Dr. Ronald  Wapner  Md image

Dr. Ronald Wapner Md

161 Fort Washington Ave
New York NY 10032
212 057-7334
Medical School: Other - Unknown
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License #: 235751-1
NPI: 1285666842
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Pregnancy as a Window to Future Cardiovascular Health: Design and Implementation of the nuMoM2b Heart Health Study. - American journal of epidemiology
The National Institute of Child Health and Human Development's Nulliparous Pregnancy Outcomes Study-Monitoring Mothers-to-Be (nuMoM2b) Heart Health Study (HHS) was designed to investigate the relationships between adverse pregnancy outcomes and modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease. The ongoing nuMoM2b-HHS, which started in 2013, is a prospective follow-up of the nuMoM2b cohort, which included 10,038 women recruited between 2010 and 2013 from 8 centers across the United States who were initially observed over the course of their first pregnancies. In this report, we detail the design and study procedures of the nuMoM2b-HHS. Women in the pregnancy cohort who consented to be contacted for participation in future studies were approached at 6-month intervals to ascertain health information and to maintain ongoing contact. Two to 5 years after completion of the pregnancy documented in the nuMoM2b, women in the nuMoM2b-HHS were invited to an in-person study visit. During this visit, they completed psychosocial and medical history questionnaires and had clinical measurements and biological specimens obtained. A subcohort of participants who had objective assessments of sleep-disordered breathing during pregnancy were asked to repeat this investigation. This unique prospective observational study includes a large, geographically and ethnically diverse cohort, rich depth of phenotypic information about adverse pregnancy outcomes, and clinical data and biospecimens from early in the index pregnancy onward. Data obtained from this cohort will provide mechanistic and clinical insights into how data on a first pregnancy can provide information about the potential development of subsequent risk factors for cardiovascular disease.© The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:
Preterm neonatal morbidity and mortality by gestational age: a contemporary cohort. - American journal of obstetrics and gynecology
Although preterm birth <37 weeks' gestation is the leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality in the United States, the majority of data regarding preterm neonatal outcomes come from older studies, and many reports have been limited to only very preterm neonates. Delineation of neonatal outcomes by delivery gestational age is needed to further clarify the continuum of mortality and morbidity frequencies among preterm neonates.We sought to describe the contemporary frequencies of neonatal death, neonatal morbidities, and neonatal length of stay across the spectrum of preterm gestational ages.This was a secondary analysis of an obstetric cohort of 115,502 women and their neonates who were born in 25 hospitals nationwide, 2008 through 2011. All liveborn nonanomalous singleton preterm (23.0-36.9 weeks of gestation) neonates were included in this analysis. The frequency of neonatal death, major neonatal morbidity (intraventricular hemorrhage grade III/IV, seizures, hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, necrotizing enterocolitis stage II/III, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, persistent pulmonary hypertension), and minor neonatal morbidity (hypotension requiring treatment, intraventricular hemorrhage grade 1/2, necrotizing enterocolitis stage 1, respiratory distress syndrome, hyperbilirubinemia requiring treatment) were calculated by delivery gestational age; each neonate was classified once by the worst outcome for which criteria was met.In all, 8334 deliveries met inclusion criteria. There were 119 (1.4%) neonatal deaths. In all, 657 (7.9%) neonates had major morbidity, 3136 (37.6%) had minor morbidity, and 4422 (53.1%) survived without any of the studied morbidities. Deaths declined rapidly with each advancing week of gestation. This decline in death was accompanied by an increase in major neonatal morbidity, which peaked at 54.8% at 25 weeks of gestation. As frequencies of death and major neonatal morbidity fell, minor neonatal morbidity increased, peaking at 81.7% at 31 weeks of gestation. The frequency of all morbidities fell >32 weeks. Neonatal length of hospital stay decreased significantly with each additional completed week of pregnancy; among babies delivered from 26-32 weeks of gestation, each additional week in utero reduced the subsequent length of neonatal hospitalization by a minimum of 8 days. The median postmenstrual age at discharge nadired at 35.7 weeks' postmenstrual age for babies born at 32-33 weeks of gestation.Our data show that there is a continuum of outcomes, with each additional week for gestation conferring survival benefit while reducing the length of initial hospitalization. These contemporary data can be useful for patient counseling regarding preterm outcomes.Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cell-free DNA vs sequential screening for the detection of fetal chromosomal abnormalities. - American journal of obstetrics and gynecology
