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Effects of Twenty Days of the Ketogenic Diet on Metabolic and Respiratory Parameters in Healthy Subjects. - Lung
The effects of the ketogenic diet (KD) on weight loss, metabolic, and respiratory parameters were investigated in healthy subjects.Thirty-two healthy subjects were randomized into two groups. The KD group followed a ketogenic diet for 20Â days (KD t 0-t 20), then switched to a low-carbohydrate, no-ketogenic diet for 20Â days (KD t 20-t 40), and finally was on a Mediterranean diet (MD) for 2 more months (KD t 40-t 2m). The MD group followed a MD for 20Â days (MD t 0-t 20), then followed a MD of 1400Â kcal over the next 20Â days (MD t 20-t 40), and completed the study with the MD for 2Â months (MD t 40-t 2m). Body weight, body fat, respiratory rate, and respiratory gas parameters (including respiratory exchange ratio (RER) and carbon dioxide end-tidal partial pressure (PETCO2), oxygen uptake (VO2), carbon dioxide production (VCO2), and resting energy expenditure (REE)) were measured at each point.A significant decrease (pÂ <Â 0.05) in RER was observed after 20 and 40Â days in the KD group, but not in the MD group. In the KD group, significant reductions were observed for both carbon dioxide output and PETCO2, however, there was no significant change in VO2, VCO2, and REE. While both diets significantly decreased body fat mass, the KD diet overall proved to have a higher percentage of fat loss versus the MD diet.The KD may significantly decrease carbon dioxide body stores, which may theoretically be beneficial for patients with increased carbon dioxide arterial partial pressure due to respiratory insufficiency or failure.
Hormonal contraception and pelvic floor function: a systematic review. - International urogynecology journal
Hormonal contraceptive use is common practice worldwide. Although the effects of hormone treatments in the pelvic region are well established, there is no clear evidence regarding their effects on incontinence, bladder, bowel, vaginal and sexual symptoms in premenopausal women. We hypothesized that hormonal contraceptives affect pelvic floor function. We therefore performed a comprehensive systematic review of published studies to determine the influence of hormonal contraception on pelvic floor functions.Electronic literature databases were searched from database inception to March 2015. Keywords and medical subject headings searched for included terms and word variations for 'contraception', and 'bowel', 'vaginal', 'sexual' and 'urinary' symptoms. Studies were eligible if they looked at these symptoms in women taking hormonal contraception. Two reviewers independently screened studies for inclusion, and extracted data on study characteristics, quality and results. Data were combined where possible.Of the 429 citations identified, 13 studies were included in the review. Data were meta-analysed where possible and presented as prevalence. The results indicate statistically significant links between interstitial cystitis and oral contraceptive use at any point (ever) (OR 2.31, 95Â % CI 1.03Â -Â 5.16; pâ€‰=â€‰0.04) and vulvar vestibulitis and current oral contraceptive use (OR 2.10, 95Â % CI 1.26Â -Â 3.49; pâ€‰=â€‰0.004). The evidence is unclear in other areas.Our results indicate that oral contraceptives may have an effect on pelvic floor function. They could increase the risk of painful bladder and vulvar vestibulitis, but their effect on dyspareunia is inconsistent. However, robustly collected prospective data to establish causal associations are needed.
Superoxide Dismutase Activity, Hydrogen Peroxide Steady-State Concentration, and Bactericidal and Phagocytic Activities Against Moraxella bovis, in Neutrophils Isolated from Copper-Deficient Bovines. - Biological trace element research
Copper (Cu) deficiency increases occurrence of certain infectious diseases in animals, including infectious keratoconjunctivitis in bovines, a bacterial ocular inflammation caused by Moraxella bovis. Neutrophil leukocytes constitute the first phagocytic cells to arrive at infection sites for bacterial neutralization. The objective of this work was to evaluate whether the functionality of neutrophils against M. bovis is impaired in experimentally induced Cu deficiency in bovines using high molybdenum and sulfur levels in the diet. The Cu tissue values and the periocular achromotrichia observed in +Mo animals showed that the clinic phase of Cu deficiency was reached in this group. Instead, +Cu animals have not evidenced clinical signs or biochemical parameters of hypocuprosis. On the basis of our observations, we concluded that Cu deficiency has no effect on phagocytic and bactericidal activities of neutrophils against M. bovis. However, superoxide dismutase activity and peroxide hydrogen generation were significantly different between groups. Therefore, additional research to explain these results is merited to fully characterize the consequences of Cu status on the risk for infections under field conditions.
