3219 Rt 9W
Saugerties NY 12477
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The genome of the domesticated apple (Malus Ã— domestica Borkh.). - Nature genetics
We report a high-quality draft genome sequence of the domesticated apple (Malus Ã— domestica). We show that a relatively recent (>50 million years ago) genome-wide duplication (GWD) has resulted in the transition from nine ancestral chromosomes to 17 chromosomes in the Pyreae. Traces of older GWDs partly support the monophyly of the ancestral paleohexaploidy of eudicots. Phylogenetic reconstruction of Pyreae and the genus Malus, relative to major Rosaceae taxa, identified the progenitor of the cultivated apple as M. sieversii. Expansion of gene families reported to be involved in fruit development may explain formation of the pome, a Pyreae-specific false fruit that develops by proliferation of the basal part of the sepals, the receptacle. In apple, a subclade of MADS-box genes, normally involved in flower and fruit development, is expanded to include 15 members, as are other gene families involved in Rosaceae-specific metabolism, such as transport and assimilation of sorbitol.
Sequencing and assembly of highly heterozygous genome of Vitis vinifera L. cv Pinot Noir: problems and solutions. - Journal of biotechnology
A new approach to sequencing and assembling a highly heterozygous genome, that of grape, species Vitis vinifera cv Pinot Noir, is described. The combining of genome shotgun of paired reads produced by Sanger sequencing and sequencing by synthesis of unpaired reads was shown to be an efficient procedure for decoding a complex genome. About 2 million SNPs and more than a million heterozygous gaps have been identified in the 500 Mb genome of grape. More than 91% of the sequence assembled into 58,611 contigs is now anchored to the 19 linkage groups of V. vinifera.
A high quality draft consensus sequence of the genome of a heterozygous grapevine variety. - PloS one
Worldwide, grapes and their derived products have a large market. The cultivated grape species Vitis vinifera has potential to become a model for fruit trees genetics. Like many plant species, it is highly heterozygous, which is an additional challenge to modern whole genome shotgun sequencing. In this paper a high quality draft genome sequence of a cultivated clone of V. vinifera Pinot Noir is presented.We estimate the genome size of V. vinifera to be 504.6 Mb. Genomic sequences corresponding to 477.1 Mb were assembled in 2,093 metacontigs and 435.1 Mb were anchored to the 19 linkage groups (LGs). The number of predicted genes is 29,585, of which 96.1% were assigned to LGs. This assembly of the grape genome provides candidate genes implicated in traits relevant to grapevine cultivation, such as those influencing wine quality, via secondary metabolites, and those connected with the extreme susceptibility of grape to pathogens. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) distribution was consistent with a diffuse haplotype structure across the genome. Of around 2,000,000 SNPs, 1,751,176 were mapped to chromosomes and one or more of them were identified in 86.7% of anchored genes. The relative age of grape duplicated genes was estimated and this made possible to reveal a relatively recent Vitis-specific large scale duplication event concerning at least 10 chromosomes (duplication not reported before).Sanger shotgun sequencing and highly efficient sequencing by synthesis (SBS), together with dedicated assembly programs, resolved a complex heterozygous genome. A consensus sequence of the genome and a set of mapped marker loci were generated. Homologous chromosomes of Pinot Noir differ by 11.2% of their DNA (hemizygous DNA plus chromosomal gaps). SNP markers are offered as a tool with the potential of introducing a new era in the molecular breeding of grape.
Low incidence of BRCA2 mutations in breast carcinoma and other cancers. - Nature genetics
Inherited mutant alleles of familial tumour suppressor genes predispose individuals to particular types of cancer. In addition to an involvement in inherited susceptibility to cancer, these tumour suppressor genes are targets for somatic mutations in sporadic cancers of the same type found in the familial forms. An exception is BRCA1, which contributes to a significant fraction of familial breast and ovarian cancer, but undergoes mutation at very low rates in sporadic breast and ovarian cancers. This finding suggests that other genes may be the principal targets for somatic mutation in breast carcinoma. A second, recently identified familial breast cancer gene, BRCA2 (refs 5-8), accounts for a proportion of breast cancer roughly equal to BRCA1. Like BRCA1, BRCA2 behaves as a dominantly inherited tumour suppressor gene. Individuals who inherit one mutant allele are at increased risk for breast cancer, and the tumours they develop lose the wild-type allele by heterozygous deletion. The BRCA2 coding sequence is huge, composed of 26 exons that span 10,443 bp. Here we investigate the rate of BRCA2 mutation in sporadic breast cancers and in a set of cell lines that represent twelve other tumour types. Surprisingly, mutations in BRCA2 are infrequent in cancers including breast carcinoma. However, a probable germline mutation in a pancreatic tumour cell line suggests a role for BRCA2 in susceptibility to pancreatic cancer.
The complete BRCA2 gene and mutations in chromosome 13q-linked kindreds. - Nature genetics
Breast carcinoma is the most common malignancy among women in developed countries. Because family history remains the strongest single predictor of breast cancer risk, attention has focused on the role of highly penetrant, dominantly inherited genes in cancer-prone kindreds (1). BRCA1 was localized to chromosome 17 through analysis of a set of high-risk kindreds (2), and then identified four years later by a positional cloning strategy (3). BRCA2 was mapped to chromosomal 13q at about the same time (4). Just fifteen months later, Wooster et al. (5) reported a partial BRCA2 sequence and six mutations predicted to cause truncation of the BRCA2 protein. While these findings provide strong evidence that the identified gene corresponds to BRCA2, only two thirds of the coding sequence and 8 out of 27 exons were isolated and screened; consequently, several questions remained unanswered regarding the nature of BRCA2 and the frequency of mutations in 13q-linked families. We have now determined the complete coding sequence and exonic structure of BRCA2 (GenBank accession #U43746), and examined its pattern of expression. Here, we provide sequences for a set of PCR primers sufficient to screen the entire coding sequence of BRCA2 using genomic DNA. We also report a mutational analysis of BRCA2 in families selected on the basis of linkage analysis and/or the presence of one or more cases of male breast cancer. Together with the specific mutations described previously, our data provide preliminary insight into the BRCA2 mutation profile.
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3219 Rt 9W Saugerties, NY 12477