 (miR-21) expression in the kidney following acute kidney injury. This study investigated the potential of miR-21 detected in HMP to act as a sentinel for early kidney transplant outcomes. MiR-21 was found to be readily detectable in HMP by RT-qPCR. Eleven ECD kidneys were maintained on a hypothermic machine perfusion system for a median 627 (range 117-1027) minutes, and evaluation of flow and resistance characteristics suggested stability on the machine from 60 min post-perfusion. MiR-21 quantification at 60 min post-perfusion correlated with eGFR at 6 and 12 months post-transplantation. These data suggest that miR-21 expression in HMP may be predictive of early outcomes following kidney transplantation. In the era of ECD kidneys, a reliable measure of organ quality is urgently needed, and this study suggests miR-21 may be such a marker.Â© 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
A Localized Ischemic Preconditioning Regimen Increases Tumor Necrosis Factor Î± Expression in a Rat Model of Kidney Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury. - Experimental and clinical transplantation : official journal of the Middle East Society for Organ Transplantation
We evaluated a continuous, immediate, localized ischemic preconditioning regimen in a rat model of ischemia-reperfusion injury and assessed whether it attenuated injury at the histologic and molecular levels.Fifteen adult male Lewis rats received sham operation, left unilateral warm ischemia (45 minutes of cross-clamping of the renal pedicle; ischemia-reperfusion injury group), or 15 minutes of ischemia followed by a 20-minute reperfusion period, 45 minutes of ischemia-reperfusion injury, and subsequent reperfusion (ischemic preconditioning/ischemia-reperfusion injury group). Kidney tissue was retrieved 48 hours later, sectioned, stained with hematoxylin and eosin, and examined. We used RNA extraction and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis to assess acute kidney injury markers, cytokines, and microRNA-21.Forty-five minutes of unilateral ischemia-reperfusion injury caused marked changes in histology at 48 hours, characterized by endothelial loss, tubulointerstitial damage (inflammation, cast formation), tubular cell necrosis, and glomerular capsule thickening. The ischemia-reperfusion injury and ischemic preconditioning/ischemia-reperfusion injury groups showed no measurable differences in histology. Expression of the acute kidney injury markers was significantly increased in the ischemia-reperfusion injury versus Sham group; however, no difference was found between the ischemia reperfusion injury and ischemic preconditioning/ischemia-reperfusion injury groups. Similarly, expression of interleukin 17, interleukin 18, and tumor necrosis factor ? was significantly increased in the ischemia-reperfusion injury versus Sham group. No significant difference was found between the ischemia-reperfusion injury and ischemic preconditioning/ischemia-reperfusion injury groups for interleukin 17 and interleukin 18; however, tumor necrosis factor ? expression was significantly increased in the ischemic preconditioning/ischemia-reperfusion injury versus ischemia-reperfusion injury group.In our ischemic preconditioning model, tumor necrosis factor Î± expression was increased without altering the sequelae of ischemia-reperfusion injury. The long-term consequences of this augmented early inflammatory response and whether these consequences are altered by variations in ischemic preconditioning or a subsequent injury require further study.
PERITONEAL DIALYSIS FLUID AND SOME OF ITS COMPONENTS POTENTIATE FIBROCYTE DIFFERENTIATION. - Peritoneal dialysis international : journal of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis
Long-term peritoneal dialysis (PD) often results in the development of peritoneal fibrosis. In many other fibrosing diseases, monocytes enter the fibrotic lesion and differentiate into fibroblast-like cells called fibrocytes. We find that peritoneal tissue from short-term PD patients contains few fibrocytes, while fibrocytes are readily observed in the peritoneal membrane of long-term PD patients. The PD fluid Dianeal (Baxter Healthcare Corporation, Deerfield, IL, USA) contains dextrose, a number of electrolytes including sodium chloride, and sodium lactate. We find that PD fluid potentiates human fibrocyte differentiation invitro and implicates sodium lactate in this potentiation. The plasma protein serum amyloid P (SAP) inhibits fibrocyte differentiation. Peritoneal dialysis fluid and sodium chloride decrease the ability of human SAP to inhibit human fibrocyte differentiation invitro. Together, these results suggest that PD fluid contributes to the development of peritoneal fibrosis by potentiating fibrocytedifferentiation.
Acute kidney injury: a paradigm for miRNA regulation of the cell cycle. - Biochemical Society transactions
miRNAs are small, endogenous, post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression. AKI (acute kidney injury) of various aetiologies, including trauma, sepsis and IRI (ischaemia/reperfusion injury) in the context of kidney transplantation, or drug toxicity, has a high morbidity and mortality rate and presents a significant burden to health services worldwide. AKI primarily affects the renal cortex, in particular PTCs (proximal tubular epithelial cells). Current research demonstrates causality between G2/M cell cycle arrest of PTCs and AKI. Recent findings from our laboratory and others presented in this review implicate miRNA regulation of the cell cycle in the pathology of AKI.
