600 N Wolfe St
Baltimore MD 21287
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Taxonomy Codes:207L00000X 207LC0200X 207LP2900X 208VP0014X
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An Analysis of 34,218 Pediatric Outpatient Controlled Substance Prescriptions. - Anesthesia and analgesia
Prescription errors are among the most common types of iatrogenic errors. Because of a previously reported 82% error rate in handwritten discharge narcotic prescriptions, we developed a computerized, web-based, controlled substance prescription writer that includes weight-based dosing logic and alerts to reduce the error rate to (virtually) zero. Over the past 7 years, >34,000 prescriptions have been created by hospital providers using this platform. We sought to determine the ongoing efficacy of the program in prescription error reduction and the patterns with which providers prescribe controlled substances for children and young adults (ages 0-21 years) at hospital discharge.We examined a database of 34,218 controlled substance discharge prescriptions written by our institutional providers from January 1, 2007 to February 14, 2014, for demographic information, including age and weight, type of medication prescribed based on patient age, formulation of dispensed medication, and amount of drug to be dispensed at hospital discharge. In addition, we randomly regenerated 2% (700) of prescriptions based on stored data and analyzed them for errors using previously established error criteria. Weights that were manually entered into the prescription writer by the prescriber were compared with the patient's weight in the hospital's electronic medical record.Patients in the database averaged 9 Â± 6.1 (range, 0-21) years of age and 36.7 Â± 24.9 (1-195) kg. Regardless of age, the most commonly prescribed opioid was oxycodone (73%), which was prescribed as a single agent uncombined with acetaminophen. Codeine was prescribed to 7% of patients and always in a formulation containing acetaminophen. Liquid formulations were prescribed to 98% of children <6 years of age and to 16% of children >12 years of age (the remaining 84% received tablet formulations). Regardless of opioid prescribed, the amount of liquid dispensed averaged 106 Â± 125 (range, 2-3240) mL, and the number of tablets dispensed averaged 51 Â± 51 (range, 1-1080). Of the subset of 700 regenerated prescriptions, all were legible (drug, amount dispensed, dose, patient demographics, and provider name) and used best prescribing practice (e.g., no trailing zero after a decimal point, leading zero for doses <1). Twenty-five of the 700 (3.6%) had incorrectly entered weights compared with the most recent weight in the chart. Of these, 14 varied by 10% or less and only 2 varied by >15%. Of these, 1 resulted in underdosing (true weight 80 kg prescribed for a weight of 50 kg) and the other in overdosing (true weight 10 kg prescribed for a weight of 30 kg).A computerized prescription writer eliminated most but not all the errors common to handwritten prescriptions. Oxycodone has supplanted codeine as the most commonly prescribed oral opioid in current pediatric pain practice and, independent of formulation, is dispensed in large quantities. This study underscores the need for liquid opioid formulations in the pediatric population and, because of their abuse potential, the urgent need to determine how much of the prescribed medication is actually used by patients.
Temporal Characteristics of the Sleep EEG Power Spectrum in Critically Ill Children. - Journal of clinical sleep medicine : JCSM : official publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine
Although empirical evidence is limited, critical illness in children is associated with disruption of the normal sleep-wake rhythm. The objective of the current study was to examine the temporal characteristics of the sleep electroencephalogram (EEG) in a sample of children with critical illness.Limited montage EEG recordings were collected for at least 24 hours from 8 critically ill children on mechanical ventilation for respiratory failure in a pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) of a tertiary-care hospital. Each PICU patient was age- and gender-matched to a healthy subject from the community. Power spectral analysis with the fast Fourier transform (FFT) was used to characterize EEG spectral power and categorized into 4 frequency bands: Î´ (0.8 to 4.0 Hz), Î¸ (4.1 to 8.0 Hz), Î± (8.1 to 13.0 Hz), and Î²1/Î²2 (13.1 to 20.0 Hz).PICU patients did not manifest the ultradian variability in EEG power spectra including the typical increase in Î´-power during the first third of the night that was observed in healthy children. Differences noted included significantly lower mean nighttime Î´ and Î¸ power in the PICU patients compared to healthy children (p < 0.001). Moreover, in the PICU patients, mean Î´ and Î¸ power were higher during daytime hours than nighttime hours (p < 0.001).The results presented herein challenge the assumption that children experience restorative sleep during critical illness, highlighting the need for interventional studies to determine whether sleep promotion improves outcomes in critically ill children undergoing active neurocognitive development.Â© 2015 American Academy of Sleep Medicine.
