615 E Princeton St Suite 540
Orlando FL 32803
Medical School: University Of Michigan Medical School - 1985
Accepts Medicare: Yes
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Dr. James Baumgartner is associated with these group practices
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CortiQ-based Real-Time Functional Mapping for Epilepsy Surgery. - Journal of clinical neurophysiology : official publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
To evaluate the use of the cortiQ-based mapping system (g.tec medication engineering GmbH, Austria) for real-time functional mapping (RTFM) and to compare it to results from electrical cortical stimulation mapping (ESM) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI).Electrocorticographic activity was recorded in 3 male patients with intractable epilepsy by using cortiQ mapping system and analyzed in real time. Activation related to motor, sensory, and receptive language tasks was determined by evaluating the power of the high gamma frequency band (60-170 Hz). The sensitivity and specificity of RTFM were tested against ESM and fMRI results."Next-neighbor" approach demonstrated [sensitivity/specificity %] (1) RTFM against ESM: 100.00/79.70 for hand motor; 100.00/73.87 for hand sensory; -/87 for language (it was not identified by the ESM); (2) RTFM against fMRI: 100.00/84.4 for hand motor; 66.70/85.35 for hand sensory; and 87.85/77.70 for language.The results of the quantitative "next-neighbor" RTFM evaluation were concordant to those from ESM and fMRI. The RTFM correlates well with localization of hand motor function provided by ESM and fMRI, which may offer added localization in the operating room and guidance for extraoperative ESM mapping. Real-time functional mapping correlates with fMRI language activation when ESM findings are negative. It has fewer limitations than ESM and greater flexibility in activation paradigms and measuring responses.
Autologous bone marrow mononuclear cells reduce therapeutic intensity for severe traumatic brain injury in children. - Pediatric critical care medicine : a journal of the Society of Critical Care Medicine and the World Federation of Pediatric Intensive and Critical Care Societies
The devastating effect of traumatic brain injury is exacerbated by an acute secondary neuroinflammatory response, clinically manifest as elevated intracranial pressure due to cerebral edema. The treatment effect of cell-based therapies in the acute post-traumatic brain injury period has not been clinically studied although preclinical data demonstrate that bone marrow-derived mononuclear cell infusion down-regulates the inflammatory response. Our study evaluates whether pediatric traumatic brain injury patients receiving IV autologous bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells within 48 hours of injury experienced a reduction in therapeutic intensity directed toward managing elevated intracranial pressure relative to matched controls.The study was a retrospective cohort design comparing pediatric patients in a phase I clinical trial treated with IV autologous bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells (n = 10) to a control group of age- and severity-matched children (n = 19).The study setting was at Children's Memorial Hermann Hospital, an American College of Surgeons Level 1 Pediatric Trauma Center and teaching hospital for the University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston from 2000 to 2008.Study patients were 5-14 years with postresuscitation Glasgow Coma Scale scores of 5-8.The treatment group received 6 million autologous bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells/kg body weight IV within 48 hours of injury. The control group was treated in an identical fashion, per standard of care, guided by our traumatic brain injury management protocol, derived from American Association of Neurological Surgeons guidelines.The primary measure was the Pediatric Intensity Level of Therapy scale used to quantify treatment of elevated intracranial pressure. Secondary measures included the Pediatric Logistic Organ Dysfunction score and days of intracranial pressure monitoring as a surrogate for length of neurointensive care. A repeated-measure mixed model with marginal linear predictions identified a significant reduction in the Pediatric Intensity Level of Therapy score beginning at 24 hours posttreatment through week 1 (p < 0.05). This divergence was also reflected in the Pediatric Logistic Organ Dysfunction score following the first week. The duration of intracranial pressure monitoring was 8.2 Â± 1.3 days in the treated group and 15.6 Â± 3.5 days (p = 0.03) in the time-matched control group.IV autologous bone marrow-derived mononuclear cell therapy is associated with lower treatment intensity required to manage intracranial pressure, associated severity of organ injury, and duration of neurointensive care following severe traumatic brain injury. This may corroborate preclinical data that autologous bone marrow-derived mononuclear cell therapy attenuates the effects of inflammation in the early post-traumatic brain injury period.