Sequential and cell-free DNA (cfDNA) screening are both tests for the common aneuploidies. Although cfDNA has a greater detection rate (DR) for trisomy 21, sequential screening also can identify risk for other aneuploidies. The comparative DR for all chromosomal abnormalities is unknown.To compare sequential and cfDNA screening for detection of fetal chromosomal abnormalities in a general prenatal cohort.The performance of sequential screening for the detection of chromosome abnormalities in a cohort of patients screened through the California Prenatal Screening Program with estimated due dates between August 2009 and December 2012 was compared with the estimated DRs and false-positive rates (FPRs) of cfDNA screening if used as primary screening in this same cohort. DR and FPR for cfDNA screening were abstracted from the published literature, as were the rates of "no results" in euploid and aneuploid cases. Chromosome abnormalities in the entire cohort were categorized as detectable (trisomies 13, 18, and 21, and sex chromosome aneuploidy), or not detectable (other chromosome abnormalities) by cfDNA screening. DR and FPR were compared for individual and all chromosome abnormalities. DR and FPR for the cohort were compared if "no results" cases were considered "screen negative" or "screen positive" for aneuploidy. DR and FPR rates were compared by use of the Fisher exact test.Of 452,901 women who underwent sequential screening during the time period of the study, 2575 (0.57%) had a fetal chromosomal abnormality; 2101 were detected for a DR of 81.6%, and 19,929 euploid fetuses had positive sequential screening for an FPR rate of 4.5%. If no results cases were presumed normal, cfDNA screening would have detected 1820 chromosome abnormalities (70.7%) with an FPR of 0.7%. If no results cases were considered screen positive, 1985 (77.1%) cases would be detected at a total screen positive rate of 3.7%. In either case, the detection rate of sequential screening for all aneuploidies in the cohort was greater than cfDNA (P<.0001).For primary population screening, cfDNA provides lower DR than sequential screening if considering detection of all chromosomal abnormalities. Assuming that no results cfDNA cases are high-risk improves cfDNA detection but with a greater FPR. cfDNA should not be adopted as primary screening without further evaluation of the implications for detection of all chromosomal abnormalities and how to best evaluate no results cases.Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Evaluation of delivery options for second-stage events. - American journal of obstetrics and gynecology
Cesarean delivery in the second stage of labor is common, whereas the frequency of operative vaginal delivery has been declining. However, data comparing outcomes for attempted operative vaginal delivery vs cesarean in the second stage are scant. Previous studies that examine operative vaginal delivery have compared it to a baseline risk of complications from a spontaneous vaginal delivery and cesarean delivery. However, when a woman has a need for intervention in the second stage, spontaneous vaginal delivery is not an option she or the provider can choose. Thus, the appropriate clinical comparison is cesarean vs operative vaginal delivery.Our objective was to compare outcomes by the first attempted operative delivery (vacuum, forceps vs cesarean delivery) in patients needing second-stage assistance at a fetal station of +2 or below.We conducted secondary analysis of an observational obstetric cohort in 25 academically affiliated US hospitals over a 3-year period. A subset of ≥37 weeks, nonanomalous, vertex, singletons, with no prior vaginal delivery who reached a station of +2 or below and underwent an attempt at an operative delivery were included. Indications included for operative delivery were: failure to descend, nonreassuring fetal status, labor dystocia, or maternal exhaustion. The primary outcomes included a composite neonatal outcome (death, fracture, length of stay ≥3 days beyond mother's, low Apgar, subgaleal hemorrhage, ventilator support, hypoxic encephalopathy, brachial plexus injury, facial nerve palsy) and individual maternal outcomes (postpartum hemorrhage, third- and fourth-degree tears [severe lacerations], and postpartum infection). Outcomes were examined by the 3 attempted modes of delivery. Odds ratios (OR) were calculated for primary outcomes adjusting for confounders. Final mode of delivery was quantified.In all, 2531 women met inclusion criteria. No difference in the neonatal composite outcome was observed between groups. Vacuum attempt was associated with the lowest frequency of maternal complications (postpartum