1100 Northside Forsyth Dr Suite 340
Cumming GA 30041
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Look Insight: Health Risks and Benefits of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum) Consumption. - Journal of agricultural and food chemistry
Chickpeas (CPs) are one of the most commonly consumed legumes especially in the Mediterranean area as well as in the western world. Being one of the most nutritional elements of the human diet, CP toxicity and allergy have raised health concern. CP may contain various anti-nutritional compounds, including protease inhibitors, phytic acid, lectins, oligosaccharides and some phenolic compounds that may impair the utilization of the nutrients by people. Also, high consumption rate of CPs have enhanced the allergic problems in sensitive individuals as it contains many allergens. On the other hand, beneficial health aspects of CPs consumption have received attention from researchers, recently. Phytic acid, lectins, sterols, saponins, dietary fibers, resistant starch, oligosaccharides, unsaturated fatty acids, amylase inhibitors and certain bioactive compounds such as carotenoids and isoflavones have shown the capability of lowering the clinical complications associated with various human diseases. The aim of this article is to unravel the health risks as well as health promoting aspects of CPs consumption and try to fill the gaps that currently exist. The present review also focuses on the various prevention strategies to avoid health risks of CPs consumption using simple but promising ways.
Maillard reaction in food allergy: Pros and Cons. - Critical reviews in food science and nutrition
Food allergens have a notable potential to induce various health concerns in susceptible individuals. The majority of allergenic foods is usually subjected to thermal processing prior to their consumption. However, during thermal processing and long storage of foods, Maillard reaction (MR) often takes place. The MR is a non enzymatic glycation reaction between the carbonyl group of reducing sugars and compounds having free amino groups. MR may sometimes be beneficial by damaging epitope of allergens and reducing allergenic potential, while exacerbation in allergic reactions may also occur due to changes in the motifs of epitopes or neoallergen generation. Apart from these modulations, non enzymatic glycation can also modify the food protein(s) with various type of advance glycation end products (AGEs) such as NÏµâ€‘(carboxymethylâ€‘)lysine (CML), pentosidine, pyrraline and methylglyoxal-H1 derived from MR. These Maillard products may act as immunogen by inducing the activation and proliferation of various immune cells. Literature is available to understand pathogenesis of glycation in the context of various diseases but there is hardly any review that can provide a thorough insight on the impact of glycation in food allergy. Therefore, present review explores the pathogenesis with special reference to food allergy caused by non enzymatic glycation as well as AGEs.
Prediction of functionally significant single nucleotide polymorphisms [SNPs] in PTEN tumor suppressor gene: An in silico approach. - Biotechnology and applied biochemistry
The Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) gene plays crucial role in signal transduction by negatively regulating the PI3K signaling pathway. It is the most frequent mutated gene in many human related cancers. Considering its critical role, a functional analysis of missense mutations of PTEN gene was undertaken in this study. Thirty five non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (nsSNPs) within coding region of PTEN gene were selected for our in silico investigation and five nsSNPs (G129E, C124R, D252G, H61D and R130G) were found to be deleterious by combinatorial predictions of different computational tools. Moreover, molecular dynamics (MD) simulation was performed to investigate the conformational variation between native and all the five mutant PTEN protein having predicted deleterious nsSNPs. The results of MD simulation of all mutant models illustrated variation in structural attributes like root mean square deviation (RMSD), root mean square fluctuation (RMSF), radius of gyration (Rg) and total energy; which depicts the structural stability of PTEN protein. Furthermore, mutant PTEN protein structures also showed significant variation in the solvent accessible surface area (SASA) and hydrogen bond frequencies from the native PTEN structure. In conclusion, results of this study have established the deleterious effect of the all the five predicted nsSNPs on PTEN protein structure. Thus, results of the current study can pave a new platform to sort nsSNPs that can be undertaken for the confirmation of their phenotype and their correlation with diseased status in case control studies. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Design, synthesis, evaluation and thermodynamics of 1-substituted pyridylimidazo[1,5-a]pyridine derivatives as cysteine protease inhibitors. - PloS one
Targeting papain family cysteine proteases is one of the novel strategies in the development of chemotherapy for a number of diseases. Novel cysteine protease inhibitors derived from 1-pyridylimidazo[1,5-a]pyridine representing pharmacologically important class of compounds are being reported here for the first time. The derivatives were initially designed and screened in silico by molecular docking studies against papain to explore the possible mode of action. The molecular interaction between the compounds and cysteine protease (papain) was found to be very similar to the interactions observed with the respective epoxide inhibitor (E-64c) of papain. Subsequently, compounds were synthesized to validate their efficacy in wet lab experiments. When characterized kinetically, these compounds show their Ki and IC50 values in the range of 13.75 to 99.30 ÂµM and 13.40 to 96.50 ÂµM, respectively. The thermodynamics studies suggest their binding with papain hydrophobically and entropically driven. These inhibitors also inhibit the growth of clinically important different types of Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria having MIC50 values in the range of 0.6-1.4 Âµg/ml. Based on Lipinski's rule of Five, we also propose these compounds as potent antibacterial prodrugs. The most active antibacterial compound was found to be 1-(2-pyridyl)-3-(2-hydroxyphenyl)imidazo[1,5-a]pyridine (3a).