Draft Genome Sequence of the First Hypermucoviscous Klebsiella quasipneumoniae subsp. quasipneumoniae Isolate from a Bloodstream Infection. - Genome announcements
Klebsiella quasipneumoniae is a recently described species, formerly identified as K.Â pneumoniae phylogroup KpII. Information on pathogenic and virulence potential of this species are lacking. We sequenced the genome of a hypermucoviscous K.Â quasipneumoniae clinical isolate showing a virulence genes content (allABCDRS, kfuABC, and mrkABCDFHIJ) peculiar to hypervirulent K.Â pneumoniae strains.Copyright Â© 2015 Arena et al.
Are high cumulative doses of erythropoietin neuroprotective in preterm infants? A two year follow-up report. - Italian journal of pediatrics
Preterm infants are at risk for neurodevelopmental sequelae even in absence of major cerebral lesions. The hypothesis that Human Recombinant Erythropoietin (rEpo) could improve the neurodevelopmental outcome in risk neonates has raised the highest interest in recent years.A group of preterm neonates born at a gestational ageâ€‰â‰¤â€‰30Â weeks and free from major cerebral lesions or major visual impairment, were included in the study if they had a complete neurologic evaluation for at least 24Â months of postmenstrual age. They were assigned to group I in the case they had been treated with rEpo or group II if untreated. The aim was to evaluate whether rEpo, given at the high cumulative doses utilized for hematologic purposes, is able to improve the neurodevelopmental outcome in preterm infants born at a gestational ageâ€‰â‰¤â€‰30Â weeks. A group of 104 preterm neonates were studied: 59 neonatesÂ who received rEpo for 6.9â€‰Â±â€‰2.4Â weeks at a median cumulative dose of 6300 UI/Kg (6337â€‰Â±â€‰2434 UI/Kg), starting at a median age of 4Â days and 45 neonatesÂ who were born in the period preceding the routine use of rEpo. The neurodevelopmental quotient at 24Â month postmenstrual age was assessed utilizing the Griffiths' Mental Developmental Scales.Our results failed to show any difference in the Developmental Quotient at 24Â month. Bronchopulmonary dysplasia, minor intraventricular hemorrhages and blood transfusions were the clinical features significantly related to the Developmental Quotient.Our results do not support the hypothesis that rEpo, administered with the schedule utilized for hematologic purposes, improve the neurodevelopmental outcome of preterm neonates, at least those preterm infants free from major impairments.
FDG PET and Split-Bolus Multi-Detector Row CT Fusion Imaging in Oncologic Patients: Preliminary Results. - Radiology
Purpose To assess the incremental value of split-bolus multidetector computed tomography (CT) combined with fluorine 18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) for follow-up of oncologic patients. Materials and Methods The institutional ethics committee approved the use of this protocol. Thirty-eight oncologic patients who underwent FDG PET/unenhanced multidetector CT and split-bolus multidetector CT for restaging were investigated retrospectively. The split-bolus CT protocol included imaging during the hepatic arterial and portal venous phases in one scan. Software was used for fusion of the independently acquired FDG PET and split-bolus CT data, and fused datasets were compared with FDG PET/unenhanced CT data. The standard of reference for diagnosis of lesions in all patients was a combination of histologic results (if available), clinical results (medical history, physical examination, and laboratory test results), and the results of follow-up imaging (conventional CT, magnetic resonance imaging, and/or ultrasonography) for at least 6 months. Descriptive statistics were used. Results Fifty-nine true-positive lesions were identified with fused FDG PET/split-bolus CT; 41 were concordant and detected with both split-bolus CT and PET/unenhanced CT, 16 with split-bolus CT only, and two with PET/unenhanced CT. Two different false-positive lesions were identified with PET/unenhanced CT and PET/split-bolus CT. Furthermore, in 20 of 38 (53%) patients, FDG PET/split-bolus CT allowed detection of important additional findings (n = 40) not detected at FDG PET/unenhanced CT. Both the tumor-related findings (n = 13, 32.5%) and the non-tumor-related findings (n = 27, 67.5%) were important to the clinical treatment of these patients. Conclusion Fused FDG PET/split-bolus multidetector CT provides additional information compared with FDG PET/unenhanced multidetector CT in oncologic patients. (Â©) RSNA, 2015.