infection 0.2% vs 0.9% forceps vs 5.3% cesarean, postpartum hemorrhage 1.4% vs 2.8% forceps vs 3.8% cesarean), except for severe lacerations (19.1% vs 33.8% forceps vs 0% cesarean). When confounders were taken into account, both forceps (OR, 0.16; 95% confidence interval, 0.05-0.49) and vacuum (OR, 0.04; 95% confidence interval, 0.01-0.17) were associated with a significantly lower odds of postpartum infection. The neonatal composite and postpartum hemorrhage were not significantly different between modes of attempted delivery. Cesarean occurred in 6.4% and 4.4% of attempted vacuum and forceps groups (P = .04).In patients needing second-stage delivery assistance with a station of +2 or below, attempted operative vaginal delivery was associated with a lower frequency of postpartum infection, but higher frequency of severe lacerations.Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The effect of chorionic villus sampling on the fraction of cell-free fetal DNA in maternal plasma. - The journal of maternal-fetal & neonatal medicine : the official journal of the European Association of Perinatal Medicine, the Federation of Asia and Oceania Perinatal Societies, the International Society of Perinatal Obstetricians
This study aims to assess whether the fraction of cell-free fetal DNA (cffDNA) is different at 24 h or 7 days after chorionic villus sampling (CVS), compared to subjects that do not undergo CVS.Pregnant women undergoing CVS for genetic testing and matched subjects undergoing first trimester combined screening alone were enrolled between 11(0/7) and 13(6/7) weeks gestation. The fractions of cffDNA were compared before the procedure, 24 h after and 7 days after between CVS patients and ultrasound-only patients.Forty-five women underwent CVS and 45 had ultrasound alone. The women undergoing CVS were, on average, older (36.8 years versus 28.5 years, p=0.001) and had a higher baseline fraction of cffDNA than women in the comparison group (11.4% versus 9.8%, p=0.033). Both groups had a decrease in the mean fraction of cffDNA after 24 h. After 7 days, the trend of the mean fraction of cffDNA continued to decline in the CVS group but began to trend toward an increase in the ultrasound only group.CVS does not significantly increase the fraction of cell free fetal (placental) DNA in the maternal plasma. A downward trend in cffDNA in maternal plasma is seen at 24 h and 7 days following CVS compared to baseline.
Racial/ethnic standards for fetal growth: the NICHD Fetal Growth Studies. - American journal of obstetrics and gynecology
Fetal growth is associated with long-term health yet no appropriate standards exist for the early identification of undergrown or overgrown fetuses. We sought to develop contemporary fetal growth standards for 4 self-identified US racial/ethnic groups.We recruited for prospective follow-up 2334 healthy women with low-risk, singleton pregnancies from 12 community and perinatal centers from July 2009 through January 2013. The cohort comprised: 614 (26%) non-Hispanic whites, 611 (26%) non-Hispanic blacks, 649 (28%) Hispanics, and 460 (20%) Asians. Women were screened at 8w0d to 13w6d for maternal health status associated with presumably normal fetal growth (aged 18-40 years; body mass index 19.0-29.9 kg/m(2); healthy lifestyles and living conditions; low-risk medical and obstetrical history); 92% of recruited women completed the protocol. Women were randomized among 4 ultrasonography schedules for longitudinal fetal measurement using the Voluson E8 (GE Healthcare, Milwaukee, WI). In-person interviews and anthropometric assessments were conducted at each visit; medical records were abstracted. The fetuses of 1737 (74%) women continued to be low risk (uncomplicated pregnancy, absent anomalies) at birth, and their measurements were included in the standards. Racial/ethnic-specific fetal growth curves were estimated using linear mixed models with cubic splines. Estimated fetal weight (EFW) and biometric parameter percentiles (5th, 50th, 95th) were determined for each gestational week and comparisons made by race/ethnicity, with and without adjustment for maternal and sociodemographic factors.EFW differed significantly by race/ethnicity >20 weeks. Specifically at 39 weeks, the 5th, 50th, and 95th percentiles were 2790, 3505, and 4402 g for white; 2633, 3336, and 4226 g for Hispanic; 2621, 3270, and 4078 g for Asian; and 2622, 3260, and 4053 g for black women (adjusted global P < .001). For individual parameters, racial/ethnic differences by order of detection were: humerus and femur lengths (10 weeks), abdominal circumference (16 weeks), head circumference (21 weeks), and biparietal diameter (27 weeks). The study-derived standard based solely on the white group erroneously classifies as much as 15% of non-white fetuses as growth restricted (EFW <5th percentile).Significant differences in fetal growth were found among the 4 groups. Racial/ethnic-specific standards improve the precision in evaluating fetal growth.Published by Elsevier Inc.
