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Endoscopic Transnasal Approach for Cholesterol Granuloma of the Petrous Apex. - Case reports in neurological medicine
Cholesterol granulomas are rare round or ovoid cysts. They contain cholesterol crystals surrounded by foreign bodies of giant cells and are characterized by chronic inflammation. Large cholesterol granuloma can compress surrounding tissue especially cranial nerves. There are several types of surgery for the resection of cholesterol granuloma. We describe 4 cases of cholesterol granuloma operated on via transnasal endoscopic approach. In this report, we describe radiologic and pathologic features of this lesion and explain the advantages and disadvantages of transsphenoidal endoscopic approach for these rare lesions.
Loss of expression of BAP1 is a useful adjunct, which strongly supports the diagnosis of mesothelioma in effusion cytology. - Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
Although most mesotheliomas present with pleural effusions, it is controversial whether mesothelioma can be diagnosed with confidence in effusion cytology. Therefore, an ancillary marker of malignant mesothelial cells applicable in effusions would be clinically valuable. BRCA-1-associated protein (BAP1) is a tumor suppressor gene, which shows biallelic inactivation in approximately half of all mesotheliomas. We investigated whether loss of BAP1 expression by immunohistochemistry can be used to support a diagnosis of mesothelioma in effusion cytology. Immunohistochemistry for BAP1 was performed on cell blocks and interpreted blinded. 43 of 75 (57%) effusions associated with confirmed mesothelioma showed negative staining with positive internal controls. Of 57 effusions considered to have atypical mesothelial cells in the absence of a definitive diagnosis of mesothelioma, 8 cases demonstrated negative staining for BAP1. On follow-up six of these patients received a definitive diagnosis of mesothelioma in the subsequent 14 months (two were lost to follow-up immediately, and mesothelioma could not be excluded). Only 5 of 100 consecutive benign effusions were interpreted as BAP1 negative. One of these patients died soon after and mesothelioma could not be excluded. On unblinded review the four other patients with apparently negative BAP1 staining but no malignancy lacked convincing positive staining in non-neoplastic cells suggesting that BAP1 immunohistochemistry may have initially been misinterpreted. 47 effusions with adenocarcinoma were BAP1 positive. We conclude that loss of BAP1 expression, while not definitive, can be used to support the diagnosis of mesothelioma in effusion cytology. We caution that interpretation of BAP1 immunohistochemistry on cell block may be difficult and that convincing positive staining in non-neoplastic cells is required before atypical cells are considered negative. We also note that BAP1 loss is not a sensitive test as it occurs in only half of all mesotheliomas and cannot be used to exclude the diagnosis.Modern Pathology advance online publication, 31 July 2015; doi:10.1038/modpathol.2015.87.
A high sensitive electrochemical aptasensor for the determination of VEGF165 in serum of lung cancer patient. - Biosensors & bioelectronics
Herein, a label free electrochemical aptasensor based on ordered mesoporous carbon-gold nanocomposite modified screen printed electrode has been fabricated for the detection of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF165) as a tumor marker. The electrochemical behavior of prepared biosensor was investigated by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The principle of operation of the proposed aptasensor is based on the changes in the interfacial properties of the electrode due to interaction of the immobilized antiVEGF165 aptamer at the electrode surface with VEGF165 tumor marker in the sample solution, which results in a change in the interfacial charge transfer resistance as detected by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The calibration curve for VEGF165 determination was linear over 10.0-300.0pgmL(-1) with a limit of detection (3Ïƒ/S) of 1.0pgmL(-1). The prepared aptasensor exhibited high sensitivity and good selectivity and reproducibility. The aptasensor was successfully applied to the determination of VEGF165 in serum sample of a lung cancer patient.Copyright Â© 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Highly sensitive label free electrochemical detection of VGEF165 tumor marker based on "signal off" and "signal on" strategies using an anti-VEGF165 aptamer immobilized BSA-gold nanoclusters/ionic liquid/glassy carbon electrode. - Biosensors & bioelectronics