Interleukin-6 in renal disease and therapy. - Nephrology, dialysis, transplantation : official publication of the European Dialysis and Transplant Association - European Renal Association
Interleukin (IL)-6 has become a major target for clinical intervention in various autoimmune conditions. Here, drugs including the humanized anti-IL-6 receptor (IL-6R) antibody tocilizumab emphasize the clinical importance of IL-6 in driving disease and poor patient outcomes. During the course of this review, we will outline the biology surrounding IL-6 and discuss the impact of IL-6 in renal disease and the clinical complications associated with renal replacement therapies and transplantation. We will also consider the merit of IL-6 measurement as a prognostic indicator and provide a clinical perspective on IL-6-blocking therapies in renal disease.Â© The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.
The transcription factor Gata6 links tissue macrophage phenotype and proliferative renewal. - Science (New York, N.Y.)
Tissue-resident macrophages are heterogeneous as a consequence of anatomical niche-specific functions. Many populations self-renew independently of bone marrow in the adult, but the molecular mechanisms of this are poorly understood. We determined a transcriptional profile for the major self-renewing population of peritoneal macrophages in mice. These cells specifically expressed the transcription factor Gata6. Selective deficiency of Gata6 in myeloid cells caused substantial alterations in the transcriptome of peritoneal macrophages. Gata6 deficiency also resulted in dysregulated peritoneal macrophage proliferative renewal during homeostasis and in response to inflammation, which was associated with delays in the resolution of inflammation. Our investigations reveal that the tissue macrophage phenotype is under discrete tissue-selective transcriptional control and that this is fundamentally linked to the regulation of their proliferation renewal.
miR-192 induces G2/M growth arrest in aristolochic acid nephropathy. - The American journal of pathology
Aristolochic acid nephropathy is characterized by rapidly progressive tubulointerstitial nephritis culminating in end-stage renal failure and urothelial malignancy. Profibrotic effects of aristolochic acid are linked to growth arrest of proximal tubular epithelial cells; however, the underlying mechanisms are largely undetermined. miRNAs are small, endogenous, post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression implicated in numerous physiological and pathological processes. In the present study, we characterized the mechanism of aristolochic acid-induced cell cycle arrest and its regulation by miRNAs. Incubation with aristolochic acid led to profound G2/M arrest in proximal tubular epithelial cells via p53-mediated inactivation of the maturation-promoting complex, CDK1/cyclin-B1. Analysis of miRNA expression identified up-regulation of miRNAs, including miR-192, miR-194, miR-450a, and miR-542-3p. The stable overexpression of miR-192 recapitulated G2/M arrest via repression of the E3 ubiquitin ligase, murine double-minute 2, a negative regulator of p53. p53-induced transcription of p21(cip1) and growth arrest and DNA damage 45 and resulted in the inactivation and dissociation of the maturation-promoting complex. These data demonstrate a core role for miR-192 in mediating proximal tubular epithelial cell G2/M arrest after toxic injury by aristolochic acid. Because numerous studies have linked such growth arrest to fibrosis after proximal tubular epithelial cell injury, this mechanism may have widespread relevance to recovery/nonrecovery after acute kidney injury.Copyright Â© 2014 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Distinct bone marrow-derived and tissue-resident macrophage lineages proliferate at key stages during inflammation. - Nature communications
The general paradigm is that monocytes are recruited to sites of inflammation and terminally differentiate into macrophages. There has been no demonstration of proliferation of peripherally-derived inflammatory macrophages under physiological conditions. Here we show that proliferation of both bone marrow-derived inflammatory and tissue-resident macrophage lineage branches is a key feature of the inflammatory process with major implications for the mechanisms underlying recovery from inflammation. Both macrophage lineage branches are dependent on M-CSF during inflammation, and thus the potential for therapeutic interventions is marked. Furthermore, these observations are independent of Th2 immunity. These studies indicate that the proliferation of distinct macrophage populations provides a general mechanism for macrophage expansion at key stages during inflammation, and separate control mechanisms are implicated.
MicroRNAs, transforming growth factor beta-1, and tissue fibrosis. - The Journal of pathology
MicroRNAs are short noncoding RNA regulators that repress synthesis of their targets post-transcriptionally. On average, each microRNA is estimated to regulate several hundred protein-coding genes, and about 60% of proteins are thought to be regulated by microRNAs in total. A subset of these genes, including the key profibrotic cytokine transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-Î²1), exhibits particularly strong levels of post-transcriptional control of protein synthesis, involving microRNAs and other mechanisms. Changes in microRNA expression pattern are linked to profound effects on cell phenotype, and microRNAs have an emerging role in diverse physiological and pathological processes. In this review, we provide an overview of microRNA biology with a focus on their emerging role in diseases typified by organ fibrosis.Copyright Â© 2012 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Analysis of urinary microRNAs in chronic kidney disease. - Biochemical Society transactions
Kidney biopsy is the gold-standard diagnostic test for intrinsic renal disease, but requires hospital admission and carries a 3% risk of major complications. Current non-invasive prognostic indicators such as urine protein quantification have limited predictive value. Better diagnostic and prognostic tests for chronic kidney disease patients are a major focus for industry and academia, with efforts to date directed largely at urinary proteomic approaches. microRNAs constitute a recently identified class of endogenous short non-coding single-stranded RNA oligonucleotides that regulate gene expression post-transcriptionally. Quantification of urinary microRNAs offers an alternative approach to the identification of chronic kidney disease biomarkers.
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