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Single-copy gene based 50â€‰K SNP chip for genetic studies and molecular breeding in rice. - Scientific reports
Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) is the most abundant DNA sequence variation present in plant genomes. Here, we report the design and validation of a unique genic-SNP genotyping chip for genetic and evolutionary studies as well as molecular breeding applications in rice. The chip incorporates 50,051 SNPs from 18,980 different genes spanning 12 rice chromosomes, including 3,710 single-copy (SC) genes conserved between wheat and rice, 14,959 SC genes unique to rice, 194 agronomically important cloned rice genes and 117 multi-copy rice genes. Assays with this chip showed high success rate and reproducibility because of the SC gene based array with no sequence redundancy and cross-hybridisation problems. The usefulness of the chip in genetic diversity and phylogenetic studies of cultivated and wild rice germplasm was demonstrated. Furthermore, its efficacy was validated for analysing background recovery in improved mega rice varieties with submergence tolerance developed through marker-assisted backcross breeding.
A comparative study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of combination topical preparations in acne vulgaris. - International journal of applied & basic medical research
The combinations of topical keratolytics with anti-microbials and topical retinoids with antimicrobials are commonly prescribed in the treatment of acne.The present study was undertaken with the aim of comparing the efficacy and safety of topical benzoyl peroxide and clindamycin versus topical benzoyl peroxide and nadifloxacin versus topical tretinoin and clindamycin in patients of acne vulgaris.100 patients between 15 and 35 years having â‰¥2 and â‰¤30 inflammatory and/or noninflammatory lesions with Investigator's Global Assessment (IGA) score 2/3 were randomly divided into 3 groups. Group A was prescribed benzoyl peroxide 2.5% gel and clindamycin 1% gel, Group B was prescribed benzoyl peroxide 2.5% gel and nadifloxacin 1% cream and Group C was prescribed tretinoin 0.025% and clindamycin 1% gel. Total number of lesions and adverse effects during the treatment were assessed at 0, 4, 8, 12 weeks with IGA score.There was statistically significant reduction in total number of lesions with better improvement in Group A. Adverse drug reactions during the study showed a better safety profile of Group B which is found to be statistically significant also.These findings confirm that Group A is more efficacious and Group B is safest among the other two groups.
Volumetric and cost evaluation study of glaucoma medical therapy. - International journal of applied & basic medical research
The aim of the study was to evaluate the difference in mentioned volume and measured volume of the eye drops and to find out the yearly cost of various antiglaucoma drugs.It was an experimental and purely laboratory study. Total of 245 bottles of 49 different brands, five of each brand of antiglaucoma drug were analyzed. Number of drops were counted, and volume was measured from each bottle. On the basis of data collected yearly cost of each brand was calculated.Of the 245 bottles, 152 bottles (62.04%) had underfilling. Yearly cost of most of the antiglaucoma drugs lies between Rs. 423.40 and Rs. 6263.40.Measured volume and drops are the major determinants of the cost of medical therapy of glaucoma. Most of the bottles showed underfilling and it was the significant finding. Less number of drops and lesser volume increases the cost of treatment indirectly.
Improvement in chronic low back pain in an obese patient with topiramate use. - Journal of pain & palliative care pharmacotherapy
The objective of this study was to demonstrate efficacy, benefit, and potential use of topiramate in treating obese patients with chronic low back pain. This is a case report from an outpatient academic pain multidisciplinary clinical center. The patient was a 30-year-old morbidly obese (body mass index [BMI]: 61.4Â kg/m(2)) female suffering from chronic low back pain. With a known association between obesity and chronic low back pain, and a possible role of topiramate in treating both simultaneously, the patient was started on a therapeutic trial of topiramate. Over a period of a 12-week topiramate therapy, the patient experienced clinically meaningful and significant weight loss as well as improvement in her chronic low back pain and functionality. With more substantial evidence, pain physicians may start considering using topiramate in the multimodal management of obesity-related chronic low back pain based on their thoughtful consideration of the drug's efficacy and side effects and the patient's comorbidities and preferences.