CO-occurring exposure to perchlorate, nitrate and thiocyanate alters thyroid function in healthy pregnant women. - Environmental research
Adequate maternal thyroid function during pregnancy is necessary for normal fetal brain development, making pregnancy a critical window of vulnerability to thyroid disrupting insults. Sodium/iodide symporter (NIS) inhibitors, namely perchlorate, nitrate, and thiocyanate, have been shown individually to competitively inhibit uptake of iodine by the thyroid. Several epidemiologic studies examined the association between these individual exposures and thyroid function. Few studies have examined the effect of this chemical mixture on thyroid function during pregnancyWe examined the cross sectional association between urinary perchlorate, thiocyanate and nitrate concentrations and thyroid function among healthy pregnant women living in New York City using weighted quantile sum (WQS) regression.We measured thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and free thyroxine (FreeT4) in blood samples; perchlorate, thiocyanate, nitrate and iodide in urine samples collected from 284 pregnant women at 12 (±2.8) weeks gestation. We examined associations between urinary analyte concentrations and TSH or FreeT4 using linear regression or WQS adjusting for gestational age, urinary iodide and creatinine.Individual analyte concentrations in urine were significantly correlated (Spearman's r 0.4-0.5, p<0.001). Linear regression analyses did not suggest associations between individual concentrations and thyroid function. The WQS revealed a significant positive association between the weighted sum of urinary concentrations of the three analytes and increased TSH. Perchlorate had the largest weight in the index, indicating the largest contribution to the WQS.Co-exposure to perchlorate, nitrate and thiocyanate may alter maternal thyroid function, specifically TSH, during pregnancy.Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Severe placental abruption: clinical definition and associations with maternal complications. - American journal of obstetrics and gynecology
Placental abruption traditionally is defined as the premature separation of the implanted placenta before the delivery of the fetus. The existing clinical criteria of severity rely exclusively on fetal (fetal distress or fetal death) and maternal complications without consideration of neonatal or preterm delivery-related complications. However, two-thirds of abruption cases are accompanied by fetal or neonatal complications, including preterm delivery. A clinically meaningful classification for abruption therefore should include not only maternal complications but also adverse fetal and neonatal outcomes that include intrauterine growth restriction and preterm delivery.The purpose of this study was to define severe placental abruption and to compare serious maternal morbidity profiles of such cases with all other cases of abruption (ie, mild abruption) and nonabruption cases.We performed a retrospective cohort analysis using the Premier database of hospitalizations that resulted in singleton births in the United States between 2006 and 2012 (n = 27,796,465). Severe abruption was defined as abruption accompanied by at least 1 of the following events: maternal (disseminated intravascular coagulation, hypovolemic shock, blood transfusion, hysterectomy, renal failure, or in-hospital death), fetal (nonreassuring fetal status, intrauterine growth restriction, or fetal death), or neonatal (neonatal death, preterm delivery or small for gestational age) complications. Abruption cases that did not qualify as being severe were classified as mild abruption cases. The morbidity profile included amniotic fluid embolism, pulmonary edema, acute respiratory or heart failure, acute myocardial infarction, cardiomyopathy, puerperal cerebrovascular disorders, or coma. Associations were expressed as rate ratios with 95% confidence intervals that were derived from fitting log-linear Poisson regression models.The overall prevalence rate of abruption was 9.6 per 1000, of which two-thirds of cases were classified as being severe (6.5 per 1000). Serious maternal complications occurred in 15.4, 33.3, and 141.7 per 10,000 among nonabruption cases and mild and severe abruption cases, respectively. In comparison with no abruption, the rate ratio for serious maternal complications were 1.52 (95% confidence interval, 1.35-1.72) and 4.29 (95% confidence interval, 4.11-4.47) in women with mild and severe placental abruption, respectively. Rate ratios for the individual complications were 2- to 7-fold higher among