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Dr. Stephen  Snow  Md image

Dr. Stephen Snow Md

3901 Capital Mall Dr Sw Ste A
Olympia WA 98502
360 868-8990
Medical School: Other - Unknown
Accepts Medicare: No
Participates In eRX: No
Participates In PQRS: No
Participates In EHR: No
License #: MD00024086
NPI: 1295805182
Taxonomy Codes:
207X00000X

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Publications

Eccrine Porocarcinoma Treated by Mohs Micrographic Surgery: Over 6-Year Follow-up of 12 Cases and Literature Review. - Dermatologic surgery : official publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et al.]
Eccrine porocarcinoma (EPC) has a poor prognosis after standard wide local excision (WLE), with 20% local recurrence, 20% regional and 12% distant metastatic rates. Mohs micrographic surgery (MMS) has been used as a promising treatment.To review the use of MMS for EPC and assess treatment outcomes.This was a retrospective case series of 12 EPC patients treated by MMS between 1984 and 2013 in the institution. Furthermore, a literature review revealed an additional 17 cases of EPC managed by MMS.Of 29 cases of EPC treated by MMS, outcome was established in 27 cases. The patients had a significantly longer mean follow-up period of 6 years (range, 4-206 months), as compared with 19 months (range, 2-48 months) in reported cases. Two patients had regional lymph node metastasis after MMS. The regional metastatic rates to lymph nodes were 7% (2/27). There was no local recurrence, distant metastasis, or disease-specific death in the 27 cases studied.To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the single largest case series of EPCs treated by MMS and the authors' data demonstrated that MMS may be superior to the standard WLE.
A phase III skin cancer chemoprevention study of DFMO: long-term follow-up of skin cancer events and toxicity. - Cancer prevention research (Philadelphia, Pa.)
Decreasing the incidence of nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is of great importance in regards to future healthcare services. Given the previously reported preventive effects of α-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO) in skin and colon cancer trials, we determined appropriate cause to update the clinical data on the subjects from the recently reported randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase III skin cancer prevention study of DFMO. Our intention was to retrospectively assess the further incidence of skin cancer, other malignancies, and adverse events of patients accrued to our phase III skin cancer prevention study of DFMO. Clinical records of 209 University of Wisconsin (UW) Health subjects were reviewed, and 2,092.7 person years of on study (884.3 person years) and poststudy (1,208.4 person years) follow-up for these patients were assessed for new NMSC events and recurrence rates from the on study period, the poststudy period, and the two study periods combined. No evidence of increased significant diagnoses or serious adverse events was observed in the DFMO participants. The initially observed, marginally significant reduction (P = 0.069) in NMSC rates for DFMO subjects relative to placebo continued without evidence of rebound. Event rates after discontinuation from study for total NMSCs (DFMO 0.236 NMSC/person/year, placebo 0.297, P = 0.48) or the subtypes of basal cell carcinomas (BCC; DFMO 0.179 BCC/person/year, placebo 0.190, P = 0.77) and squamous cell carcinomas (SCC; DFMO 0.057 SCC/person/year, placebo 0.107, P = 0.43) are listed. Follow-up data revealed a persistent but insignificant reduction in new NMSCs occurring in DFMO subjects without evidence of latent or cumulative toxicity relative to placebo subjects.©2012 AACR
Transportation behaviours of older adults: an investigation into car dependency in urban Australia. - Australasian journal on ageing
Increased car dependency among Australia's ageing population may result in increased social isolation and other health impacts associated with the cessation of driving. While public transport represents an alternative to car usage, patronage remains low among older cohorts. This study investigates the facilitators and barriers to public transport patronage and the nature of car dependence among older Australians.Data were gathered from a sample of 24 adults (mean age = 70 years) through a combination of quantitative (remote behavioural observation) and qualitative (interviews) investigation.Findings suggest that relative convenience, affordability and health/mobility may dictate transport mode choices. The car is considered more convenient for the majority of suburban trips irrespective of the availability of public transport.Policy attention should focus on providing better education and information regarding driving cessation and addressing older age specific social aspects of public transport including health and mobility issues.© 2012 The Authors. Australasian Journal on Ageing © 2012 ACOTA.
