Nsuh-Dept Of Pediatrics 300 Community Drive
Manhasset NY 11030
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Investigations of Salmonella enterica serovar newport infections of oysters by using immunohistochemistry and knockout mutagenesis. - Applied and environmental microbiology
The consumption of raw oysters is an important risk factor in the acquisition of food-borne disease, with Salmonella being one of a number of pathogens that have been found in market oysters. Previous work by our lab found that Salmonella was capable of surviving in oysters for over 2 months under laboratory conditions, and this study sought to further investigate Salmonella's tissue affinity and mechanism of persistence within the oysters. Immunohistochemistry was used to show that Salmonella was capable of breaching the epithelial barriers, infecting the deeper connective tissues of the oysters, and evading destruction by the oysters' phagocytic hemocytes. To further investigate the mechanism of these infections, genes vital to the function of Salmonella's two main type III secretion systems were disrupted and the survivability of these knockout mutants within oysters was assayed. When the Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 and 2 mutant strains were exposed to oysters, there were no detectable deficiencies in their abilities to survive, suggesting that Salmonella's long-term infection of oysters does not rely upon these two important pathogenicity islands and must be due to some other, currently unknown, mechanism.
Repair pathways evident in human liver organ slices. - Toxicology in vitro : an international journal published in association with BIBRA
The extension of human liver slice culture viability for several days broadens the potential of this ex vivo model for characterizing pathways of organ injury and repair, and allows for the multiple dosing of compounds. Extended viability is demonstrated by continued synthesis of GSH and ATP, and maintenance of intracellular K(+) levels. Gene expression profiling revealed the activation of regeneration pathways via increased expression of collagens (I, IV, and V), laminins, ninjurin, growth factors (EGF, epiregulin, and TGF-Î²1), matrix metalloproteinase-7, and insulin like growth factor 5. Collagen IV protein levels began to increase by day 4 of culture. Some markers of hepatic stellate cells, detected by RT-PCR, were up-regulated (HSP47, Î±SMA, pro-collagen 1a1, PDGF receptor, thrombospondin-2) with time in culture, while other markers exhibited no change or were down-regulated (Î±B-crystallin, synaptophysin), suggesting that the induction of regenerative pathways may in part be the role of the stellate cells as well as resident fibroblasts. Complimentary to the gene expression was evidence of regeneration in the human liver slices, as evaluated by histopathology. Improvements in organ acquisition, organ slice preparation and culture methods demonstrates that organ slice viability, integrity and morphology can be extended reproducibly for several days in culture which allows for the investigation of injury and repair processes.Copyright Â© 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Guidelines for resident training in veterinary clinical pathology. III: cytopathology and surgical pathology. - Veterinary clinical pathology / American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology
The Education Committee of the American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology has identified a need for improved structure and guidance of training residents in clinical pathology. This article is the third in a series of articles that address this need. The goals of this article are to describe learning objectives and competencies in knowledge, abilities, and skills in cytopathology and surgical pathology (CSP); provide options and ideas for training activities; and identify resources in veterinary CSP for faculty, training program coordinators, and residents. Guidelines were developed in consultation with Education Committee members and peer experts and with evaluation of the literature. The primary objectives of training in CSP are: (1) to develop a thorough, extensive, and relevant knowledge base of biomedical and clinical sciences applicable to the practice of CSP in domestic animals, laboratory animals, and other nondomestic animal species; (2) to be able to reason, think critically, investigate, use scientific evidence, and communicate effectively when making diagnoses and consulting and to improve and advance the practice of pathology; and (3) to acquire selected technical skills used in CSP and pathology laboratory management. These guidelines define expected competencies that will help ensure proficiency, leadership, and the advancement of knowledge in veterinary CSP and will provide a useful framework for didactic and clinical activities in resident-training programs.
Equine colitis X associated with infection by Clostridium difficile NAP1/027. - Journal of veterinary diagnostic investigation : official publication of the American Association of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnosticians, Inc
A 14-year-old Quarter Horse with a 48-hr history of colic was euthanized after failure to respond to treatment. At necropsy, cecal and colonic mucosae were congested throughout, and there was segmental edema and significant thickening of the intestinal wall. Excessive numbers of mononuclear cells were found in mucosal lamina propria. Submucosal hemorrhage was diffuse and extensive, and Clostridium difficile toxins A and B were detected. Large numbers of C. difficile were isolated, and genetic characterization revealed them to be North American pulsed-field gel electrophoresis type 1, polymerase chain reaction ribotype 027, and toxinotype III. Genes for the binary toxin were present, and toxin negative-regulator tcdC contained an 18-bp deletion. This genotype comprises the current human "epidemic strain," which is associated with human C. difficile-associated disease of greater than historical severity. The diagnosis was peracute typhlocolitis, with lesions and history typical of those attributed to colitis X.
