7260 S Cimarron Rd Suite 150
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EFFECTS OF COFFEE AND CAFFEINE ANHYDROUS INTAKE DURING CREATINE LOADING. - Journal of strength and conditioning research / National Strength & Conditioning Association
The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of 5 d of creatine (CRE) loading alone or in combination with caffeine anhydrous (CAF) or coffee (COF) on upper and lower body strength and sprint performance. Physically active males (n=54; Mean Â± SD; Age = 20.1 Â± 2.1 yrs; Weight = 78.8 Â± 8.8 kg) completed baseline testing, consisting of one-repetition maximum (1RM) and repetitions to fatigue (RTF) with 80% 1RM for bench press (BP) and leg press (LP), followed by a repeated sprint test of five, 10 s sprints separated by 60 s rest on a cycle ergometer to determine peak power (PP) and total power (TP). At least 72 hr later, subjects were randomly assigned to supplement with CRE (5 g creatine monohydrate, 4 times*d; n=14), CRE+CAF (CRE + 300 mg*d of CAF; n=13), CRE+COF (CRE + 8.9 g COF, yielding 303 mg caffeine; n=13), or placebo (PLA; n=14) for 5 d. Serum creatinine (CRN) was measured prior to and following supplementation and on day six, participants repeated pre-testing procedures. Strength measures were improved in all groups (p<0.05), with no significant time Ã— treatment interactions. No significant interaction or main effects were observed for PP. For TP, a time Ã— sprint interaction was observed (p<0.05), with no significant interactions between treatment groups. A time Ã— treatment interaction was observed for serum CRN values (p<0.05) that showed increases in all groups except PLA. Four subjects reported mild gastrointestinal discomfort with CRE+CAF, with no side effects reported in other groups. These findings suggest that neither CRE alone, nor in combination with CAF or COF, significantly affected performance compared to PLA.
An exploratory analysis of personality, attitudes, and study skills on the learning curve within a team-based learning environment. - American journal of pharmaceutical education
To examine factors that determine the interindividual variability of learning within a team-based learning environment.Students in a pharmacokinetics course were given 4 interim, low-stakes cumulative assessments throughout the semester and a cumulative final examination. Students' Myers-Briggs personality type was assessed, as well as their study skills, motivations, and attitudes towards team-learning. A latent curve model (LCM) was applied and various covariates were assessed to improve the regression model.A quadratic LCM was applied for the first 4 assessments to predict final examination performance. None of the covariates examined significantly impacted the regression model fit except metacognitive self-regulation, which explained some of the variability in the rate of learning. There were some correlations between personality type and attitudes towards team learning, with introverts having a lower opinion of team-learning than extroverts.The LCM could readily describe the learning curve. Extroverted and introverted personality types had the same learning performance even though preference for team-learning was lower in introverts. Other personality traits, study skills, or practice did not significantly contribute to the learning variability in this course.
An eight-year retrospective study in "flipped" pharmacokinetics courses. - American journal of pharmaceutical education
To assess the impact on student performance of increased active learning strategies in a foundational pharmacokinetics course and a clinical pharmacokinetics course over an 8-year period.A foundational pharmacokinetics course with a lecture-with-active-learning (LAL) format was redesigned to a recitation-format (REC) using smaller groups of students (ie, the class divided into thirds) and eventually to a team-based learning (TBL) format. The lecture-based clinical pharmacokinetics course was redesigned to a case-based learning (CBL) format to encourage preclass preparation with class time used for application; this course format underwent minor redesigns over an 8-year period. An analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was performed on examination scores in the clinical course based on foundational course format changes. End-of-semester student evaluations of the course were used as a secondary measure of impact.The highest grades in the clinical course were associated with the TBL format within the foundational course compared to LAL format (effect size 0.78). The REC format in the foundational course compared to LAL was associated with higher performance in the clinical course (effect size 0.50). Examination performance in the clinical course had a small increase when the foundational course was transitioned from the REC format to the TBL format (effect size 0.27). There was a trend within the foundational course that overall student ratings of the course decreased with enhanced self-directed learning; there was no change in overall ratings of the clinical course.Increasing the amount of active learning within the foundational pharmacokinetics course increases performance in the clinical course but this increase in performance may be associated with decreases in student evaluations of the foundational course.
Faculty development program models to advance teaching and learning within health science programs. - American journal of pharmaceutical education
Within health science programs there has been a call for more faculty development, particularly for teaching and learning. The primary objectives of this review were to describe the current landscape for faculty development programs for teaching and learning and make recommendations for the implementation of new faculty development programs. A thorough search of the pertinent health science databases was conducted, including the Education Resource Information Center (ERIC), MEDLINE, and EMBASE, and faculty development books and relevant information found were reviewed in order to provide recommendations for best practices. Faculty development for teaching and learning comes in a variety of forms, from individuals charged to initiate activities to committees and centers. Faculty development has been effective in improving faculty perceptions on the value of teaching, increasing motivation and enthusiasm for teaching, increasing knowledge and behaviors, and disseminating skills. Several models exist that can be implemented to support faculty teaching development. Institutions need to make informed decisions about which plan could be most successfully implemented in their college or school.