Effect of dosing interval on pharmacokinetics of fentanyl pectin nasal spray from a crossover study. - Journal of opioid management
To evaluate the effects of different dosing intervals on multiple-dose pharmacokinetics, and safety and tolerability of fentanyl pectin nasal spray (FPNS).This was an open-label study in healthy volunteers. Five FPNS treatments (1 Ã— 100 Î¼g; 2 Ã— 100 Î¼g at 4-, 2-, and 1-hour intervals, and 8 Ã— 100 Î¼g consecutively) were administered to the right nostril, with a â‰¥ 3-day washout period. Blood samples were collected at predose and up to 1,440 minutes postdose. Plasma fentanyl concentrations were determined. Pharmacokinetic parameters-peak concentration (C(max)), time to C(max) (t(max)), and area under the concentration-time curve (AUC)-were derived using noncompartmental method. For the two-dose regimens, pharmacokinetic parameters were compared between doses using a paired t-test with p < 0.05 as statistically significant.Thirteen subjects were enrolled and 10 completed the study. Median tmax was 10-15 minutes across five regimens. Cmax post the second dose significantly increased for 1-hour (p < 0.0001) and 2-hour (p < 0.001) but not 4-hour intervals (p = 0.462). C(max) and AUC(0-24) following 8 Ã— 100 Î¼g were approximately fivefold of those following 1 Ã— 100 Î¼g. Dizziness (11.9 percent) and somnolence (4.9 percent) were most common adverse events (AEs). 12.9 percent of patients discontinued due to AEs.FPNS exhibited consistently rapid t(max). When intervals between two doses were shorter, the difference in C(max) between the first and second dose was larger. All regimens of FPNS were well tolerated. Exposure reached a plateau after eight consecutive doses, suggesting potential limited absorption through the nasal mucosa.
SOD2 activity is not impacted by hyperoxia in murine neonatal pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells and mice. - International journal of molecular sciences
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) complicates bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in 25% of infants. Superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) is an endogenous mitochondrial antioxidant, and overexpression protects against acute lung injury in adult mice. Little is known about SOD2 in neonatal lung disease and PH. C57Bl/6 mice and isogenic SOD2+/+ and SOD2-/+ mice were placed in room air (control) or 75% O2 (chronic hyperoxia, CH) for 14 days. Right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH) was assessed by Fulton's index. Medial wall thickness (MWT) and alveolar area were assessed on formalin fixed lung sections. Pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMC) were placed in 21% or 95% O2 for 24 h. Lung and PASMC protein were analyzed for SOD2 expression and activity. Oxidative stress was measured with a mitochondrially-targeted sensor, mitoRoGFP. CH lungs have increased SOD2 expression, but unchanged activity. SOD2-/+ PASMC have decreased expression and activity at baseline, but increased SOD2 expression in hyperoxia. Hyperoxia increased mitochondrial ROS in SOD2+/+ and SOD2-/+ PASMC. SOD2+/+ and SOD2-/+ CH pups induced SOD2 expression, but not activity, and developed equivalent increases in RVH, MWT, and alveolar area. Since SOD2-/+ mice develop equivalent disease, this suggests other antioxidant systems may compensate for partial SOD2 expression and activity in the neonatal period during hyperoxia-induced oxidative stress.
Successful treatment of post thrombotic syndrome with sequential lumbar sympathetic block. - Pain physician
An underappreciated sequelae of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) is the pain associated with the blood clot in the peripheral extremity. Although most frequently acute in nature, DVT occasionally presents with chronic pain in the affected limb. Furthermore, many individuals suffering from prothrombotic states often have recurring pain from DVT. Thus far there has been a paucity in the medical literature in how to treat post thrombotic pain. Post thrombotic syndrome (PTS) can cause a significant decrease in quality of life in individuals who have had a history of a DVT. Symptoms will typically include edema, pain, heaviness of the affected limb, skin changes, ulcers, varicosities, and gait abnormality. An underappreciated approach to treating PTS is the utilization of lumbar sympathetic blocks (LSB). A 68-year-old male who had a history of recurrent right lower extremity deep venous thrombosis presented with complaints of excruciating pain, discomfort, and erythema in his right lower extremity, which was negatively affecting his quality of life and prohibiting him from mobility. The patient attributed his lack of mobility secondary to the thrombotic pain. Compression boot/stocking therapy was not combating the discomfort associated with the PTS, often increasing the severity of the patient's pain. Sequential right lumbar sympathetic blocks were performed, which nearly completely resolved the patient's symptoms and improved the patient's ambulatory status and ability to perform activities of daily living. Sympathetic nerve blocks should be considered as a treatment option for patients who suffer with pain from PTS.