Bilateral intracranial EEG with corpus callosotomy may uncover seizure focus in nonlocalizing focal epilepsy. - Seizure
To evaluate the value of a new multi-stage surgical procedure using bilateral intracranial electroencephalogram (iEEG) prior and post complete corpus callosotomy (CC) for epileptogenic focus localization.Thirty patients with drug-resistant epilepsy underwent bilateral iEEG monitoring to localize epileptogenic focus for surgical treatment. Among them, bisynchronous epileptogenic activities were found in 9 pediatric patients. These 9 patients then received complete CC and continued bilateral iEEG monitoring for further seizure localization. Final surgical treatment decisions were made based on the bilateral iEEG findings post complete CC. The entire multi-stage procedure was performed during the same hospital stay. We retrospectively studied the data from the 9 patients.Seizure onset was lateralized in 3 patients who later received functional hemispherectomy. In another 4 patients, seizure onset was localized, resulting in resective surgery. Bilateral multiple subpial transection was performed on 1 patient with identified bilateral independent seizure onset. One patient did not have seizures following complete CC leading to removal of electrodes without any further resection. Subsequent follow-up showed favorable outcome in all patients: seizure-free in 7, more than 90% reduction in 2. None of the patients experienced surgery related complications during the procedure and follow-up period.The multi-stage surgical procedure utilizing iEEG monitoring with CC is a viable option for select patients with catastrophic non-localizing epilepsy. Further study is necessary to find the optimal selection criteria for use of this novel approach.Copyright Â© 2014 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Microscopic versus open approach to craniosynostosis: a long-term outcomes comparison. - The Journal of craniofacial surgery
The purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate the long-term outcomes of using the microscopic minimally invasive approach for the treatment of nonsyndromic craniosynostosis. During the last 10 years, 180 consecutive patients with nonsyndromic craniosynostosis were treated: 67 patients were treated with microscopic minimally invasive approach, and 113 were treated with the open approach. In the microscopic group, there was 1 intraoperative complication (1.5%). There were 10 postoperative complications (14.9%), of which 9 required major reoperations and 1 required a minor procedure. The major complications occurred in 7 unicoronal patients (58.3%) and 2 metopic patients (25.0%). In the open-approach group, there were 8 complications (7.1%), 2 patients required major reoperations and 6 required minor procedures. Chi-squared test showed that there was no statistically significant difference in the overall complication rate between the microscopic and open approaches. However, in the unicoronal patients, the complication rate was significantly higher in the microscopic group (P < 0.001). In conclusion, the microscopic approach is our treatment of choice in nonsyndromic patients with sagittal and lambdoidal craniosynostosis. We no longer use the microscopic approach in patients with unicoronal or metopic craniosynostosis because of the high complication rate.
Real-time functional mapping: potential tool for improving language outcome in pediatric epilepsy surgery. - Journal of neurosurgery. Pediatrics
Accurate language localization expands surgical treatment options for epilepsy patients and reduces the risk of postsurgery language deficits. Electrical cortical stimulation mapping (ESM) is considered to be the clinical gold standard for language localization. While ESM affords clinically valuable results, it can be poorly tolerated by children, requires active participation and compliance, carries a risk of inducing seizures, is highly time consuming, and is labor intensive. Given these limitations, alternative and/or complementary functional localization methods such as analysis of electrocorticographic (ECoG) activity in high gamma frequency band in real time are needed to precisely identify eloquent cortex in children. In this case report, the authors examined 1) the use of real-time functional mapping (RTFM) for language localization in a high gamma frequency band derived from ECoG to guide surgery in an epileptic pediatric patient and 2) the relationship of RTFM mapping results to postsurgical language outcomes. The authors found that RTFM demonstrated relatively high sensitivity (75%) and high specificity (90%) when compared with ESM in a "next-neighbor" analysis. While overlapping with ESM in the superior temporal region, RTFM showed a few other areas of activation related to expressive language function, areas that were eventually resected during the surgery. The authors speculate that this resection may be associated with observed postsurgical expressive language deficits. With additional validation in more subjects, this finding would suggest that surgical planning and associated assessment of the risk/benefit ratio would benefit from information provided by RTFM mapping.
Is it time to replace the Wada test and put awake craniotomy to sleep? - Epilepsia
The question we address here is whether the invasive presurgical brain mapping approaches of direct cortical stimulation and of the Wada procedure can be replaced by noninvasive functional neuroimaging methods (functional magnetic resonance imaging [fMRI], magnetoencephalography [MEG], transcranial magnetic stimulation and [TMS]). First, we outline the reasons for contemplating such a replacement. Second, we present evidence to the effect that the efficacy of the invasive and noninvasive methods, while suboptimal, is comparable. Third, we discuss additional advantages of noninvasive presurgical brain mapping and conclude that there are no longer compelling reasons for opting for invasive mapping in many if not most cases provided that the non-invasive methods are available.Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Â© 2014 International League Against Epilepsy.