severe abruption cases. Furthermore, the rate ratios for serious maternal complications among severe abruption cases compared with mild abruption cases was 3.47 (95% confidence interval, 3.05-3.95). This association was considerably stronger for virtually all maternal complications among cases with severe abruption compared with mild abruption. Annual rates of mild and severe abruption were fairly constant during the study period. Although the maternal complication rate among non-abruption births was stable from 2006-2012, the rate of complications among mild abruption cases dropped from 2006-2008 and then leveled off thereafter. In contrast, the rate of serious complications among severe abruption cases remained fairly stable from 2006-2010 and increased sharply thereafter.Severe abruption was associated with a distinctively higher morbidity risk profile compared with the other 2 groups. The clinical characteristics and morbidity profile of mild abruption were more similar to those of women without an abruption. These findings suggest that the definition of severe placental abruption based on the proposed specific criteria is clinically relevant and may facilitate epidemiologic and genetic research.Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Relationship of Early Pregnancy Waist-to-Hip Ratio versus Body Mass Index with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus and Insulin Resistance. - American journal of perinatology
Objective To determine the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and insulin resistance (IR) in obesity defined by body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), or both combined. Methods Secondary analysis of a randomized multicenter trial of antioxidant supplementation versus placebo in nulliparous low-risk women to prevent pregnancy associated hypertension. Women between 9 and 16 weeks with data for WHR and BMI were analyzed for GDM (n = 2,300). Those with fasting glucose and insulin between 22 and 26 weeks (n = 717) were analyzed for IR by homeostatic model assessment of IR (normal, ≤ 75th percentile). WHR and BMI were categorized as normal (WHR, < 0.80; BMI, < 25 kg/m(2)); overweight (WHR, 0.8-0.84; BMI, 25-29.9 kg/m(2)); and obese (WHR, ≥ 0.85; BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2)). Receiver operating characteristic curves and logistic regression models were used. Results Compared with normal, the risks of GDM or IR were higher in obese by BMI or WHR. The subgroup with obesity by WHR but not by BMI had no increased risk of GDM. BMI was a better predictor of IR (area under the curve [AUC]: 0.71 [BMI], 0.65 [WHR], p = 0.03) but similar to WHR for GDM (AUC: 0.68 [BMI], 0.63 [WHR], p = 0.18). Conclusion Increased WHR and BMI in early pregnancy are associated with IR and GDM. BMI is a better predictor of IR compared with WHR. Adding WHR to BMI does not improve its ability to detect GDM or IR.Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.
Antenatal Magnesium and Cerebral Palsy in Preterm Infants. - The Journal of pediatrics
To evaluate the relationship of maternal antenatal magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) with neonatal cranial ultrasound abnormalities and cerebral palsy (CP).In a randomized trial of MgSO4 or placebo in women at high risk of preterm delivery, up to 3 cranial ultrasounds were obtained in the neonatal period. Images were reviewed by at least 2 pediatric radiologists masked to treatment and other clinical conditions. Diagnoses were predefined for intraventricular hemorrhage, periventricular leukomalacia, intracerebral echolucency or echodensity, and ventriculomegaly. CP was diagnosed at 2 years of age by standardized neurologic examination.Intraventricular hemorrhage, periventricular leukomalacia, intracerebral echolucency or echodensity, and ventriculomegaly were all strongly associated with an increased risk of CP. MgSO4 administration did not affect the risk of cranial ultrasound abnormality observed at 35 weeks postmenstrual age or later. However, for the 82% of infants born at <32 weeks gestation, MgSO4 was associated with a reduction in risk of echolucency or echodensity. The reduction in risk for echolucency explained 21% of the effect of MgSO4 on CP (P = .04), and for echodensity explained 20% of the effect (P = .02).MgSO4 given prior to preterm delivery was associated with decreased risk of developing echodensities and echolucencies at <32 weeks gestation. However, this effect can only partially explain the effect of MgSO4 on CP at 2 years of NCT00014989.Published by Elsevier Inc.

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