3320 Live Oak St Copc Administration
Dallas TX 75204
Medical School: Other - Unknown
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License #: J4011
Taxonomy Codes:208000000X 2080P0204X
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An ethical framework for responding to drug shortages in pediatric oncology. - Pediatric blood & cancer
The frequency of drug shortages has increased considerably over the last decade. Important ethical issues arise whenever the supply of an effective drug is insufficient to meet demand. Using the ethical principles of beneficence, non-maleficence, and justice, institutions can guide prioritization of drug distribution before a shortage occurs to avoid unfair and unethical distribution of resources. This analysis will give a historical context for drug shortages, identify, and explore the central ethical concerns raised by drug shortages, and propose an ethical framework for addressing them in the context of pediatric oncology.Â© 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
From joint thinking to joint action: a call to action on improving water, sanitation, and hygiene for maternal and newborn health. - PLoS medicine
Yael Velleman and colleagues argue for stronger integration between the water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) and maternal and newborn health sectors. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.
Where there is no toilet: water and sanitation environments of domestic and facility births in Tanzania. - PloS one
Inadequate water and sanitation during childbirth are likely to lead to poor maternal and newborn outcomes. This paper uses existing data sources to assess the water and sanitation (WATSAN) environment surrounding births in Tanzania in order to interrogate whether such estimates could be useful for guiding research, policy and monitoring initiatives.We used the most recent Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) to characterise the delivery location of births occurring between 2005 and 2010. Births occurring in domestic environments were characterised as WATSAN-safe if the home fulfilled international definitions of improved water and improved sanitation access. We used the 2006 Service Provision Assessment survey to characterise the WATSAN environment of facilities that conduct deliveries. We combined estimates from both surveys to describe the proportion of all births occurring in WATSAN-safe environments and conducted an equity analysis based on DHS wealth quintiles and eight geographic zones.42.9% (95% confidence interval: 41.6%-44.2%) of all births occurred in the woman's home. Among these, only 1.5% (95% confidence interval: 1.2%-2.0%) were estimated to have taken place in WATSAN-safe conditions. 74% of all health facilities conducted deliveries. Among these, only 44% of facilities overall and 24% of facility delivery rooms were WATSAN-safe. Combining the estimates, we showed that 30.5% of all births in Tanzania took place in a WATSAN-safe environment (range of uncertainty 25%-42%). Large wealth-based inequalities existed in the proportion of births occurring in domestic environments based on wealth quintile and geographical zone.Existing data sources can be useful in national monitoring and prioritisation of interventions to improve poor WATSAN environments during childbirth. However, a better conceptual understanding of potentially harmful exposures and better data are needed in order to devise and apply more empirical definitions of WATSAN-safe environments, both at home and in facilities.
Global monitoring of water supply and sanitation: history, methods and future challenges. - International journal of environmental research and public health
International monitoring of drinking water and sanitation shapes awareness of countries' needs and informs policy, implementation and research efforts to extend and improve services. The Millennium Development Goals established global targets for drinking water and sanitation access; progress towards these targets, facilitated by international monitoring, has contributed to reducing the global disease burden and increasing quality of life. The experiences of the MDG period generated important lessons about the strengths and limitations of current approaches to defining and monitoring access to drinking water and sanitation. The methods by which the Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP) of WHO and UNICEF tracks access and progress are based on analysis of data from household surveys and linear regression modelling of these results over time. These methods provide nationally representative and internationally comparable insights into the drinking water and sanitation facilities used by populations worldwide, but also have substantial limitations: current methods do not address water quality, equity of access, or extra-household services. Improved statistical methods are needed to better model temporal trends. This article describes and critically reviews JMP methods in detail for the first time. It also explores the impact of, and future directions for, international monitoring of drinking water and sanitation.
Assessing the impact of drinking water and sanitation on diarrhoeal disease in low- and middle-income settings: systematic review and meta-regression. - Tropical medicine & international health : TM & IH
To assess the impact of inadequate water and sanitation on diarrhoeal disease in low- and middle-income settings.The search strategy used Cochrane Library, MEDLINE & PubMed, Global Health, Embase and BIOSIS supplemented by screening of reference lists from previously published systematic reviews, to identify studies reporting on interventions examining the effect of drinking water and sanitation improvements in low- and middle-income settings published between 1970 and May 2013. Studies including randomised controlled trials, quasi-randomised trials with control group, observational studies using matching techniques and observational studies with a control group where the intervention was well defined were eligible. Risk of bias was assessed using a modified Ottawa-Newcastle scale. Study results were combined using meta-analysis and meta-regression to derive overall and intervention-specific risk estimates.Of 6819 records identified for drinking water, 61 studies met the inclusion criteria, and of 12,515 records identified for sanitation, 11 studies were included. Overall, improvements in drinking water and sanitation were associated with decreased risks of diarrhoea. Specific improvements, such as the use of water filters, provision of high-quality piped water and sewer connections, were associated with greater reductions in diarrhoea compared with other interventions.The results show that inadequate water and sanitation are associated with considerable risks of diarrhoeal disease and that there are notable differences in illness reduction according to the type of improved water and sanitation implemented.Â© 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd The World Health Organization retains copyright and all other rights in the manuscript of this article as submitted for publication.