Long-term tolerability of capnography and respiratory inductance plethysmography for respiratory monitoring in pediatric patients treated with patient-controlled analgesia. - Paediatric anaesthesia
The Anesthesia Patient Safety Foundation has advocated the use of continuous electronic monitoring of oxygenation and ventilation to preemptively identify opioid-induced respiratory depression. In adults, capnography is the gold standard in respiratory monitoring. An alternative technique used in sleep laboratories is respiratory inductance plethysmography (RIP). However, it is not known if either monitor is well tolerated by pediatric patients for prolonged periods of time.The goal of this study was to determine whether capnography or RIP is better tolerated in nonintubated, spontaneously breathing pediatric patients being treated with intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (IVPCA).Nasal cannula capnography with oral sampling and thoracic and abdominal inductance plethysmography bands were placed along with the routine monitors on pediatric patients being treated for acute pain with IVPCA. Study monitors were left in place for as long as they were tolerated by the patient, up to a maximum of 24 consecutive hours. If the patient did not wear a particular study monitor for any reason, but tolerated the remaining monitor, participation in the study continued. If the patient would not wear either monitor, participation was terminated.Twenty-six patients (18 female, eight male, average age 10.1 Â± 5.5 years) consented to participate, but only 14 patients attempted to wear one or both the devices. Among those who wore either device, median time to device removal was 8.33 h (range 0.3-23.6 h) for capnography and 23.5 h (range 0.7-24 h) for RIP bands.Children did not tolerate wearing capnography cannulae for prolonged periods of time, limiting the usefulness of this device as a continuous monitor of ventilation in children. RIP bands were better tolerated; however, they require further assessment of their utility. Until more effective, child-friendly monitors are developed and their utility is validated, guidelines recommended for adult patients cannot be extended to children.Â© 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Malignant hyperthermia in the early days of pediatric anesthesia: an interview with anesthesiology pioneer, Dr. John F. Ryan. - Paediatric anaesthesia
Dr. John F. Ryan (1935 - ), Associate Professor of Anaesthesia at the Harvard Medical School, influenced the careers of hundreds of residents and fellows-in-training while instilling in them his core values of resilience, hard work, and integrity. His authoritative textbook, A Practice of Anesthesia for Infants and Children, remains as influential today as it did when first published decades ago. Although he had had many accomplishments, he identified his experiences caring for patients with malignant hyperthermia and characterizing the early discovery of this condition as his defining contribution to medicine. Based on a series of interviews with Dr. Ryan, this article reviews a remarkable career that coincides with the dawn of modern pediatric anesthetic practice.Â© 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
The development of pediatric anesthesiology and critical care medicine at the Cincinnati Children's Hospital: an interview with Dr. Theodore Striker. - Paediatric anaesthesia
Dr. Theodore W. 'Ted' Striker (1936-), Professor of Anesthesiology and Pediatrics at the University of Cincinnati, has played a pioneering role in the development of pediatric anesthesiology in the United States. As a model educator, clinician, and administrator, he shaped the careers of hundreds of physicians-in-training and imbued them with his core values of honesty, integrity, and responsibility.Â© 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Pain management following major intracranial surgery in pediatric patients: a prospective cohort study in three academic children's hospitals. - Paediatric anaesthesia
