1116 E 8Th St Ste 4
Weslaco TX 78596
Medical School: Other - Unknown
Accepts Medicare: No
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Participates In PQRS: No
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License #: 22914
Taxonomy Codes:1223G0001X 1223P0221X
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Inhibition of Fatty Acid Oxidation Modulates Immunosuppressive Functions of Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells and Enhances Cancer Therapies. - Cancer immunology research
Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) promote tumor growth by inhibiting T-cell immunity and promoting malignant cell proliferation and migration. The therapeutic potential of blocking MDSC in tumors has been limited by their heterogeneity, plasticity, and resistance to various chemotherapy agents. Recent studies have highlighted the role of energy metabolic pathways in the differentiation and function of immune cells; however, the metabolic characteristics regulating MDSC remain unclear. We aimed to determine the energy metabolic pathway(s) used by MDSC, establish its impact on their immunosuppressive function, and test whether its inhibition blocks MDSC and enhances antitumor therapies. Using several murine tumor models, we found that tumor-infiltrating MDSC (T-MDSC) increased fatty acid uptake and activated fatty acid oxidation (FAO). This was accompanied by an increased mitochondrial mass, upregulation of key FAO enzymes, and increased oxygen consumption rate. Pharmacologic inhibition of FAO blocked immune inhibitory pathways and functions in T-MDSC and decreased their production of inhibitory cytokines. FAO inhibition alone significantly delayed tumor growth in a T-cell-dependent manner and enhanced the antitumor effect of adoptive T-cell therapy. Furthermore, FAO inhibition combined with low-dose chemotherapy completely inhibited T-MDSC immunosuppressive effects and induced a significant antitumor effect. Interestingly, a similar increase in fatty acid uptake and expression of FAO-related enzymes was found in human MDSC in peripheral blood and tumors. These results support the possibility of testing FAO inhibition as a novel approach to block MDSC and enhance various cancer therapies. Cancer Immunol Res; 3(11); 1236-47. Â©2015 AACR.Â©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.
[Brain abscess caused by Haemophilus influenzae type E in a pediatric patient suffering from Apert syndrome]. - Revista Argentina de microbiologiÌa
We report a case of a brain abscess caused by Haemophilus influenzae type e in a 12 year-old patient suffering from Apert syndrome. Apert syndrome is characterized by the premature closure of cranial sutures. In 2010 the patient suffered head trauma in the frontal area with cranial fracture and a cerebrospinal fluid fistula. In February 2013 he was admitted to hospital with fever, vomiting and generalized tonic-clonic seizure with deteriorating mental status/progressive sensory impairment. The computerized axial tomographic scan showed a right frontal lesion, perilesional edema, mild ventricular dilatation and pansinusitis. A brain abscess was diagnosed and drained. The clinical sample was then cultured. A gram negative coccobacillus was isolated and identified as Haemophilus influenzae serotype e. Empirical treatment was started with meropenem (120 mg/kg/day) and vancomycin (60 mg/kg/day), which was later switched to ceftriaxone (100 mg/kg/day) and metronidazole (500 mg/8 h) after culture results arrived. The patient was discharged in good clinical condition.Copyright Â© 2014 AsociaciÃ³n Argentina de MicrobiologÃa. Publicado por Elsevier EspaÃ±a. All rights reserved.
l-Arginine depletion blunts antitumor T-cell responses by inducing myeloid-derived suppressor cells. - Cancer research
Enzymatic depletion of the nonessential amino acid l-Arginine (l-Arg) in patients with cancer by the administration of a pegylated form of the catabolic enzyme arginase I (peg-Arg I) has shown some promise as a therapeutic approach. However, l-Arg deprivation also suppresses T-cell responses in tumors. In this study, we sought to reconcile these observations by conducting a detailed analysis of the effects of peg-Arg I on normal T cells. Strikingly, we found that peg-Arg I blocked proliferation and cell-cycle progression in normal activated T cells without triggering apoptosis or blunting T-cell activation. These effects were associated with an inhibition of aerobic glycolysis in activated T cells, but not with significant alterations in mitochondrial oxidative respiration, which thereby regulated survival of T cells exposed to peg-Arg I. Further mechanistic investigations showed that the addition of citrulline, a metabolic precursor for l-Arg, rescued the antiproliferative effects of peg-Arg I on T cells in vitro. Moreover, serum levels of citrulline increased after in vivo administration of peg-Arg I. In support of the hypothesis that peg-Arg I acted indirectly to block T-cell responses in vivo, peg-Arg I inhibited T-cell proliferation in mice by inducing accumulation of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC). MDSC induction by peg-Arg I occurred through the general control nonrepressed-2 eIF2Î± kinase. Moreover, we found that peg-Arg I enhanced the growth of tumors in mice in a manner that correlated with higher MDSC numbers. Taken together, our results highlight the risks of the l-Arg-depleting therapy for cancer treatment and suggest a need for cotargeting MDSC in such therapeutic settings.Â©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.