Desmoplastic trichoepithelioma, infiltrative/morpheaform BCC, and microcystic adnexal carcinoma: differentiation by immunohistochemistry and determining the need for Mohs micrographic surgery. - Cutis
Several important cutaneous neoplasms present with basaloid cells in the dermis. Desmoplastic trichoepithelioma (DTE), infiltrative/morpheaform basal cell carcinoma (BCC), and microcystic adnexal carcinoma (MAC) are tumors in this category that may be difficult to differentiate, especially when evaluating thin biopsy specimens. An accurate diagnosis has important clinical implications. While DTE is a benign neoplasm with indolent behavior, infiltrative/morpheaform BCC and MAC can be highly aggressive, leading to substantial local destruction and potential metastasis. We present a patient with an unusual tumor demonstrating basaloid cells in the dermis and discuss the diagnostic approach for these lesions, emphasizing the potential role of cytokeratin 20 (CK20) in determining the need for Mohs micrographic surgery.
Psychic centrality: reflections on two psychohistoriographic cultural therapy workshops in Montreal. - Transcultural psychiatry
The use of psychohistoriographic cultural therapy (PCT) developed in Jamaica is described in the context of two workshops in Montreal. PCT is a form of group intervention that seeks to elicit and clarify the "psychic centrality" of a group. Psychic centrality refers to a sense of psychological containment or organization of diverse individual points of view through creating a historical map of collective experience. In PCT, this collective map is constructed and techniques borrowed from creative arts therapies are used to develop a performance. This performance provides additional containment and fosters a group process that can contain collective conflicts. The performance can also be used to engage an audience, working to contain conflict while representing diverse perspectives within the group. Factors that may contribute to the effectiveness of PCT and those that may derail the process are identified through the systematic comparison of the two workshops. PCT was demonstrated to cross successfully from a Third to a First World culture, and established potential as a method to facilitate group conflict resolution and for the promotion of pluralistic civil societies.
Sebaceous cell carcinoma of the eyelid: a rapidly enlarging lesion with massive xanthogranulomatous inflammation. - Ophthalmic plastic and reconstructive surgery
A 76-year-old man presented atypically with a 4-week history of a rapidly enlarging ulcerated nodular lesion of the left upper eyelid that was found to be sebaceous cell carcinoma. Further investigation showed no metastatic disease, and Mohs surgery was performed to resect the tumor. Histopathologic analysis showed features diagnostic of sebaceous cell carcinoma. However, most of the mass consisted of xanthomatous granulomatous inflammatory reaction vastly out of proportion with the tumor burden. The patient was spared from orbital exenteration, and no evidence of recurrence was present 6 months after resection.
Cutaneous adenoid cystic carcinoma with perineural invasion treated by mohs micrographic surgery-a case report with literature review. - Journal of oncology
We report a 58-year-old woman with cutaneous adenoid cystic carcinoma arising on the chest treated with Mohs micrographic surgery. The patient remained tumor-free at 24-month follow-up. To date, only six other cases of cutaneous adenoid cystic carcinoma were reportedly managed by Mohs surgery. Cutaneous adenoid cystic carcinoma has low potential for distant metastasis but is notorious for its aggressive infiltrative growth pattern, frequent perineural invasion, and high risk of local recurrence after excision. We propose that Mohs surgery is an ideal method to achieve margin-free removal of cutaneous adenoid cystic carcinoma. A brief literature review is provided.