Novel Use of Pharmacogenetic Testing in the Identification of CYP2C9 Polymorphisms Related to NSAID-Induced Gastropathy. - Pain medicine (Malden, Mass.)
To illustrate the potential value of pharmacogenetic testing to identify patients at risk for nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced gastropathy.Case report.We report a case encountered in an outpatient setting for pain management.We present a case of a patient treated with celecoxib who developed severe nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced gastropathy.Suspecting a relation between this adverse event and altered drug metabolism, pharmacogenetic testing was performed to assess the role of the cytochrome P450 (CP450) enzyme profile.Pharmacogenetic testing revealed a relation between this adverse event and an allelic variant of cytochrome P450, CYP2C9, subsequently leading to discontinuation of the drug along with counseling to caution the patient to avoid the use of celecoxib and other drugs metabolized by the same enzyme.Although pharmacogenetic testing is not routinely used in clinical decision making, pain physicians must be aware of the potential benefits of this testing for managing patients with pain, and to improve drug efficacy and safety profile.Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Evaluation of efficacy and tolerability of cefotaxime and sulbactam versus cefepime and tazobactam in patients of urinary tract infection-a prospective comparative study. - Journal of clinical and diagnostic research : JCDR
Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the third most common infection experienced by humans after respiratory and gastro-intestinal infections. Cephalosporins are now widely been used in UTI, but emerging resistance is a problem to that. Our study aims at evaluating efficacy and safety of third generation cephalosporin combined with beta lactamase inhibitors compared with fourth generation cephalosporin.The present, open, randomised, parallel group comparative study includes 60 patients of urinary tract infection. Group A patient were put on treatment regimen of cefotaxime and sulbactam (0.5-2 gms IV/IM BD) and Group B patients were prescribed cefepime and tazobactam (0.5-1 gm IV/IM BD) depending upon urine culture and sensitivity pattern of causative agent and condition of the patient. Bacteriological cure rate, clinical cure rate will be assessed for efficacy and adverse drug reaction (ADR) recorded for evaluating safety.The study showed a male predominance with 37 males (61.6%) and 23 (38.4%) females out of the total 60 patients with a maximum number within the age group of 50-70., and the most common organism isolated was E coli (73.3%), in rest of the patients Klebsiella (13.33%), Proteus (6.66%), and Staphylococcus (6.66%) were isolated. The overall bacteriological cure rate, in the present study, with cefotaxime/sulbactam and cefepime/tazobactam was 86.5%Â±6.5 and 93.3%Â±6.7 respectively. The clinical cure rate post five days of therapay, in goup A1 was 79.03%Â±2.82 and the same in group B1 was 87% Â± 2.11. The clinical cure rate post ten days of therapy in group A2 98.57Â±0.03 and the same in group B2was 100%. Overall success rate as evaluated by our data in the present study in group A i.e those treated with cefotaxime/sulbactam was 89.28Â±9.1% and in group B i.e. those treated with cefepime/ tazobactam and 94.49Â±5.06%.From the present study, those drugs in both generations of cephalosporins combined with beta lactamase inhibitors cefotaxime/sulbactam and cefepime/tazobactam were equally effective and well tolerated in the treatment of UTI. However the cost effectiveness and safety parameters are the important deciding factors for prescribing the same.
Imaging evaluation of fetal vascular anomalies. - Pediatric radiology
Vascular anomalies can be detected in utero and should be considered in the setting of solid, mixed or cystic lesions in the fetus. Evaluation of the gray-scale and color Doppler US and MRI characteristics can guide diagnosis. We present a case-based pictorial essay to illustrate the prenatal imaging characteristics in 11 pregnancies with vascular malformations (5 lymphatic malformations, 2 Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome, 1 venous-lymphatic malformation, 1 Parkes-Weber syndrome) and vascular tumors (1 congenital hemangioma, 1 kaposiform hemangioendothelioma). Concordance between prenatal and postnatal diagnoses is analyzed, with further discussion regarding potential pitfalls in identification.
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111 Clock Tower Commons
111 Clocktower Commons