1111 E Mcdowell Rd Internal Medicine Ll2
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Nonuniform exponential dichotomies in terms of Lyapunov functions for noninvertible linear discrete-time systems. - TheScientificWorldJournal
The aim of this paper is to give characterizations in terms of Lyapunov functions for nonuniform exponential dichotomies of nonautonomous and noninvertible discrete-time systems.
Construction and test of an artificial uterus for ex situ development of shark embryos. - Zoo biology
An artificial uterus (AU) was constructed from clear and opaque acrylic and life-support and monitoring systems were attached. The dwarf ornate wobbegong shark (Orectolobus ornatus) was used to test the AU because recent research has shown that during pregnancy the uterine fluid composition changes with mid- to late-term embryos immersed in seawater. An artificial uterine fluid comprising filtered, autoclaved seawater was placed in the AU. Eight, sexually mature female O. ornatus were captured from the wild and held in captivity. Subsequent ultrasound examinations confirmed pregnancy in three of these females. Six late-term embryos (three males and three females) were removed surgically from one euthanized female and placed in the AU. Their condition was monitored for 18 days before "birth" on September 26, 2008. The subsequent survival and growth of the AU pups was compared with naturally born wobbegong pups in captivity over a 140-day monitoring period. The development in the AU did not have detrimental effects as there was no postpartum mortality and there were marked increases in total length and weight that did not differ significantly between the two groups.Â© 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Design, objectives, execution and reporting of published open-label extension studies. - Journal of evaluation in clinical practice
Open-label extension (OLE) studies following blinded randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of pharmaceuticals are increasingly being carried out but do not conform to regulatory standards and questions surround the validity of their evidence. OLE studies are usually discussed as a homogenous group, yet substantial differences in study design still meet the definition of an OLE. We describe published papers reporting OLE studies focussing on stated objectives, design, conduct and reporting.A search of Embase and Medline databases for 1996 to July 2008 revealed 268 papers reporting OLE studies that met our eligibility criteria. A random sample of 50 was selected for detailed review.Over 80% of the studies had efficacy stated as an objective. The most common methods of allocation at the start of the OLE were for all RCT participants to switch to one active treatment or for only participants on the new drug to continue, but in three studies all participants were re-randomized at the start of the OLE. Eligibility criteria and other selection factors resulted in on average of 74% of participants in the preceding RCT(s) enrolling in the OLE and only 57% completed it.Published OLE studies do not form a homogenous group with respect to design or retention of participants, and thus the validity of evidence from an OLE should be judged on an individual basis. The term 'open label' suggests bias through lack of blinding, but slippage in relation to the sample randomized in the preceding RCT may be the more important threat to validity.Â© 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
High dietary carbohydrates decrease gallbladder volume and enhance cholesterol crystal formation. - Surgery
Animal and human data suggest that a diet high in refined carbohydrates leads to gallstone formation. However, no data are available on the role of dietary carbohydrates on gallbladder volume or on cholesterol crystal formation. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that a high carbohydrate diet would alter gallbladder volume and enhance cholesterol crystal formation.At 8 weeks of age, 60 lean and 36 obese leptin-deficient female mice were fed a 45% carbohydrate diet while an equal number of lean and obese mice were fed a 75% carbohydrate diet for 4 weeks. All animals then underwent cholecystectomy, and gallbladder bile volume was recorded. Bile was pooled, filtered, and maintained in a water bath at 37 degrees C for 14 days. Birefringent cholesterol crystals in bile were counted daily; crystal observation time and crystal mass were determined.The crystal observation time was significantly shortened in both lean and obese mice on the 75% diet compared with their counterparts on the 45% diet. The crystal mass was significantly increased in the lean mice on the 75% diet compared with the 45% diet. Gallbladder volumes were significantly reduced in both lean and obese mice on the 75% diet compared with their counterparts on the 45% diet.These data suggest that a high carbohydrate diet decreases gallbladder volume, shortens cholesterol crystal observation time, and increases crystal mass. We conclude that dietary carbohydrates may play a role in cholesterol gallstone formation by altering biliary motility and by enhancing crystal formation.
Biological integrity in mid-atlantic coastal plains headwater streams. - Environmental monitoring and assessment
The objective of this study was to assess the applicability of using landscape variables in conjunction with water quality and benthic data to efficiently estimate stream condition of select headwater streams in the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plains. Eighty-two streams with riffle sites were selected from eight-two independent watersheds across the region for sampling and analyses. Clustering of the watersheds by landscape resulted in three distinct groups (forest, crop, and urban) which coincided with watersheds dominant land cover or use. We used non-parametric analyses to test differences in benthos and water chemistry between groups, and used regression analyses to evaluate responses of benthic communities to water chemistry within each of the landscape groups. We found that typical water chemistry measures associated with urban runoff such as specific conductance and dissolved chloride were significantly higher in the urban group. In the crop group, we found variables commonly associated with farming such as nutrients and pesticides significantly greater than in the other two groups. Regression analyses demonstrated that the numbers of tolerant and facultative macroinvertebrates increased significantly in forested watersheds with small shifts in pollutants, while in human use dominated watersheds the intolerant macroinvertebrates were more sensitive to shifts in chemicals present at lower concentrations. The results from this study suggest that landscape based clustering can be used to link upstream landscape characteristics, water chemistry and biotic integrity in order to assess stream condition and likely cause of degradation without the use of reference sites. Notice: Although this work was reviewed by EPA and approved for publication, it may not necessarily reflect official Agency policy.
