45 Medical Ctr Ct
Commerce GA 30529
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Risk of non-fatal cardiovascular diseases in early-onset versus late-onset type 2 diabetes in China: a cross-sectional study. - The lancet. Diabetes & endocrinology
The age of onset of type 2 diabetes is decreasing. Because non-Chinese patients with early-onset type 2 diabetes (defined here as diagnosis at <40 years) have increased risk of vascular complications, we investigated effects of early-onset versus late-onset type 2 diabetes on risk of non-fatal cardiovascular diseases in China.We did a cross-sectional survey using data from the China National HbA1c Surveillance System (CNHSS), including 222â€ˆ773 Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes in 630 hospitals from 106 cities in 30 provinces of China in 2012. We documented demographic information and clinical profiles. Non-fatal cardiovascular disease was defined as non-fatal coronary heart disease or non-fatal stroke. Prevalence of non-fatal cardiovascular diseases was standardised to the Chinese population in 2011. We did logistic regression analysis to obtain odds ratios (ORs) for the risk of cardiovascular disease in patients with early-onset versus late-onset type 2 diabetes. Because the CNHSS did not contain patients on diet or lifestyle treatment alone, and did not capture information on smoking or lipid or antihypertensive treatment, we validated our findings in another dataset from a cross-sectional, multicentre observational study (the 3B study) of outpatients with type 2 diabetes to confirm that exclusion of patients with diet treatment only and non-adjustment for lipid-lowering and antihypertensive drugs did not introduce major biases in the main analysis.Of 222â€ˆ773 patients recruited from April 1, 2012, to June 30, 2012, 24â€ˆ316 (11%) had non-fatal cardiovascular disease. Patients with early-onset diabetes had a higher age-adjusted prevalence of non-fatal cardiovascular disease than did patients with late-onset diabetes (11Â·1% vs 4Â·9%; p<0Â·0001). After adjustment for age and sex, patients with early-onset type 2 diabetes had higher risk of non-fatal cardiovascular disease than did those with late-onset type 2 diabetes (OR 1Â·91, 95% CI 1Â·81-2Â·02). Adjustment for duration of diabetes greatly attenuated the effect size for risk of non-fatal cardiovascular disease (1Â·13, 1Â·06-1Â·20). Results of the validation study showed that exclusion of patients with diet only and non-adjustment for lipid-lowering and antihypertensive drugs resulted in marginal changes in ORs for risk of non-fatal cardiovascular disease in patients with early-onset versus late-onset type 2 diabetes. Early-onset type 2 diabetes remained associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, attributable to longer duration of diabetes.Chinese patients with early-onset type 2 diabetes are at increased risk of non-fatal cardiovascular disease, mostly attributable to longer duration of diabetes.Novo Nordisk China (for the China National HbA1c Surveillance System [CNHSS]) and Merck Sharp & Dohme China (for the 3B study).Copyright Â© 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Influence of sphere-surface distance and exposure dose on resolution of sphere-lens-array lithography. - Optics express
Sphere-surface distance and exposure dose effects on lithography resolution of microsphere lens array are studied. A transparent gap is introduced between photoresist film and polystyrene microspheres to adjust light distribution of photoresist surface. The pores size on the photoresist film varies when the gap thickness is changed. By optimization gap thickness and exposure dose, sub-100 nm surface patterning array is achieved for sphere of 2.06 Âµm diameter and optical wavelength Î» of 400 nm theoretically and experimentally. Furthermore, when smaller polystyrene sphere (1.25 Âµm diameter) is chosen, spot width of 35 nm is realized by numerical calculation. This nano-fabrication method is simple, low-cost and high-efficiency, which can provide opportunities to make a variety of nano-devices, such as biosensors and nano-antennas.
Islet Stellate Cells Isolated from Fibrotic Islet of Goto-Kakizaki Rats Affect Biological Behavior of Beta-Cell. - Journal of diabetes research
We previously isolated islet stellate cells (ISCs) from healthy Wistar rat islets. In the present study, we isolated "already primed by diabetic environment" ISCs from islets of Goto-Kakizaki rats, determined the gene profile of these cells, and assessed the effects of these ISCs on beta-cell function and survival. We detected gene expression of ISCs by digital gene expression. INS-1 cell proliferation, apoptosis, and insulin production were measured after being treated with ISCs supernatant (SN). We observed the similar expression pattern of ISCs and PSCs, but 1067 differentially expressed genes. Insulin production in INS-1 cells cultured with ISC-SN was significantly reduced. The 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine-positive INS-1 cells treated with ISC-SN were decreased. Propidium iodide- (PI-) positive INS-1 cells were 2.6-fold higher than those in control groups. Caspase-3 activity was increased. In conclusion, ISCs presented in fibrotic islet of GK rats might be special PSCs, which impaired beta-cell function and proliferation and increased beta-cell apoptosis.