Proteomic identification of binding partners for the brain metabolite lanthionine ketimine (LK) and documentation of LK effects on microglia and motoneuron cell cultures. - The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Lanthionine ketimine (LK) represents a poorly understood class of thioethers present in mammalian CNS. Previous work has indicated high-affinity interaction of LK with synaptosomal membrane protein(s), but neither LK binding partners nor specific bioactivities have been reported. In this study, LK was chemically synthesized and used as an affinity agent to capture binding partners from mammalian brain lysate. Liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry of electrophoretically separated, LK-bound proteins identified polypeptides implicated in axon remodeling or vesicle trafficking and diseases including Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia: collapsin response mediator protein-2/dihydropyrimidinase-like protein-2 (CRMP2/DRP2/DPYSL2), myelin basic protein, and syntaxin-binding protein-1 (STXBP1/Munc-18). Also identified was the recently discovered glutathione-binding protein lanthionine synthetase-like protein-1. Functional consequences of LK:CRMP2 interactions were probed through immunoprecipitation studies using brain lysate wherein LK was found to increase CRMP2 coprecipitation with its partner neurofibromin-1 but decreased CRMP2 coprecipitation with beta-tubulin. Functional studies of NSC-34 motor neuron-like cells indicated that a cell-permeable LK-ester, LKE, was nontoxic and protective against oxidative challenge with H(2)O(2). LKE-treated NSC-34 cells significantly increased neurite number and length in a serum concentration-dependent manner, consistent with a CRMP2 interaction. Finally, LKE antagonized the activation of EOC-20 microglia by inflammogens. The results are discussed with reference to possible biochemical origins, paracrine functions, neurological significance, and pharmacological potential of lanthionyl compounds.
A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 3 skin cancer prevention study of {alpha}-difluoromethylornithine in subjects with previous history of skin cancer. - Cancer prevention research (Philadelphia, Pa.)
Preclinical studies have shown that the inhibition of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) by alpha-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO) and resultant decreases in tissue concentrations of polyamines (putrescine and spermidine) prevents neoplastic developments in many tissue types. Clinical studies of oral DFMO at 500 mg/m(2)/day revealed it to be safe and tolerable and resulted in significant inhibition of phorbol ester-induced skin ODC activity. Two hundred and ninety-one participants (mean age, 61 years; 60% male) with a history of prior nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC; mean, 4.5 skin cancers) were randomized to oral DFMO (500 mg/m(2)/day) or placebo for 4 to 5 years. There was a trend toward a history of more prior skin cancers in subjects randomized to placebo, but all other characteristics including sunscreen and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use were evenly distributed. Evaluation of 1,200 person-years of follow-up revealed a new NMSC rate of 0.5 events/person/year. The primary end point, new NMSCs, was not significantly different between subjects taking DFMO and placebo (260 versus 363 cancers, P = 0.069, two-sample t test). Evaluation of basal cell (BCC) and squamous cell cancers separately revealed very little difference in squamous cell cancer between treatment groups but a significant difference in new BCC (DFMO, 163 cancers; placebo, 243 cancers; expressed as event rate of 0.28 BCC/person/year versus 0.40 BCC/person/year, P = 0.03). Compliance with DFMO was >90% and it seemed to be well tolerated with evidence of mild ototoxicity as measured by serial audiometric examination when compared with placebo subjects. The analysis of normal skin biopsies revealed a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in 12-0-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-induced ODC activity (month 24, 36, and 48) and putrescine concentration (month 24 and 36 only) in DFMO subjects. Subjects with a history of skin cancer taking daily DFMO had an insignificant reduction (P = 0.069) in new NMSC that was predominantly due to a marked reduction in new BCC. Based on these data, the potential of DFMO, alone or in combination, to prevent skin cancers should be explored further.
Assessing and achieving accuracy in digital dental photography. - Journal of the California Dental Association
Accurate digital photography is becoming part of the standard of care for diagnosis and documentation in dental treatment. Proper exposure and color rendering are critical elements in the capture of useful images with excellent representational quality. Reliable photographic techniques must be consistently applied as a repeatable protocol to create an accurate record of pretreatment conditions and post-treatment results. Every software process that alters an image will degrade the pixel content and should be minimized or avoided.

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