Vaccine-induced cellular immune responses differ from innate responses in susceptible and resistant strains of mice infected with Coccidioides posadasii. - Infection and immunity
Susceptibility to Coccidioides spp. varies widely in humans and other mammals and also among individuals within a species. Among strains of mice with various susceptibilities, immunohistopathology revealed that C57BL/6 mice were highly susceptible to the disease following intranasal infection, DBA/2n mice were intermediate, and Swiss-Webster mice were innately resistant. Resistant Swiss-Webster mice developed prominent perivascular/peribronchiolar lymphocytic cuffing and well-formed granulomas with few fungal elements and debris in the necrotic center, surrounded by a mantle of macrophages, lymphocytes, and fibrocytes. Susceptible C57BL/6 mice became moribund between 14 and 18 days postinfection, with overwhelming numbers of neutrophils and spherules and very few T cells, the drastic reduction of which was associated with failure and death, while intermediate DBA/2n mice controlled the fungal burden but demonstrated progressive lung inflammation with prominent suppuration, and they deteriorated clinically. Vaccinated C57BL/6 mice had an early and robust lymphocyte response, which included significantly higher Mac2(+), CD3(+), and CD4(+) cell scores on day 18 than those of innately resistant SW mice and DBA/2n mice; they also had prominent perivascular/peribronchiolar lymphocytic infiltrates not present in their unvaccinated counterparts, and they appeared to be resolving lesions by day 56 compared to the other two strains, based on significantly lower disease scores and observably smaller and fewer lesions with few spherules and neutrophils.
Coccidioidomycosis in dogs and cats: a review. - Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association
The dimorphic fungi Coccidioides immitis and Coccidioides posadasii are the causative agents of coccidioidomycosis. Dogs and cats residing in and visiting endemic areas are at risk of exposure to infectious arthrospores. The primary infection is pulmonary and frequently results in chronic cough. Disseminated disease is common and causes cutaneous, osseous, cardiac, ocular, nervous system, or other organ disease. Radiographic changes include a variable degree of interstitial pulmonary infiltration, hilar lymphadenopathy, and osseous lesions. Serological titers support the diagnosis, but definitive diagnosis relies on identification of Coccidioides in cytological or tissue samples. Coccidioidomycosis should be considered in any dog or cat that has been potentially exposed during the previous 3 years and is presented with chronic illness, respiratory signs, lameness, lymphadenopathy, nonhealing cutaneous lesions, or neurological, ocular, or cardiac abnormalities.
Suggested guidelines for immunohistochemical techniques in veterinary diagnostic laboratories. - Journal of veterinary diagnostic investigation : official publication of the American Association of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnosticians, Inc
This document is the consensus of the American Association of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnosticians (AAVLD) Subcommittee on Standardization of Immunohistochemistry on a set of guidelines for immunohistochemistry (IHC) testing in veterinary laboratories. Immunohistochemistry is a powerful ancillary methodology frequently used in many veterinary laboratories for both diagnostic and research purposes. However, neither standardization nor validation of IHC tests has been completely achieved in veterinary medicine. This document addresses both issues. Topics covered include antibody selection, fixation, antigen retrieval, antibody incubation, antibody dilutions, tissue and reagent controls, buffers, and detection systems. The validation of an IHC test is addressed for both infectious diseases and neoplastic processes. In addition, storage and handling of IHC reagents, interpretation, quality control and assurance, and troubleshooting are also discussed. Proper standardization and validation of IHC will improve the quality of diagnostics in veterinary laboratories.
Characterization of the MUC1.Tg/MIN transgenic mouse as a model for studying antigen-specific immunotherapy of adenomas. - Vaccine
A bigenic MUC1.Tg/MIN mouse model was developed by crossing Apc/(MIN/+) (MIN) mice with human MUC1 transgenic mice to evaluate MUC1 antigen-specific immunotherapy of intestinal adenomas. The MUC1.Tg/MIN mice developed adenomas at a rate comparable to that of MIN mice and had similar levels of serum MUC1 antigen. A MUC1-based vaccine consisting of MHC class I-restricted MUC1 peptides, a MHC class II-restricted pan-helper peptide, unmethylated CpG oligodeoxynucleotide and GM-CSF caused flattening of adenomas and significantly reduced the number of large adenomas. Immunization was successful in generating a MUC1-directed immune response evidenced by increased MUC1 peptide-specific anti-tumor cytotoxicity and IFN-gamma secretion by lymphocytes.
Fungal diagnostics: current techniques and future trends. - The Veterinary clinics of North America. Small animal practice
The diagnosis of fungal disease is a challenge that requires diligent attention to history and clinical signs as well as an astute ability to interpret laboratory data. Because fungal disease can mimic other infectious and neoplastic diseases in clinical presentation, the clinician has to be aware of fungal diseases common locally as well as in other regions of the country. A global approach to the diagnosis of fungal disease that correlates clinical signs as well as physical examination, clinical pathology, and histopathology findings with serology, culture, and the newer immunohistochemical and molecular techniques, where available, is the best approach to optimize the identification of the underlying agent.
Maximizing the diagnostic value of cytology in small animal practice. - The Veterinary clinics of North America. Small animal practice
Cytology is a valuable diagnostic tool in veterinary medicine. A review of the literature indicates its utility in evaluation of specific lesions. The information obtained from cytology is greatly enhanced by a good understanding of its advantages and disadvantages and an open and interactive relationship between clinicians and pathologists. Critical selection of appropriate lesions, good sampling technique, quality sample handling, and provision of a complete clinical history and lesion description enhance the utility of the information returned to the clinician by the pathologist. A good cytologic diagnosis is a team effort.
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Nsuh-Dept Of Pediatrics 300 Community Drive Manhasset, NY 11030
300 Community Dr Dept Of Anesthesia
Nsuh-Dept Of Pathology 300 Community Drive
300 Community Dr Department Of Radiology
300 Community Dr 9 Tower, Dept Of Neurology
1165 Northern Blvd Suite 300
Nsuh Dept Of Medicine Division Of Gastroenterology 300 Community Drive