Circulating Betatrophin in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: A Meta-Analysis. - Journal of diabetes research
Objective. To investigate the association between circulating betatrophin level and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in human. Methods. A comprehensive literature search was performed in PubMed and Embase databases to identify eligible studies assessing the circulating levels of betatrophin in both T2DM patients and nondiabetic adults. Results. A total of nine eligible studies with twelve comparisons were included for the final meta-analysis. Circulating betatrophin levels in T2DM patients were higher than those in the nondiabetic controls (random-effect SMD 0.53; 95% CI 0.13 to 0.94; P = 0.010). In the subgroup of nonobese population but not the obese population, the overall betatrophin level in T2DM patients was much higher than that in the nondiabetic controls (nonobese: random-effect SMD, 0.82; 95% CI 0.42 to 1.21; P < 0.001; obese: random-effect SMD, -0.39; 95% CI, -0.95 to 0.18; P = 0.18). Metaregression indicated that body mass index of T2DM patients was associated with mean difference of betatrophin level between T2DM and nondiabetic adults (slope, -578.8; t = -2.7; P = 0.02). Conclusion. Based on the findings of our meta-analysis, circulating betatrophin level of T2DM patients is higher than that of nondiabetic adults in the nonobese population, but not in the obese population.
Determination of monomeric composition in polyhydroxyalkanoates by liquid chromatography coupled with on-line mass spectrometry and off-line nuclear magnetic resonance. - Talanta
Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are commercially-valuable biocompatible and biodegradable polymers with many potential medical, pharmaceutical and other industrial applications. The analysis of PHA monomeric composition is especially challenging due to the broad chemical diversity of PHA monomers and lack of analytical standards to represent the chemically-diverse PHA monomer constituents. In this study, a novel strategy based on on-line liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and off-line liquid chromatography-nuclear magnetic resonance (LC-NMR) was established to quantify seven PHA monomers with available standards and used to elucidate the structures of unknown PHA monomers. The strategy was successfully applied for the determination of monomeric composition in bacterial PHAs isolated from Pseudomonads cultivated on different carbon sources after hydrolysis. The results of this work demonstrated that the newly-developed strategy was efficient, repeatable, and could have good potential to be employed for detailed analysis of PHA monomeric composition.Copyright Â© 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
The Metabolic Effects of Oats Intake in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. - Nutrients
The present study aimed to comprehensively assess if oats intake is beneficial for diabetic patients. The literature search was conducted in PubMed database up to 23 August 2015. Fourteen controlled trials and two uncontrolled observational studies were included. Compared with the controls, oats intake significantly reduced the concentrations of glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) (MD, -0.42%; 95% CI, -0.61% to -0.23%), fasting blood glucose (FBG) (MD, -0.39 mmol/L; 95% CI, -0.58 to -0.19 mmol/L), total cholesterol (TC) (MD, -0.49 mmol/L; 95% CI, -0.86 to -0.12 mmol/L), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (MD, -0.29 mmol/L; 95% CI, -0.48 to -0.09 mmol/L). Oatmeal significantly reduced the acute postprandial glucose and insulin responses compared with the control meal. The present study has revealed a beneficial effect of oats intake on glucose control and lipid profiles in type 2 diabetic patients. Further investigations of oats intake in patients with type 1 diabetes and the safety of oats consumption are required.
