Dr. George  Andrews  Dds image

Dr. George Andrews Dds

2993 Piedmont Rd Ne
Atlanta GA 30305
404 379-9944
Medical School: Other - Unknown
Accepts Medicare: No
Participates In eRX: No
Participates In PQRS: No
Participates In EHR: No
License #: DN010978
NPI: 1265587570
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Inefficiencies in osteoarthritis and chronic low back pain management. - The American journal of managed care
To identify inefficiencies in drug and medical service utilization related to pain management in patients with osteoarthritis and chronic low back pain.This retrospective cohort study applied revised measures of pain management inefficiencies to Humana Medicare members with osteoarthritis and/or chronic low back pain.Subjects had either 2 or more claims for osteoarthritis on different days or 2 or more claims for low back pain 90 or more days apart, from January 1, 2008, to June 30, 2010, with the first occurrence assigned the index date. Inefficiencies were identified for 365 days postindex.Pain-related healthcare costs postindex were compared between members with and without inefficiencies. A generalized linear model calculated adjusted costs per member controlling for age, sex, and comorbidities.Most members diagnosed with osteoarthritis, chronic low back pain, or both (N = 68,453) had at least 1 inefficiency measure (n = 37,863) during the postindex period. High per member costs were for repeated surgical procedures ($26,451) and inpatient admissions ($19,372) compared with members without inefficiencies ($781; P < .0001). High total costs (prevalence times per member cost) were for repeated diagnostic testing and excessive office visits. Members with an inefficiency had adjusted pain-related costs 5.42 times higher than those of members without an inefficiency (P <.0001).Pain management inefficiencies are common and costly among Humana Medicare members with osteoarthritis and/or chronic low back pain. Further work by providers and payers is needed to determine benefits of member identification and early intervention for these inefficiencies.
The prevalence of diagnosed opioid abuse in commercial and Medicare managed care populations. - Pain practice : the official journal of World Institute of Pain
To measure the prevalence of diagnosed opioid abuse and prescription opioid use in a multistate managed care organization.This retrospective claims data analysis reviewed the prevalence of diagnosed opioid abuse and the parallel prevalence of prescription opioid use in half-year intervals for commercial and Medicare members enrolled with Humana Inc., from January 1, 2008 to June 30, 2010. Diagnosis of opioid abuse was defined by ≥ 1 medical claim with any of the following ICD-9-CM codes: 304.0 ×, 304.7 ×, 305.5 ×, 965.0 ×, excluding 965.01, and opioid use was defined by ≥ 1 filled prescription for an opioid. The prevalence of opioid abuse was defined by the number of members with an opioid abuse diagnosis, divided by the number of members enrolled in each 6-month interval.The 6-month prevalence of diagnosed opioid abuse increased from 0.84 to 1.15 among commercial and from 3.17 to 6.35 among Medicare members, per 1,000. In contrast, there was no marked increase in prescription opioid use during the same time period (118.0 to 114.8 for commercial members, 240.6 to 256.9 for Medicare members, per 1,000). The prevalence of diagnosed opioid abuse was highest among members younger than 65 years for both genders in commercial (18- to 34-year-olds) and Medicare (35- to 54-year-olds) populations.Despite a stable rate of prescription opioid use among the observed population, the prevalence of diagnosed opioid abuse is increasing, particularly in the Medicare population.© 2013 World Institute of Pain.
Cost drivers of prescription opioid abuse in commercial and Medicare populations. - Pain practice : the official journal of World Institute of Pain
Growth in the number of patients with pain conditions, and the subsequent rise in prescription opioid use for treatment, has been accompanied by an increase in diagnosed opioid abuse. Understanding what drives the incremental healthcare costs of members diagnosed with prescription opioid abuse may assist in developing better screening techniques for abuse.This retrospective analysis examined costs, resource use, and comorbidities 365 days pre- and postdiagnosis in prescription opioid users diagnosed with abuse (cases) vs. their matched nondiagnosed controls. Inclusion criteria for cases were diagnosis of opioid abuse (ICD-9-CM: 304.0x, 304.7x, 305.5x, 965.0x). Multivariate analysis used generalized linear modeling with log-transformed cost as dependent variable, controlling for comorbidities.Final sample sizes were 8,390 cases and 16,780 matched controls. Postindex abuse-related costs were $2,099 for commercial members, $539 for Medicare members aged < 65, and $170 for Medicare members aged ≥ 65. A higher percentage of cases had pain conditions (82.0% vs. 57.4% commercial, 95.9% vs. 87.5% Medicare members aged < 65, 92.9% vs. 82.4% Medicare members aged ≥ 65, P < 0.0001), and a higher numbers of cases had multiple opioid prescribers (3.7 vs. 1.4 commercial, 3.3 vs. 2.2 Medicare < 65, 2.2 vs. 1.6 Medicare ≥ 65, P < 0.0001) than controls preindex. Cases had higher rates of substance abuse and psychiatric diagnoses pre- and postindex (P < 0.0001, all comparisons). Adjusted costs were 28% higher for cases than for controls (P < 0.0001).Costs of members diagnosed with prescription opioid abuse are driven by higher pain and psychiatric comorbidities relative to nonabuse controls.© 2013 World Institute of Pain.