Pain management following major intracranial surgery is often limited by a presumed lack of need and a concern that opioids will adversely affect postoperative outcome and interfere with the neurologic examination. Nevertheless, evidence in adults is accumulating that these patients suffer moderate to severe pain, and this pain is often under-treated. The purpose of this prospective, clinical observational cohort study was to assess the incidence of pain, prescribed analgesics, methods of analgesic delivery, and patient/parent satisfaction in pediatric patients undergoing cranial surgery at three major university children's hospitals.After obtaining IRB and parental consent (and when applicable, patient assent), children who underwent cranial surgery for cancer, epilepsy, vascular malformations, and craniofacial reconstruction were studied. Neither intraoperative anesthetic management nor postoperative pain management was standardized, but were based on institutional routine. Patients were evaluated daily by a study investigator and by chart review for pain scores using age appropriate, validated tools (FLACC, Faces Pain Scale-Revised, Wong-Baker Faces Scale or Self-Report on a 0-10 scale), for patient/parent satisfaction using a subset of the NRC Picker satisfaction tool and in adolescents a modified QoR-40, and for the frequency, mode of administration, and type of analgesic provided. Finally, the incidence of opioid-induced side effects, specifically nausea, vomiting, pruritus, altered level of consciousness, and need for emergency diagnostic radiologic studies for altered neurologic examination were recorded. Data are provided as mean Â± SD.Two hundred children (98:102 M:F), averaging 7.8 Â± 5.8 years old (range 2 months-18.5 years) and 32.2 Â± 23.0 kg (range 4.5-111.6 kg) undergoing craniectomy (51), craniotomy (96), and craniofacial reconstruction (53) were studied. Despite considerable variation in mode and route of analgesic administration, there were no differences in average pain score, length of hospital stay, or parental satisfaction with care. Interestingly, opioid-induced side effects were not related to total daily opioid consumption, site of surgery, or method of opioid delivery. The most common side effect was vomiting. No patient developed respiratory depression or altered mental status secondary to analgesic therapy. Regardless of age or procedure, once eating, most patients were treated with oral oxycodone and/or acetaminophen.Despite considerable variation in modality and route of analgesic administration, there were no differences in average pain score, length of stay, or parental satisfaction with care. Pain scores were low, side effects were minimal, and parental satisfaction was high, providing equipoise for future blinded prospective randomized trials in this patient population.Â© 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
The development of a specialty: an interview with Dr. Mark C. Rogers, a pioneering pediatric intensivist. - Paediatric anaesthesia
Dr. Mark C. Rogers (1942-), Professor of Anesthesiology, Critical Care Medicine, and Pediatrics at the Johns Hopkins University, was recruited by the Department of Pediatrics at Johns Hopkins Hospital in 1977 to become the first director of its pediatric intensive care unit. After the dean of the medical school appointed him to chair the Department of Anesthesia in 1979, Rogers changed the course and culture of the department. He renamed it the Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, and developed a long-term strategy of excellence in clinical care, research, and education. However, throughout this period, he never lost his connection to pediatric intensive care. He has made numerous contributions to pediatric critical care medicine through research and his authoritative textbook, Rogers' Textbook of Pediatric Intensive Care. He established a training programme that has produced a plethora of leaders, helped develop the pediatric critical care board examination, and initiated the first World Congress of Pediatric Intensive Care. Based on a series of interviews with Dr. Rogers, this article reviews his influential career and the impact he made on developing pediatric critical care as a specialty.Â© 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
The postoperative management of pain from intracranial surgery in pediatric neurosurgical patients. - Paediatric anaesthesia
Pain following intracranial surgery has historically been undertreated because of the concern that opioids, the analgesics most commonly used to treat moderate-to-severe pain, will interfere with the neurologic examination and adversely affect postoperative outcome. Over the past decade, accumulating evidence, primarily in adult patients, has revealed that moderate-to-severe pain is common in neurosurgical patients following surgery. Using the neurophysiology of pain as a blueprint, we have highlighted some of the drugs and drug families used in multimodal pain management. This analgesic method minimizes opioid-induced adverse side effects by maximizing pain control with smaller doses of opioids supplemented with neural blockade and nonopioid analgesics, such nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, local anesthetics, corticosteroids, N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonists, Î±2 -adrenergic agonists, and/or anticonvulsants (gabapentin and pregabalin).Â© 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Sedation, sleep promotion, and delirium screening practices in the care of mechanically ventilated children: a wake-up call for the pediatric critical care community*. - Critical care medicine