Mammary fibroblasts stimulate growth, alveolar morphogenesis, and functional differentiation of normal rat mammary epithelial cells. - In vitro cellular & developmental biology. Animal
Stromal-epithelial interactions play a profound role in regulating normal and tumor development in the mammary gland. The molecular details of these events, however, are incompletely understood. A novel serum-free transwell coculture system was developed to study the natural paracrine interactions between mammary epithelial cells (MEC) and mammary fibroblasts (MFC) isolated from normal rats during puberty. The MEC were cultured within a reconstituted basement membrane (RBM) in transwell inserts with or without MFC in the lower well. The presence of MFC stimulated epithelial cell growth, induced alveolar morphogenesis, and enhanced casein accumulation, a marker of the functional differentiation of MEC, but did not induce ductal morphogenesis. Potent mitogenic, morphogenic, and lactogenic effects were observed when the MFC were cultured either on plastic or within a layer of RBM. Although most MFC maintained on plastic died after 1 wk in serum-free medium, fibroblast survival was enhanced significantly when the MFC were cultured within the RBM. Taken together, this in vitro model effectively reconstitutes a physiologically relevant three-dimensional microenvironment for MEC and MFC, and seems ideal for studying the locally derived factors that regulate the developmental fate of the epithelial and fibroblast compartments of the mammary gland.
Rapid determination of the rate constant of agonist-induced association of single platelets. - Thrombosis research
We have developed a rapid and convenient method for determining the rate constant of association of single platelets. Using the concentration of single platelets prior to activation and that 0.25 min (15 s) after activation, this rate constant can be determined accurately without concern for reversibility of the aggregation process or need for statistical analysis. A linear relationship between initial platelet concentration and the rate constant of association is defined. The clinical utility of this association parameter is discussed.
Interpretation of microscopic image analysis of cell nuclei. - Computerized medical imaging and graphics : the official journal of the Computerized Medical Imaging Society
This study shows that microscopic image analyses of nuclear DNA have common characteristics among fixation methods and tissue types. We find that microscopic imaging measurements require both nuclear area and DNA concentration to properly convey diagnostic information. Algorithms are developed which enable infiltrating lymphocytes to act as internal DNA controls for each sample. The DNA content and patterns measured by microscopic imaging were found to be related to patient survival and to cytologic diagnosis.
A compartmental model of platelet aggregation in vitro: the kinetics of single platelets. - Thrombosis research
A compartmental model of platelet aggregation which accurately describes both reversible and irreversible aggregation in vitro is presented. This model is substantiated by correlative analyses of agonist-induced aggregation as monitored by both routine aggregometry and resistive counting of single platelets. Previously unresolved differences in the reported reaction order of the aggregation process are explained. The model suggests that aggregation includes, in addition to the association and dissociation of platelets, the stabilization of aggregates. We find reversible aggregation requires that single platelets associate more rapidly than aggregates stabilize. For irreversible aggregation, our results suggest the presence of subpopulations of single platelets which associate at different rates. As an unexpected consequence of this study, quantitative relationships between photometric and resistive methods of monitoring platelet aggregation are elucidated.
Arterial uptake indices of low density lipoproteins after fatty streak formation in Cynomolgus monkeys. - Cardiovascular research
To evaluate changes in arterial wall uptake of an atherogenic lipoprotein in early atherogenesis the uptake of labelled low density lipoprotein was measured in four segments of aorta in Cynomolgus monkeys with diet induced fatty streaks. The influx rate of low density lipoprotein was estimated from a simple kinetic model. The mean influx rate, expressed as plasma equivalents of tracer, was 69 nl.cm-2 per hour in fatty streak monkeys and 28 nl.cm-2 per hour in controls (p less than 0.001). Using additional assumptions, provisional estimates of the rates of apparent efflux were calculated. In fatty streak monkeys the mean apparent efflux rate, relative to the accumulation of tracer in the wall, did not differ significantly from the efflux rate in controls (8.7% per hour vs 7.9% per hour, p greater than 0.05). Thus intimal permeability to low density lipoprotein is increased at the fatty streak stage of lesion formation but apparent efflux may not be changed. The data fit the hypothesis that relative failure of efflux is a major cause of excess low density lipoprotein accumulation in the vessel wall in hypercholesterolaemia.
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1111 E Mcdowell Rd Internal Medicine Ll2 Phoenix, AZ 85006
1111 E Mcdowell Rd Lower Level 2
1111 E Mcdowell Rd Internal Medicine Ll2
1300 N 12Th St Suite 501
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1111 E Mcdowell Rd