A review of hair care products for black individuals. - Cutis
Physicians should be prepared to provide professional guidance to black individuals with both chemically treated and natural (ie, nonchemically treated) hair. Patients may seek advice from physicians if they decide to discontinue use of chemical relaxers or if they have sustained damage such as chemical burns, breakage, or hair loss from the misuse of various hair care products. Properly advising this patient population requires a basic understanding of hair morphology in black individuals as well as the unique characteristics of this hair type and the products used to address its needs. Although some products may promote healing properties, misusing or overusing them may cause adverse effects. This article will provide clinicians with a basic understanding of chemically treated and natural hair in black individuals. We also discuss hair care products that are ideal for this patient population and the potential adverse effects based on their chemical formulations.
Enhanced bleaching treatment: opportunities for immune-assisted melanocyte suicide in vitiligo. - Experimental dermatology
Depigmentation in vitiligo occurs by progressive loss of melanocytes from the basal layer of the skin, and can be psychologically devastating to patients. T cell-mediated autoimmunity explains the progressive nature of this disease. Rather than being confronted with periods of rapid depigmentation and bouts of repigmentation, patients with long-standing, treatment-resistant vitiligo can undergo depigmentation treatment. The objective is to remove residual pigmentation to achieve a cosmetically acceptable result--that of skin with a uniform appearance. In the United States, only the use of mono-benzyl ether of hydroquinone (MBEH) is approved for this purpose. However, satisfactory results can take time to appear, and there is a risk of repigmentation. MBEH induces necrotic melanocyte death followed by a cytotoxic T-cell response to remaining, distant melanocytes. As cytotoxic T-cell responses are instrumental to depigmentation, we propose that combining MBEH with immune adjuvant therapies will accelerate immune-mediated melanocyte destruction to achieve faster, more definitive depigmentation than with MBEH alone. As Toll-like Receptor (TLR) agonists--imiquimod, CpG, and Heat Shock Protein 70 (HSP 70)--all support powerful Th1 responses, we propose that using MBEH in combination with these agents can achieve superior depigmentation results for vitiligo patients.Â© 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
The Influence of Disease Perceptions on the Participation of Melanoma Patients and their Partners in Skin Self-Examination Education. - Journal of community medicine & health education
By examining differences between patients who enroll or decline to enroll in a partner-based study, future research can benefit and adapt recruitment strategies to reduce sampling biases. This study examined differences between melanoma patients' who either declined or enrolled in an intervention aimed at increasing skin self-examination (SSE) with partner assistance. Specifically, differences were assessed for gender, age, perception of likelihood of getting another melanoma, benefits of early detection, and severity of the disease. Additionally, reasons for declining were examined. Among 368 melanoma patients interviewed during their appointment with the treating physician, 187 enrolled in the study and 181 declined to participate. No significant age or gender differences between enrolled and declined patients were observed. However, enrolled participants had significantly higher reports on the likelihood of getting another melanoma, severity of melanoma, and early detection as being beneficial (p<0.001). Among those declining to participate, males reported being "too busy and can't make follow-up appointments" whereas females reported their "partner won't assist". Results indicate perceptions of the benefits of early detection, the severity of melanoma, and patients' increased risk of developing a melanoma may have influenced patients' decision to participate. Future studies may benefit by highlighting these topics in order to motivate more patients to participant in partner studies.
Evaluation of educational videos to increase skin cancer risk awareness and sun-safe behaviors among adult Hispanics. - Journal of cancer education : the official journal of the American Association for Cancer Education
Although skin cancer is less common in Hispanics, they are at higher risk for presenting with more advanced stage skin cancer. We performed semi-structured interviews with Hispanic women that found high concern for photoaging from sun exposure. Based on these results, we developed two short Spanish-language films. The first emphasized photoaging benefits of sun protection, while the second focused on its benefits for skin cancer prevention. Our hypothesis was that the reduction of photoaging would be a more persuasive argument than skin cancer prevention for the adoption of sunscreen use by Hispanic women. Study participants were recruited from beauty salons located in predominantly Hispanic neighborhoods. Each of the two Spanish-language films was approximately 3 min long. A pre-intervention questionnaire assessed subjects' general knowledge and sunscreen habits, and a second questionnaire administered after viewing both films assessed for improvements in risk perception and inquired about which film was more persuasive. Eighty Hispanics participated ranging in age from 19 to 75. The pre-education survey found that 54 out of 80 believed that fair-skin Hispanics (FS) were at risk for skin cancer, and 44 out of 80 believed that dark-skin Hispanics (DS) were at risk. These numbers increased to 72 (FS) and 69 (DS) after the intervention (p value: <0.0002 FS, <0.0001 DS). Hispanics overwhelmingly selected the video emphasizing the benefits of sun protection for skin cancer prevention as the more persuasive film (74 out of 80). A Spanish-language video has the potential to make an impact in healthy sun-protective behaviors, and information on how to properly apply sunscreen should be included in educational messages.