To examine pediatric intensivist sedation management, sleep promotion, and delirium screening practices for intubated and mechanically ventilated children.An international, online survey of questions regarding sedative and analgesic medication choices and availability, sedation protocols, sleep optimization, and delirium recognition and treatment.Member societies of the World Federation of Pediatric Intensive and Critical Care Societies were asked to send the survey to their mailing lists; responses were collected from July 2012 to January 2013.Pediatric critical care providers.Survey.The survey was completed by 341 respondents, the majority of whom were from North America (70%). Twenty-seven percent of respondents reported having written sedation protocols. Most respondents worked in PICUs with sedation scoring systems (70%), although only 42% of those with access to scoring systems reported routine daily use for goal-directed sedation management. The State Behavioral Scale was the most commonly used scoring system in North America (22%), with the COMFORT score more prevalent in all other countries (39%). The most commonly used sedation regimen for intubated children was a combination of opioid and benzodiazepine (72%). Most intensivists chose fentanyl as their first-line opioid (66%) and midazolam as their first-line benzodiazepine (86%) and prefer to administer these medications as continuous infusions. Propofol and dexmedetomidine were the most commonly restricted medications in PICUs internationally. Use of earplugs, eye masks, noise reduction, and lighting optimization for sleep promotion was uncommon. Delirium screening was not practiced in 71% of respondent's PICUs, and only 2% reported routine screening at least twice a day.The results highlight the heterogeneity in sedation practices among intensivists who care for critically ill children as well as a paucity of sleep promotion and delirium screening in PICUs worldwide.
Pain prevalence, intensity, assessment and management in a hospitalized pediatric population. - Pain management nursing : official journal of the American Society of Pain Management Nurses
New research, regulatory guidelines, and practice initiatives have improved pain management in infants, children, and adolescents, but obstacles remain. The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence and demographics of pain, as well as pain management practice patterns in hospitalized children in a tertiary-care university hospital. We prospectively collected data including patient demographics, presence/absence and location of pain, pain intensity, pain assessment documentation, analgesic use, side effects of analgesic therapy, and patient/family satisfaction. Two hundred male (58%) and female, medical and surgical (61%) patients, averaging 9 Â± 6.2 years were studied. Pain was common (86%) and often moderate to severe (40%). Surgical patients reported pain more frequently when enrolled than did medical patients (99% vs. 65%). Female gender, age â‰¥ 5 years, and Caucasian race were all associated with higher mean pain scores. Furthermore, females and Caucasian children consumed more opioids than males and non-Caucasians. Identified obstacles to optimal analgesic management include lack of documented physician pain assessment (<5%), a high prevalence of "as needed" analgesic dosing, frequent opioid-induced side effects (44% nausea and vomiting, 27% pruritus), and patient/family dissatisfaction with pain management (2%-7%). The data demonstrated that despite a concentrated focus on improving pain management over the past decade, pain remains common in hospitalized children. Identification of patient populations and characteristics that predispose to increased pain (e.g., female, Caucasian, postoperative patient) as well as obstacles to analgesic management provide a focus for the development of targeted interventions and research to further improve care.Copyright Â© 2014 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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600 N Wolfe St Baltimore, MD 21287
Johns Hopkins Hospital 600 Northe Broadway
200 North Wolfe St 3Rd Floor Harriet Lane Children Center Bldg
Johns Hopkins Hospital 600 North Wolfe St
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