In this work, a label free electrochemical aptasensor for the detection of ultra-traces of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF165) based on "signal off" and "signal on" mechanisms of response was developed. The BSA-gold nanoclusters/ionic liquid (BSA-AuNCs/IL) was used as a suitable nanocomposite platform for immobilization of the aptamer on a glassy carbon electrode. In "signal off" mechanism, the interaction of VEGF165 with its anti-VEGF165 aptamers, resulted in desorption of methylene blue (MB) probe from aptamer and its release into solution. Consequently, the decrease in current intensity of the differential pulse voltammogram of adsorbed MB was monitored and found to be linearly proportional with increasing concentration of VEGF165 in sample solution in the range of 1-120pM with a limit of detection of 0.32pM. While, in "signal on" mechanism, the interaction of immobilized anti-VEGF165 aptamers on the electrode surface with VEGF165, led to more mass-transfer limiting of the [Fe(CN)6](3-/4-) probe to the electrode surface. Therefore, the charge transfer resistance (Rct) of the probe was increased linearly with increasing concentration of VEGF165 in the range of 2.5-250pM with a limit of detection of 0.48pM. The experimental results demonstrated that both of these mechanisms are suitable for determination of low levels of the VEGF165 tumor marker in serum samples.Copyright Â© 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Effect of grain size on ultrasonic softening of pure aluminum. - Ultrasonics
The objective of this paper is to reveal the main cause of volume effects of ultrasonic vibrations on the plastic behavior of pure aluminum specimens. For this purpose, specimens with different grain sizes were made by ECAP. An experimental tensile test system was designed and made, in which the specimens could be excited by ultrasonic vibrations with a frequency of 20kHz and amplitude of 5Î¼m. Five specimens with grain sizes of 109, 38, 15, 7 and 0.97Î¼m were prepared. Tensile tests of the specimens were performed at room temperature and at constant speed of 0.2mm/min under static load and superimposed ultrasonic excitations. It was found that ultrasonic vibrations had a remarkable influence on the plastic behavior of pure aluminum and after applying ultrasonic vibrations, flow stress of the all specimens reduced. Reduction of flow stress was dependent on grain size. The specimens with the largest grain size of 109Î¼m showed a flow stress reduction of 66% while finest grain size of 0.97Î¼m, a reduction of 11.3% was observed. The result of the current study can help to understand the underlying mechanisms of ultrasonic softening.Copyright Â© 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
The Effects of New Design of Access Hole on Porcelain Fracture Resistance of Implant-Supported Crowns. - Journal of dentistry (ShÄ«rÄz, Iran)
One disadvantage of cement-retained crowns is the lack of predictable irretrievability. This problem can be overcome through designing a screw access hole in the metal substructure of cement-retained restoration and using porcelain stain to define this area.This study aimed to evaluate the influence of existence of screw access hole on porcelain fracture resistance of metal-ceramic implant-supported crowns.Thirty six standardized metal-ceramic crowns were fabricated and divided into 3 groups (n=12); group 1 conventional cement-retained metal-ceramic crowns as control group, group 2 cement-retained MC crowns in which porcelain stain was used to define the location of screw access channel, and group 3 cement-retained metal-ceramic crowns in the metal substructure of which a hole and ledge was designed in the location of screw access channel. The specimens were cemented (TempBond, Kerr) to their dedicated abutments. A hole was made in the location of screw access channel in group 2 and 3 and filled with photo-polymerized composite resin (3M; ESPE). All specimens were thermocycled and loaded in universal testing machine at crosshead speed of 2mm/min until fracture. Mean values of load at fracture were calculated in each group and compared with One-way ANOVA (Î±=0.05).Mean value of the load required to fracture the restorations was 1947Â±487 N in group 1, 1927Â±539 N in group 2, and 2170Â±738 N in group 3. No statistically significant difference was found between the fracture resistance values of the three groups (p> 0.05).Presence of screw access channel in cement-retained implant restorations does not compromise fracture resistance.
Immunohistochemical Expression of Mast Cell in Oral Reactive Lesions. - Journal of dentistry (ShÄ«rÄz, Iran)
Soft tissue reactive lesions are the most common lesions of the oral cavity. Although many studies have shown the interaction of mast cells with fibroblasts and their participation in fibrosis, the role of mast cells in these lesions is not well understood.The aim of this study was to evaluate the mast cells (MCs) count in oral soft-tissue reactive lesions including peripheral giant cell granuloma (PGCG), peripheral ossifying fibroma (POF), irritation fibroma (IF) and normal oral mucosa.In this cross-sectional study, 50 samples including IF, PGCG, POF (14 cases for each group) and 8 cases of normal oral mucosa were stained with tryptase antibody through immunohistochemistry. The number of mast cells was counted in 5HPF containing maximum counts for each section stained with tryptase. Statistical analysis including Chi-square test and Tukey test with a significance level of 0.05 were considered.The number of MCs was found to have increased in reactive lesions compared with normal oral mucosa. MCs count in the POF group was higher than the others.These findings suggest a possible role of mast cells in the pathogenesis of reactive oral lesions and induction of fibrous tissues. Chemical mediators released from mast cells might influence other cells, especially fibroblasts, to induce fibrosis.