Burden of disease from inadequate water, sanitation and hygiene in low- and middle-income settings: a retrospective analysis of data from 145 countries. - Tropical medicine & international health : TM & IH
To estimate the burden of diarrhoeal diseases from exposure to inadequate water, sanitation and hand hygiene in low- and middle-income settings and provide an overview of the impact on other diseases.For estimating the impact of water, sanitation and hygiene on diarrhoea, we selected exposure levels with both sufficient global exposure data and a matching exposure-risk relationship. Global exposure data were estimated for the year 2012, and risk estimates were taken from the most recent systematic analyses. We estimated attributable deaths and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) by country, age and sex for inadequate water, sanitation and hand hygiene separately, and as a cluster of risk factors. Uncertainty estimates were computed on the basis of uncertainty surrounding exposure estimates and relative risks.In 2012, 502,000 diarrhoea deaths were estimated to be caused by inadequate drinking water and 280,000 deaths by inadequate sanitation. The most likely estimate of disease burden from inadequate hand hygiene amounts to 297,000 deaths. In total, 842,000 diarrhoea deaths are estimated to be caused by this cluster of risk factors, which amounts to 1.5% of the total disease burden and 58% of diarrhoeal diseases. In children under 5 years old, 361,000 deaths could be prevented, representing 5.5% of deaths in that age group.This estimate confirms the importance of improving water and sanitation in low- and middle-income settings for the prevention of diarrhoeal disease burden. It also underscores the need for better data on exposure and risk reductions that can be achieved with provision of reliable piped water, community sewage with treatment and hand hygiene.Â© 2014 The Authors. Tropical Medicine and International Health published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Cytosine arabinoside and mitoxantrone followed by second allogeneic transplant for the treatment of children with refractory juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia. - Journal of pediatric hematology/oncology
Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) remains the only curative option for most patients with juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML). However, persistent disease and relapse rates after transplant range from 26% to 58%. We report the successful use of second HSCT after preparation with mitoxantrone and cytosine arabinoside (Ara-C) for patients with refractory or recurrent disease. Between 1993 and 2006, 5 children who underwent HSCT at our institution as initial therapy for JMML had persistent disease or relapsed. Pre-HSCT conditioning varied and donors were either HLA-matched siblings (n=2) or matched unrelated donors (n=3). After initial HSCT, they subsequently received high-dose Ara-C (3 g/m IV) every 12 hours on days -8 through -3 and mitoxantrone (10 mg/m/d IV) on days -8, -7, -6 followed by second HSCT from their original donors. All 5 patients are alive at 88, 179, 199, 234, and 246 months with no evidence of JMML, no significant toxicity, and 100% donor chimera as determined by PCR short-tandem repeat analysis. Our experience supports second transplant utilizing high-dose Ara-C and mitoxantrone in children with JMML who do not respond or relapse after first transplant.
Should vitamin D supplementation be a regular part of asthma care? - Otolaryngologic clinics of North America
Vitamin D (vitD3) deficiency occurs frequently and has profound effects on health, especially asthma. This article examines how current knowledge of vitD3 actions and the worldwide distribution of vitD3 deficiency influences everyday clinical allergy practice. Within the limits of current knowledge, the article concisely explains the molecular nature of vitD3 actions, reviews key vitD3 research as it applies to clinical care, answers questions about the potential clinical impact of low vitD3 levels, and discusses use and safety of vitD3 supplements.Copyright Â© 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
How do we improve patient compliance and adherence to long-term statin therapy? - Current atherosclerosis reports
Statins are highly effective drugs prescribed to millions of people to lower LDL-cholesterol and decrease cardiovascular risk. The benefits of statin therapy seen in randomized clinical trials will only be replicated in real-life if patients adhere to the prescribed treatment regimen. But, about half of patients discontinue statin therapy within the first year, and adherence decreases with time. Patient, physician and healthcare system-related factors play a role in this problem. Recent studies have focused more on the patients' perspectives on non-adherence. Adverse events are cited as the most common cause of statin discontinuation; thus, the healthcare provider must be willing to ally and dialogue with patients to address concerns and assess the risks and benefits of continued statin therapy.
Gene expression signatures: a new approach to understanding the pathophysiology of chronic rhinosinusitis. - Current allergy and asthma reports
Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a complex inflammatory disease with variable disease manifestation. Though external risk factors are associated with development and/or persistence of CRS, the host mucosal response is also important, as nasal epithelium acts as a physical and immune barrier. Under inflammatory stress, the nasal epithelium can undergo injury, followed by a rapid remodeling response ranging from epithelial hyperplasia, to goblet-cell metaplasia, to denudation, loss of cilia, fibrosis, and basement membrane thickening. Identification of gene expression signatures and molecular pathways in CRS pathogenesis have now begun to contribute significantly to a better understanding of the genetic and molecular alterations underlying CRS development and progression. Genetic studies are especially illuminating when multiple gene variants synergize within a permissive environmental context, and are expected to guide development of more effective therapeutic targets for CRS treatment.
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3320 Live Oak St Copc Administration Dallas, TX 75204
3310 Live Oak, 3Rd Floor Copc Admnistration,
4144 N Central Expy Suite 360
2702 Mckinney Ave Ste 202
3434 Swiss Ave Suite 420