Modeling low-dose mortality and disease incubation period of inhalational anthrax in the rabbit. - Journal of theoretical biology
There is a need to advance our ability to conduct credible human risk assessments for inhalational anthrax associated with exposure to a low number of bacteria. Combining animal data with computational models of disease will be central in the low-dose and cross-species extrapolations required in achieving this goal. The objective of the current work was to apply and advance the competing risks (CR) computational model of inhalational anthrax where data was collected from NZW rabbits exposed to aerosols of Ames strain Bacillus anthracis. An initial aim was to parameterize the CR model using high-dose rabbit data and then conduct a low-dose extrapolation. The CR low-dose attack rate was then compared against known low-dose rabbit data as well as the low-dose curve obtained when the entire rabbit dose-response data set was fitted to an exponential dose-response (EDR) model. The CR model predictions demonstrated excellent agreement with actual low-dose rabbit data. We next used a modified CR model (MCR) to examine disease incubation period (the time to reach a fever >40 °C). The MCR model predicted a germination period of 14.5h following exposure to a low spore dose, which was confirmed by monitoring spore germination in the rabbit lung using PCR, and predicted a low-dose disease incubation period in the rabbit between 14.7 and 16.8 days. Overall, the CR and MCR model appeared to describe rabbit inhalational anthrax well. These results are discussed in the context of conducting laboratory studies in other relevant animal models, combining the CR/MCR model with other computation models of inhalational anthrax, and using the resulting information towards extrapolating a low-dose response prediction for man.Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Inhalational anthrax (Ames aerosol) in naïve and vaccinated New Zealand rabbits: characterizing the spread of bacteria from lung deposition to bacteremia. - Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology
There is a need to better understand inhalational anthrax in relevant animal models. This understanding could aid risk assessment, help define therapeutic windows, and provide a better understanding of disease. The aim here was to characterize and quantify bacterial deposition and dissemination in rabbits following exposure to single high aerosol dose (> 100 LD(50)) of Bacillus anthracis (Ames) spores immediately following exposure through 36 h. The primary goal of collecting the data was to support investigators in developing computational models of inhalational anthrax disease. Rabbits were vaccinated prior to exposure with the human vaccine (Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed, AVA) or were sham-vaccinated, and were then exposed in pairs (one sham and one AVA) so disease kinetics could be characterized in equally-dosed hosts where one group is fully protected and is able to clear the infection (AVA-vaccinated), while the other is susceptible to disease, in which case the bacteria are able to escape containment and replicate uncontrolled (sham-vaccinated rabbits). Between 4-5% of the presented aerosol dose was retained in the lung of sham- and AVA-vaccinated rabbits as measured by dilution plate analysis of homogenized lung tissue or bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid. After 6 and 36 h, >80% and >96%, respectively, of the deposited spores were no longer detected in BAL, with no detectable difference between sham- or AVA-vaccinated rabbits. Thereafter, differences between the two groups became noticeable. In sham-vaccinated rabbits the bacteria were detected in the tracheobronchial lymph nodes (TBLN) 12 h post-exposure and in the circulation at 24 h, a time point which was also associated with dramatic increases in vegetative CFU in the lung tissue of some animals. In all sham-vaccinated rabbits, bacteria increased in both TBLN and blood through 36 h at which point in time some rabbits succumbed to disease. In contrast, AVA-vaccinated rabbits showed small numbers of CFU in TBLN between 24 and 36 h post-exposure with small numbers of bacteria in the circulation only at 24 h post-exposure. These results characterize and quantify disease progression in naïve rabbits following aerosol administration of Ames spores which may be useful in a number of different research applications, including developing quantitative models of infection for use in human inhalational anthrax risk assessment.
Partitions with short sequences and mock theta functions. - Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
P. A. MacMahon was the first to examine integer partitions in which consecutive integers were not allowed as parts. Such partitions may be described as having sequences of length 1. Recently it was shown that partitions containing no sequences of consecutive integers of length k are of interest in seemingly unrelated problems concerning threshold growth models. The object now is to develop the subject intrinsically to both provide deeper understanding of the theory and application of partitions and reveal the surprising role of Ramanujan's mock theta functions.

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