Quantifying naturalistic social gaze in fragile X syndrome using a novel eye tracking paradigm. - American journal of medical genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric genetics : the official publication of the International Society of Psychiatric Genetics
A hallmark behavioral feature of fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the propensity for individuals with the syndrome to exhibit significant impairments in social gaze during interactions with others. However, previous studies employing eye tracking methodology to investigate this phenomenon have been limited to presenting static photographs or videos of social interactions rather than employing a real-life social partner. To improve upon previous studies, we used a customized eye tracking configuration to quantify the social gaze of 51 individuals with FXS and 19 controls, aged 14-28 years, while they engaged in a naturalistic face-to-face social interaction with a female experimenter. Importantly, our control group was matched to the FXS group on age, developmental functioning, and degree of autistic symptomatology. Results showed that participants with FXS spent significantly less time looking at the face and had shorter episodes (and longer inter-episodes) of social gaze than controls. Regression analyses indicated that communication ability predicted higher levels of social gaze in individuals with FXS, but not in controls. Conversely, degree of autistic symptoms predicted lower levels of social gaze in controls, but not in individuals with FXS. Taken together, these data indicate that naturalistic social gaze in FXS can be measured objectively using existing eye tracking technology during face-to-face social interactions. Given that impairments in social gaze were specific to FXS, this paradigm could be employed as an objective and ecologically valid outcome measure in ongoing Phase II/Phase III clinical trials of FXS-specific interventions. Â© 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.Â© 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Evaluation of the Effect of Axial Wall Modification and Coping Design on the Retention of Cement-retained Implant-supported Crowns. - Journal of dental research, dental clinics, dental prospects
Background and aims. Because of compromised angulations of implants, the abutments are sometimes prepared. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of removing one wall of the implant abutment on the retention of cement-retained crowns. Materials and methods. Four prefabricated abutments were attached to analogues and embedded in acrylic resin blocks. The first abutment was left intact. Axial walls were partially removed from the remaining abutments to produce abutments with three walls. The screw access channel for the first and second abutments were completely filled with composite resin. For the third and fourth abutments, only partial filling was done. Wax-up models were made by CAD/CAM. Ten cast copings were fabricated for each abutment. The copings of fourth abutment had an extension into the screw access channel. Copings were cemented with Temp Bond. The castings were removed from the abutment using an Instron machine, and the peak removal force was recorded. A one-way ANOVA was used to test for a significant difference followed by the pairwise comparisons. Results. The abutments with opened screw access channel had a significantly higher retention than the two other abutments. The abutment with removed wall and no engagement into the hole by the castings exhibited the highest retention. Conclusion. Preserving the opening of screw access channel significantly increases the retention where one of the axial walls of implant abutments for cement-retained restorations is removed during preparation.
Population-based Incidence and Etiology of Community-acquired Neonatal Viral Infections in Bangladesh: A Community-based and Hospital-based Surveillance Study. - The Pediatric infectious disease journal
The etiology of >90% of cases of suspected neonatal infection remains unknown. We conducted community-based surveillance in conjunction with hospital-based surveillance in a rural region in Bangladesh from June 2006 to September 2007 to assess the incidence and etiology of community-acquired viral infections among neonates.Community health workers (CHWs) assessed neonates at home on days 0, 2, 5 and 8 after birth and referred cases of suspected illness to the hospital (CHW surveillance). Among neonates with clinically suspected upper respiratory tract infection (URTI), pneumonia, sepsis and/or meningitis, virus identification studies were conducted on nasal wash, cerebrospinal fluid and/or blood specimens. In the hospital-based surveillance, similar screening was conducted among all neonates (referred by CHWs and self-referred) who were admitted to the hospital.CHW surveillance found an incidence rate of 15.6 neonatal viral infections per 1000 live births with 30% of infections identified on the day of birth. Among neonates with suspected sepsis, a viral etiology was identified in 36% of cases, with enterovirus accounting for two-thirds of those infections. Respiratory syncytial virus was the most common etiologic agent among those with viral pneumonia (91%) and URTI (68%). There was a low incidence (1.2%) of influenza in this rural population.Viral infections are commonly associated with acute newborn illness, even in the early neonatal period. The estimated incidence was 5-fold greater than reported previously for bacterial infections. Low-cost preventive measures for neonatal viral infections are urgently needed.
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