Effects of Combination of Ezetimibe and Rosuvastatin on Coronary Artery Plaque in Patients with Coronary Heart Disease. - Heart, lung & circulation
In approximately 80% of cardiovascular disease-related deaths, patients suffer from coronary atherosclerotic heart disease. Ezetimibe is the first intestinal cholesterol absorption inhibitor. Its combination with statins for treating coronary atherosclerotic heart disease has attracted attention worldwide.The study group comprised 106 patients with coronary atherosclerotic heart disease and hyperlipidaemia. Each was randomly assigned to one of two groups: (1) Ezetimibe (10mg, once a night) plus rosuvastatin (10mg, once a night) (n=55) or (2) Rosuvastatin alone (10mg, once a night) (n=51). The primary endpoint was new or recurrent myocardial infarction, unstable angina pectoris, cardiac death, and stroke. Blood lipid, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) levels were measured before treatment and at one, six and 12 months after treatment. Coronary plaque size and compositional changes were determined using intravascular ultrasonography.The combination of ezetimibe plus rosuvastatin decreased total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, hsCRP, IL-6, and MMP-9 levels at six and 12 months after treatment. Statistical significance was detected between two groups. At 12 months, the plaque burden, plaque cross-sectional area, and percentage of necrotic plaque composition were significantly lower in the combination group than in rosuvastatin alone group (P<0.05). And compared with rosuvastatin alone group, the primary endpoint decreased more effectively in combination group.The combination of ezetimibe and rosuvastatin apparently diminishes lipid levels and plaque burden and improves plaque stability, which may be associated with the potent inhibitory effects of ezetimibe and rosuvastatin on inflammatory cytokines.Copyright Â© 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
A Molecular Chameleon with Fluorescein and Rhodamine Spectroscopic Behaviors. - Inorganic chemistry
A new class of fluorescein/rhodamine hybrids with two spirolactone rings was reported to exhibit dual-output fluorescent behaviors independently. Isolation and characterization for two diastereomers, trans-RhOH and cis-RhOH, have been made and their X-ray crystal structures determined. In a basic environment, the spirolactone ring on the hydroxyl side will be opened to give a fluorescein-like optical output with the lowest absorptions at 485 and 530 nm emission. On the other hand, a rhodamine-like optical output, i.e., 528 nm absorption and 575 nm emission, will be switched on by a H(+) or a Hg(2+) ion, attributed to the spirolactone ring opening on the amino side. In a methanol-buffer system with different pH values, the corresponding pKa values for the hydroxyl and amino groups were determined as 5.7 and 2.3, respectively. Selective Hg(2+)-sensing properties have also been discussed, and log Ks values of about 3.60 and 3.73 were determined. Confocal microscopic images of Caenorhabditis elegans incubated with RhOH were found to show enhanced fluorescent intensity with a Hg(2+) ion, demonstrating the potential application of RhOH for in vivo biological imaging.
Establishing Human Skin Grafts in Mice as Model for Melanoma Progression. - Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.)
Technological advances often dictate progress in cancer research. Melanoma research has been considerably influenced by implementation of novel techniques and has contributed to our understanding of the mechanism of tumor progression. The three-dimensional (3D) human skin reconstruct is an ideal model to dissect each step of melanoma development and progression. Reconstructed human skin consists of fibroblast-contracted collagen gels as a dermal compartment and a stratified epidermal compartment. The epidermis comprises keratinocytes and normal melanocytes or melanoma cells from different stages. Normal melanocytes in skin reconstructs remain singly distributed at the basement membrane within the basal layer of keratinocytes. The radial growth phase (RGP) melanoma cells grow as cell clusters in the epidermis. The vertical growth phase (VGP) melanoma cells invade the dermis of reconstructs. Metastatic melanoma cells aggressively invade deep into the dermis. Grafting melanoma skin reconstructs onto mice induces local tumor formation and metastatic foci in distant organs such as lungs. The growth patterns and the range of metastases reflect proliferation and metastatic capacity of the original tumors. Skin reconstruct as xenografts enable us to observe to which organs melanoma cells spread. In this chapter, we describe the usefulness of the model in studying not only melanocyte physiology but also pathophysiological conditions such as melanocyte transformation and melanoma progression. A better understanding of these processes will benefit the entire melanoma field.
Internal fixation treatments for intertrochanteric fracture: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized evidence. - Scientific reports
The relative effects of internal fixation strategies for intertrochanteric fracture after operation remain uncertain. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to address this important issue. We searched PubMed, EMBASE and CENTRAL for RCTs that compared different internal fixation implants in patients with intertrochanteric fracture at 6-month follow-up or longer. We ultimately included 43 trials enrolling 6911 patients; most trials were small in sample sizes and events. Their risk of bias was generally unclear due to insufficient reporting. Because of these, no statistically significant differences were present from most of the comparisons across all the outcomes, and no definitive conclusions can be made. However, a number of trials compared two commonly used internal fixation strategies, gamma nail (GN) and sliding hip screw (SHS). There is good evidence suggesting that, compared to SHS, GN may increase the risk of cut out (ORâ€‰=â€‰1.87, 95% CI, 1.08 to 3.21), re-operation (ORâ€‰=â€‰1.61, 95% CI, 1.02 to 2.53), intra-operative (ORâ€‰=â€‰3.14, 95% CI, 1.34 to 7.35) and later fractures (ORâ€‰=â€‰3.67, 95% CI, 1.37 to 9.83). Future randomized trials or observational studies that are carefully designed and conducted are warranted to establish the effects of alternative internal fixation strategies for intertrochanteric fracture.
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