Evaluation of the use of imaging parameters for the detection of compound-induced hepatotoxicity in 384-well cultures of HepG2 cells and cryopreserved primary human hepatocytes. - Toxicology in vitro : an international journal published in association with BIBRA
Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a major cause of failed drug development, withdrawal and restricted usage. Therefore screening assays which aid selection of candidate drugs with reduced propensity to cause DILI are required. We have investigated the toxicity of 144 drugs, 108 of which caused DILI, using assays identified in the literature as having some predictivity for hepatotoxicity. The validated assays utilised either HepG2 cells, HepG2 cells in the presence of rat S9 fraction or isolated human hepatocytes. All parameters were quantified by multiplexed and automated high content fluorescence microscopy, at appropriate time points after compound administration (4, 24 or 48h). The individual endpoint which identified drugs that caused DILI with greatest precision was maximal fold induction in CM-H2DFFDA staining in hepatocytes after 24h (41% sensitivity, 86% specificity). However, hierarchical clustering analysis of all endpoints provided the most sensitive identification of drugs which caused DILI (58% sensitivity, 75% specificity). We conclude that multi-parametric high content cell toxicity assays can enable in vitro detection of drugs that have high propensity to cause DILI in vivo but that many DILI compounds exhibit few in vitro signals when evaluated using these assays.Copyright Â© 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Retinoic acid induces REST degradation and neuronal differentiation by modulating the expression of SCF(Î²-TRCP) in neuroblastoma cells. - Cancer
The repressor element-1 silencing transcription factor (REST) is a repressor of neuronal genes. Its expression is associated with poor neuronal differentiation in many neuroblastoma patient samples and cell lines. Because retinoic acid promotes neuronal differentiation, the authors postulated that it involves modulation of REST expression.The expression of REST and of an S-phase kinase-associated protein 1/cullin 1/F-box (SCF) protein complex that contains the F-box protein Î²-transducin repeat-containing protein (Î²-TRCP) (SCF(Î²-TRCP) ) in neuroblastoma tumor samples and cell lines was analyzed by immunofluorescence and Western blot analysis. SK-N-SH and SK-N-AS cells were treated with retinoic acid and MG-132 to measure proteasomal degradation of REST by Western blot and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analyses. Immunoprecipitation and coimmunoprecipitation assays were done in SK-N-AS cells that were transfected either with a control plasmid or with an enhanced green fluorescent protein-SCF(Î²-TRCP) -expressing plasmid.Several neuroblastoma patient samples and cell lines displayed elevated REST expression. Although, REST transcription increased upon retinoic acid treatment in SK-N-SH and SK-N-AS cells, REST protein levels declined, concomitant with the induction of neuronal differentiation, in SK-N-SH cells but not in SK-N-AS cells. MG-132 treatment countered the retinoic acid-mediated decline in REST protein. SCF(Î²-TRCP) , a known REST-specific E3-ligase, was poorly expressed in many neuroblastoma samples, and its expression increased upon retinoic acid treatment in SK-N-SH cells but declined in SK-N-AS cells. Ectopic expression of SCF(Î²-TRCP) in SK-N-AS cells promoted REST ubiquitination and degradation and neuronal differentiation.The current results indicated that elevated transcription of REST compounded by its impaired degradation by SCF(Î²-TRCP) may contribute to the failure of these tumors to differentiate in response to retinoic acid.Copyright Â© 2011 American Cancer Society.
Autologous bone marrow mononuclear cell therapy for severe traumatic brain injury in children. - Neurosurgery
Severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) in children is associated with substantial long-term morbidity and mortality. Currently, there are no successful neuroprotective/neuroreparative treatments for TBI. Numerous preclinical studies suggest that bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells (BMMNCs), their derivative cells (marrow stromal cells), or similar cells (umbilical cord blood cells) offer neuroprotection.To determine whether autologous BMMNCs are a safe treatment for severe TBI in children.Ten children aged 5 to 14 years with a postresuscitation Glasgow Coma Scale of 5 to 8 were treated with 6Ã—10 autologous BMMNCs/kg body weight delivered intravenously within 48 hours after TBI. To determine the safety of the procedure, systemic and cerebral hemodynamics were monitored during bone marrow harvest; infusion-related toxicity was determined by pediatric logistic organ dysfunction (PELOD) scores, hepatic enzymes, Murray lung injury scores, and renal function. Conventional magnetic resonance imaging (cMRI) data were obtained at 1 and 6 months postinjury, as were neuropsychological and functional outcome measures.All patients survived. There were no episodes of harvest-related depression of systemic or cerebral hemodynamics. There was no detectable infusion-related toxicity as determined by PELOD score, hepatic enzymes, Murray lung injury scores, or renal function. cMRI imaging comparing gray matter, white matter, and CSF volumes showed no reduction from 1 to 6 months postinjury. Dichotomized Glasgow Outcome Score at 6 months showed 70% with good outcomes and 30% with moderate to severe disability.Bone marrow harvest and intravenous mononuclear cell infusion as treatment for severe TBI in children is logistically feasible and safe.
Progenitor cell therapy for the treatment of central nervous system injury: a review of the state of current clinical trials. - Stem cells international
Recent preclinical work investigating the role of progenitor cell therapies for central nervous system (CNS) injuries has shown potential neuroprotection in the setting of traumatic brain injury (TBI), spinal cord injury (SCI), and ischemic stroke. Mechanisms currently under investigation include engraftment and transdifferentiation, modulation of the locoregional inflammatory milieu, and modulation of the systemic immunologic/inflammatory response. While the exact mechanism of action remains controversial, the growing amount of preclinical data demonstrating the potential benefit associated with progenitor cell therapy for neurological injury warrants the development of well-controlled clinical trials to investigate therapeutic safety and efficacy. In this paper, we review the currently active or recently completed clinical trials investigating the safety and potential efficacy of bone marrow-derived progenitor cell therapies for the treatment of TBI, SCI, and ischemic stroke. Our review of the literature shows that while the preliminary clinical trials reviewed in this paper offer novel data supporting the potential efficacy of stem/progenitor cell therapies for CNS injury, a great deal of additional work is needed to ensure the safety, efficacy, and mechanisms of progenitor cell therapy prior to widespread clinical trials.
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