Pathophysiological mechanisms of increased cardiometabolic risk in people with schizophrenia and other severe mental illnesses. - The lancet. Psychiatry
Patients with schizophrenia have increased mortality and morbidity compared with the general population. These patients have a 20-year shorter lifespan than peers without schizophrenia, mainly due to premature cardiovascular disease, suicide, and cancer. Patients with severe mental illness are at increased risk for cardiovascular disease related to increased incidence of diabetes, hypertension, smoking, poor diet, obesity, dyslipidaemia, metabolic syndrome, low physical activity, and side-effects of antipsychotic drugs. Some second-generation antipsychotics (eg, clozapine, olanzapine, quetiapine, and risperidone) are associated with an increased risk of weight gain and obesity, impaired glucose tolerance and new-onset diabetes, hyperlipidaemia, and cardiovascular disease. The mechanisms by which schizophrenia and patients with severe mental illness are susceptible to cardiometabolic disorders are complex and include lifestyle risks and direct and indirect effects of antipsychotic drugs. An understanding of these risks might lead to effective interventions for prevention and treatment of cardiometabolic disorders in schizophrenia and severe mental illness.Copyright Â© 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Zoonotic Bartonella species in wild rodents in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. - Microbes and infection / Institut Pasteur
Several rodent-associated Bartonella species cause disease in humans but little is known about their epidemiology in Brazil. The presence of Bartonella spp. in wild rodents captured in two municipalities of the Mato Grosso do Sul state was assessed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Fragments of heart tissue from 42 wild rodents were tested using primers targeting the Bartonella 16S-23S intergenic transcribed spacer (ITS) region and citrate synthase gltA gene. The wild rodents were identified based on external and cranial morphology and confirmed at species level by mitochondrial DNA (cytochrome B) sequencing and karyotype. Overall, 42.9% (18/42) of the wild rodents were PCR positive for Bartonella spp.: Callomys callosus (04), Cerradomys maracajuensis (04), Hylaeamus megacephalus (01), Necromys lasiurus (06), Nectomys squamipes (01), Oecomys catherinae (01) and Oxymycterus delator (01). Bartonella vinsonii subsp. arupensis was detected in N. lasiurus (46%) and C. callosus (21%) captured in the two study sites. We reported the first molecular detection of B. vinsonii subsp. arupensis in different species of wild rodents collected in the Brazilian territory. Further studies are needed to examine the role of these mammals in the eco-epidemiology of bartonellosis in Brazil.Copyright Â© 2015 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Strain ratio ultrasound elastography increases the accuracy of colour-Doppler ultrasound in the evaluation of Thy-3 nodules. A bi-centre university experience. - European radiology
To assess whether ultrasound elastography (USE) with strain ratio increases diagnostic accuracy of Doppler ultrasound in further characterisation of cytologically Thy3 thyroid nodules.In two different university diagnostic centres, 315 patients with indeterminate cytology (Thy3) in thyroid nodules aspirates were prospectively evaluated with Doppler ultrasound and strain ratio USE before surgery. Ultrasonographic features were analysed separately and together as ultrasound score, to assess sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves to identify optimal cut-off value of the strain ratio were also provided. Diagnosis on a surgical specimen was considered the standard of reference.Higher strain ratio values were found in malignant nodules, with an optimum strain ratio cut-off of 2.09 at ROC analysis. USE with strain ratio showed 90.6Â % sensitivity, 93Â % specificity, 82.8Â % PPV, 96.4Â % NPV, while US score yielded a sensitivity of 52.9Â %, specificity of 84.3Â %, PPV 55.6Â % and NPV 82.9Â %. The diagnostic gain with strain ratio was statistically significant as proved by ROC areas, which was 0.9182 for strain ratio and 0.6864 for US score.USE with strain ratio should be considered a useful additional tool to colour-Doppler US, since it improves characterisation of thyroid nodules with indeterminate cytology.â€¢ Strain ratio measurements improve differentiation of thyroid nodules with indeterminate cytology â€¢ Elastography with strain ratio is more reliable than ultrasound features and ultrasound score â€¢ Strain ratio may help to better select patients with Thy 3 nodules candidate for surgery.
Persistence of CD34 Stem Marker in Human Lipoma: Searching for Cancer Stem Cells. - International journal of biological sciences
Lipomas are benign solid tumours that develop in soft tissues with origin in mesenchymal progenitors. Macroscopically, they appear as soft-elastic nodules, varying in volume from a few millimiters to several centimetres and can enlarge progressively. Although they are usually asymptomatic, they can cause symptoms due to nerve or vessel compression. Microscopically they appear as fibrous connective tissue stroma with embedded adipocytes, and absence of inflammation. Up to now no characterisation of stem cell population present in this tissue has been performed.Cytofluorimetric, biological and molecular biology analyses have been performed in order to test superficial cell markers and gene expression profile related to stemness and apoptotic activity of cells present in lipoma tissues compared to those of adipose tissue's cells.Our results confirmed that CD34(+) cells in lipoma were present around small adipocytes, showing several altered biological activity such as proliferation, apoptotis and stemness.The data emerging from the comparison of the lipoma cells and normal adipose tissue, suggests the presence of cell precursors involved in the development of the lipoma. This hypothesis requires further investigation and may indicate new thresholds in the study of benign tumour pathogenesis.
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