Skin cancer and photoprotection in people of color: a review and recommendations for physicians and the public. - Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
Skin cancer is less prevalent in people of color than in the white population. However, when skin cancer occurs in non-whites, it often presents at a more advanced stage, and thus the prognosis is worse compared with white patients. The increased morbidity and mortality associated with skin cancer in patients of color compared with white patients may be because of the lack of awareness, diagnoses at a more advanced stage, and socioeconomic factors such as access to care barriers. Physician promotion of skin cancer prevention strategies for all patients, regardless of ethnic background and socioeconomic status, can lead to timely diagnosis and treatment. Public education campaigns should be expanded to target communities of color to promote self-skin examination and stress importance of photoprotection, avoidance of tanning bed use, and early skin cancer detection and treatment. These measures should result in reduction or earlier detection of cutaneous malignancies in all communities. Furthermore, promotion of photoprotection practices may reduce other adverse effects of ultraviolet exposure including photoaging and ultraviolet-related disorders of pigmentation.Copyright Â© 2014 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Adaptive responses of mitochondria to mild copper deprivation involve changes in morphology, OXPHOS remodeling and bioenergetics. - Journal of cellular physiology
Copper is an essential cofactor of complex IV of the electron transfer chain, and it is directly involved in the generation of mitochondrial membrane potential. Its deficiency induces the formation of ROS, large mitochondria and anemia. Thus, there is a connection between copper metabolism and bioenergetics, mitochondrial dynamics and erythropoiesis. Copper depletion might end in cellular apoptosis or necrosis. However, before entering into those irreversible processes, mitochondria may execute a series of adaptive responses. Mitochondrial adaptive responses (MAR) may involve multiple and diverse mechanisms for preserving cell life, such as mitochondrial dynamics, OXPHOS remodeling and bioenergetics output. In this study, a mild copper deficiency was produced in an animal model through intraperitoneal injections of bathocuproine disulfonate in order to study the MAR. Under these conditions, a new type of mitochondrial morphology was discovered in the liver. Termed the "butternut squash" mitochondria, it coexisted with normal and swollen mitochondria. Western blot analyses of mitochondrial dynamics proteins showed an up-regulation of MFN-2 and OPA1 fusion proteins. Furthermore, isolated liver mitochondria displayed OXPHOS remodeling through a decrease in supercomplex activity with a concomitant increase at an individual level of complexes I and IV, higher respiratory rates at complex I and II levels, higher oligomycin-insensitive respiration, and lower respiratory control ratio values when compared to the control group. As expected, total ATP and ATP/ADP values were not significantly different, since animal's health was not compromised. As a whole, these results describe a compensatory and adaptive response of metabolism and bioenergetics under copper deprivation.Â© 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Macrolide resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated from Argentinian pediatric patients suffering from acute otitis media. - Revista Argentina de microbiologiÌa
Macrolide-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae emerged in Argentina in 1995, representing 26% of invasive infection isolates in children under 5 years old. The objectives of this study were to describe the prevalence of ermB and mefA genes in macrolide-resistant S. pneumoniae isolates from acute otitis media (AOM) and to determine their genetic relatedness. Between May 2009 and August 2010, 126 S. pneumoniae isolates from 324 otherwise healthy children with a first episode of AOM were included. Twenty six of these isolates (20.6%) were resistant to erythromycin. Most frequent serotypes were: 14 (46.2%), 6A (23.1%), 19F (7.7%) and 9V (7.7%). Twenty (76.9%) carried the mefA gene, 5 (19.2%) have the ermB gene, and 1 (3.9%) both ermB + mefA. Ten clonal types were identified, mostly related to Sweden(15A)-25/ST782 (SLV63), CloneB(6A)/ST473 and England(14)-9/ ST9. This is the first study assessing the mechanisms of macrolide resistance in pneumococci isolates from pediatric AOM in Argentina and their genetic relatedness.Copyright Â© 2013 AsociaciÃ³n Argentina de MicrobiologÃa. Publicado por Elsevier EspaÃ±a. All rights reserved.
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1116 E 8Th St Ste 4 Weslaco, TX 78596
1604 E 8Th St Suite A