Dietary phytochemicals as potent chemotherapeutic agents against breast cancer: Inhibition of NF-ÎºB pathway via molecular interactions in rel homology domain of its precursor protein p105. - Pharmacognosy magazine
Dietary phytochemicals consist of a wide variety of biologically active compounds that are ubiquitous in plants, many of which have been reported to have anti-tumor as well as anti-inflammatory properties.In the present study, we aimed to validate these findings by using docking protocols and explicate the possible mechanism of action for a dataset of nine phytochemicals namely boswellic acid, 1-caffeoylquinic acid, ellagic acid, emodin, genistein, guggulsterone, quercetin, resveratrol, and sylibinin from different plants against the nuclear factor- kappaB (NF-ÎºB) precursor protein p105, an important transcription factor reported to be overexpressed in breast cancer.2-D structures of all phytochemicals were retrieved from PubChem Compound database and their subsequent conversion into 3-D structures was performed by using online software system CORINA. The X-ray crystallographic structure of the NF-ÎºB precursor p105 was extracted from Brookhaven Protein Data Bank. Molecular docking simulation study was carried out by using AutoDock Tools 4.0.Our results showed significant binding affinity of different phytochemicals with the Rel homology domain of the NF-ÎºB precursor protein p105. Quercetin and 1-caffeoylquinic acid were found to be very effective inhibitors against target molecule as they showed binding energy of -12.11 and -11.50 Kcal/mol, respectively. The order of affinity of other ligands with p105 was found as follows: guggulsterone > sylibinin > emodin > resveratrol > genistein > boswellic acid > ellagic acid.Our in silico study has explored the possible chemopreventive mechanism of these phytochemicals against the NF-ÎºB precursor protein p105 and deciphered that quercetin, 1-caffeoylquinic acid and guggulsterone were the potent inhibitors against target molecule. In addition, large scale preclinical and clinical trials are needed to explore the role of these chemotherapeutic molecules against the NF-ÎºB precursor protein p105 in cure and prevention of breast cancer.
A prospective, randomized, single-blind comparative evaluation of anesthetic efficacy of posterior superior alveolar nerve blocks, buccal infiltrations, and buccal plus palatal infiltrations in patients with irreversible pulpitis. - Journal of endodontics
The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the anesthetic efficacy of posterior superior alveolar (PSA) nerve blocks, buccal infiltrations, and buccal plus palatal infiltrations with 2% lidocaine with 1:200,000 epinephrine in maxillary first molars with irreversible pulpitis.Ninety-four adult patients participated in this prospective, randomized, single-blinded study. The patients were divided into 3 treatment groups on a random basis. Twenty-eight patients received a PSA nerve block, 33 patients received buccal infiltrations, and 33 patients received buccal plus palatal infiltrations with 2% lidocaine with 1:200,000 epinephrine. Endodontic access preparation was initiated 15 minutes after injection. Pain during treatment was recorded using a Heft-Parker visual analog scale. Success was recorded as "none" or "mild" pain.Statistical analysis using nonparametric chi-square tests revealed that there was no statistical difference between the anesthetic success of PSA nerve blocks (64%), buccal infiltrations (54%), and buccal plus palatal infiltrations (70%).None of the tested methods gave 100% anesthetic success rates in maxillary first molars with irreversible pulpitis.Copyright Â© 2011 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Endodontic management of horizontally placed molars after gunshot injury to mandible: a case report. - Oral surgery, oral medicine, oral pathology, oral radiology, and endodontics
A 37-year-old man reported to our department with the history of gunshot injury to the mandible 15 years before. His anterior mandible had been resected earlier and bone graft was seen. Intraoral examination of lower jaw revealed 4 remaining mandibular molars. These teeth were severely rotated such that they lay horizontal with respect to the mandibular base. Preoperative Dentascan spiral computerized tomography (CT) of the patient revealed obliteration of the mesial canals of the mandibular right first molar and pear-shaped internal resorption defect in the distal canal of the same tooth. This paper reports the challenging endodontic management of a rare case of severely angulated teeth also exhibiting traumatic sequelae in both roots of the impact tooth. It also highlights the usefulness of spiral CT scan in diagnosis of traumatic sequelae such as pulp canal obliteration and internal resorption.
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