Best practices for implementing team-based learning in pharmacy education. - American journal of pharmaceutical education
Colleges and schools of pharmacy are incorporating more team-based learning (TBL) into their curriculum. Published resources are available to assist instructors with implementing TBL and describing it in the health professions literature. The 7 core elements include: team formation, readiness assurance, immediate feedback, sequencing of in-class problem solving, the 4 "S" structure for developing team application exercises (significant problem, same problem, specific answer choice, simultaneous reporting), incentive structure, and peer evaluation. This paper summarizes best practices related to implementation of TBL in pharmacy education, including courses taught using teaching teams.
Characteristics of postgraduate year two pharmacy residency programs with a secondary emphasis on academia. - American journal of pharmaceutical education
To identify and characterize postgraduate year 2 (PGY2) pharmacy residency programs with a secondary emphasis on academia.Residency programs were identified using the American College of Clinical Pharmacy (ACCP) online directory of residencies, fellowships, and graduate programs and cross-referenced with the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists (ASHP) residency directory. An electronic questionnaire was developed and sent to residency program directors to collect attributes of each program. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics.Most programs were initiated during the past decade. More than two-thirds were ASHP-accredited and half had a primary specialty in ambulatory care. The average program structure consisted of clinical practice service (50.4%), experiential teaching (18.5%), classroom-based teaching (16.4%), research (10.7%), and service (3.7%). Most residents (90.0%) accepted an academic appointment upon completion of these programs.Postgraduate year 2 residency programs with an emphasis on academia provide experiences in clinical practice, experiential and classroom teaching, research, and service. These residency programs result in participants obtaining academic positions after graduation.
Correlation of the Health Sciences Reasoning Test with student admission variables. - American journal of pharmaceutical education
To assess the association between scores on the Health Sciences Reasoning Test (HSRT) and pharmacy student admission variables.During the student admissions process, cognitive data, including undergraduate grade point average and Pharmacy College Admission Test (PCAT) scores, were collected from matriculating doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students. Between 2007 and 2009, the HSRT was administered to 329 first-year PharmD students. Correlations between HSRT scores and cognitive data, previous degree, and gender were examined.After controlling for other predictors, 3 variables were significantly associated with HSRT scores: percentile rank on the reading comprehension (p<0.001), verbal (p<0.001), and quantitative (p<0.001) subsections of the PCAT.Scores on the reading comprehension, verbal, and quantitative sections of the PCAT were significantly associated with HSRT scores. Some elements of critical thinking may be measured by these PCAT subsections. However, the HSRT offers information absent in standard cognitive admission criteria.
Institutional strategies to achieve diversity and inclusion in pharmacy education. - American journal of pharmaceutical education
To evaluate the impact of institutional initiatives to enhance recruitment of minority students as a strategy to increase diversity and inclusion.The Office of Recruitment, Development, and Diversity Initiatives (ORDDI) was established and several initiatives were developed within the UNC Eshelman School of Pharmacy to promote student diversity and engagement. Applicant demographics and admission data were tracked from 2007-2012 to assess program performance and effectiveness.Over the 6-year period, 812 recruitment events were facilitated. Twenty-nine percent of the students admitted from 2007-2012 participated in 1 or more ORDDI recruitment programs prior to admission. Forty-two percent of this cohort were minorities. The overall average minority profile of students increased from 19% to 25% after establishing the ORDDI.To achieve student diversity and inclusion, a multifaceted effort is required, involving a continuum of institutional strategies, including innovative practice models and high impact programs.
Development of a course review process. - American journal of pharmaceutical education
To describe and assess a course review process designed to enhance course quality.A course review process led by the curriculum and assessment committees was designed for all required courses in the doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) program at a school of pharmacy. A rubric was used by the review team to address 5 areas: course layout and integration, learning outcomes, assessment, resources and materials, and learner interaction.One hundred percent of targeted courses, or 97% of all required courses, were reviewed from January to August 2010 (n=30). Approximately 3.5 recommendations per course were made, resulting in improvement in course evaluation items related to learning outcomes. Ninety-five percent of reviewers and 85% of course directors agreed that the process was objective and the course review process was important.The course review process was objective and effective in improving course quality. Future work will explore the effectiveness of an integrated, continual course review process in improving the quality of pharmacy education.
The impact of team-based learning on a foundational pharmacokinetics course. - American journal of pharmaceutical education
To assess the impact of team-based learning (TBL) in a foundational pharmacokinetics course.The course was arranged into 5 modules based on the TBL format. Each module contained preclass preparation; readiness-assurance process; and in-class, clinical cases. Survey instruments on professionalism and attitudes of team learning were administered pre- and post-course.Examination grades focused at the evaluation/creation level were significantly higher in the TBL format compared with the previous year. Professionalism scores increased over the course of the semester, particularly in altruism and honesty. Other measures of team-learning attitudes significantly increased over time, although there was no change in major subscales. End-of-semester course evaluations showed improvements in active engagement and in various areas of skill development.The TBL format can be used successfully in a foundational pharmacokinetics course to increase higher levels of learning, team-learning skills, and professionalism in pharmacy students.
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7260 S Cimarron Rd Suite 150 Las Vegas, NV 89113
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