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Simultaneous radical gastrectomy and coronary artery bypass grafting: a case report. - The Indian journal of surgery
Coexistence of coronary artery disease and cancer with both requiring surgical treatment at the same time is rare. A 74-year-old male underwent elective coronary artery bypass grafting for unstable angina. In preoperative workup, the patient was incidentally discovered to have anaemia secondary to occult blood loss in his stool. This led to a preoperative upper GI endoscopy which showed a gastric carcinoma. Since both conditions required surgery, it was decided to perform simultaneous coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) followed by distal radical gastrectomy. CABG was done using low-dose heparin, and after closing sternotomy, the radical gastrectomy was performed. Postoperative recovery was uneventful, and patient was discharged in stable condition on day 14. Follow-up after 6Â months revealed no recurrence. Feasibility of simultaneous CABG and gastric cancer surgery, in particular, and various management strategies, in general, is discussed.
Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN) in patients of type 2 diabetes mellitus: a tertiary care hospital based study. - Indian heart journal
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a clinical syndrome characterized by hyperglycemia due to absolute or relative insulin deficiency. Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy invokes potentially life threatening outcomes especially in poorly controlled diabetic patients. However, there is scarcity of epidemiological data for CAN in poorly controlled type 2 diabetic patients in Pakistan.The objective of this study is to assess the frequency of cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN) in patients with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus in Pakistan.Descriptive cross-sectional.Department of Medicine, Liquate University Hospital, Hyderabad/Jamshoro, Sindh, Pakistan.February to November 2012.Non-probability purposive.This study included 207 patients, who all met the inclusion criteria and gave an informed consent for inclusion in the study. All the patients in the study were evaluated for CAN using four different clinical tests- Resting heart rate, test for orthostatic hypotension, hand gripping test and QTc interval on ECG. Resting Heart Rate of more than 100 beats per minute was taken as abnormal. Orthostatic hypotension was defined as a fall of systolic blood pressure >20 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure >10 mmHg on change of posture. The patients were asked to squeeze a small ball in hand gripping test and an increase in diastolic blood pressure <15 mmHg was considered abnormal. ECG recording with QTc interval >440 ms was considered abnormal or prolonged. Patients were labeled as CAN +ve if any two or more than two of the above listed tests were found positive/abnormal.In our study, 76 out of 207 (36.7%) of the patients with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus were found to have cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN).Cardiac autonomic dysfunctions are common in poorly controlled type 2 diabetes.Copyright Â© 2014 Cardiological Society of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Tavaborole, a novel boron-containing small molecule for the topical treatment of onychomycosis, is noncarcinogenic in 2-year carcinogenicity studies. - International journal of toxicology
Tavaborole, a cyclized boronic acid, has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the topical treatment of toenail onychomycosis. This novel, low-molecular-weight pharmaceutical compound has broad-spectrum antifungal activity against dermatophytes, yeasts, and molds responsible for the disease. Tavaborole was tested in 2-year carcinogenicity studies in mice (once daily dermal administration) and rats (once daily by oral gavage) as part of the extensive nonclinical safety program. There was no evidence of tavaborole-related neoplasms observed in either study. Based on the data gathered from these 2 carcinogenicity studies, tavaborole is considered noncarcinogenic.Â© The Author(s) 2014.
Thrombogenic catheter-associated superior vena cava syndrome. - Case reports in emergency medicine
Superior vena cava syndrome has historically been associated with malignancy. With the increasing use of indwelling central lines, catheters, and pacemakers in the past decade, there have been an increasing number of cases associated with thrombosis rather than by direct external compression. Patients presenting to the ED with an acute process of SVC syndrome need to be assessed in a timely fashion. Computed tomography angiography (CTA) or magnetic resonance angiogram (MRA) are superb modalities for diagnosis and can quickly be used in the ED. Treatment is oriented towards the underlying cause of the syndrome. In cases of thrombogenic catheter-associated SVC syndrome, anticoagulation is the mainstay of treatment. We present a case report and discussion of a 56-year-old male with a history of metastatic colorectal cancer and an indwelling central venous port with acute signs and symptoms of superior vena cava syndrome.
Mortui vivos docent--the dead teach the living: 18-flurodeoxyglocose positron emission tomography-computed tomography findings in a case of intravascular B cell lymphoma. - Journal of cancer research and therapeutics
Intravascular large B-cell lymphoma is a rare and aggressive variant of diffuse large B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Its atypical presentation often delays the diagnosis and due to its aggressive behavior, the diagnosis is made post-mortem in half of the cases. We present FDG PET/CT findings in a case of IVLCL. In our case, the report of the patient's bone marrow biopsy after death of the patient revealed the presence of IVLCL. After availability of final diagnosis, we reviewed the literature and a better explanation of the FDG PET/CT findings could be obtained. We describe this case, to call for heightened awareness in physicians for the rare but possible diagnosis of IVCLL, particularly in an elderly patient who presents with fever of unknown origin and demonstrates similar FDG PET/CT findings. Considering the characteristic scan findings described in our patient and other cases in literature, FDG PET/CT can be used in suspected cases of IVLCL for early diagnosis of this rapidly fatal malignancy.
Drug resistance patterns in pulmonary tuberculosis. - JPMA. The Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
To determine the resistance patterns of mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) isolates among category I and II patients of pulmonary tuberculosis.This cross sectional study was conducted at the Department of Medicine, Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences Jamshoro, from November 2008 to September 2009. Patients were divided into category I and II. The sputa were collected, stained with Ziehl-Nielsen (Z-N) staining and ultimately inoculated on Lowenstein-Jensen (L-J) media for six weeks. Out of 890 pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) patients, the growth was obtained in 285 cases. The Drug sensitivity testing (DST) for Isoniazid (INH), Rifampicin (RIF), Ethambutol (EMB) Pyrazinamide (PZA) and Streptomycin (SM) were performed. The data was analyzed on SPSS 10.0. A p-value of <0.05 was taken as significant.Out of 285 cases, 176 (61.75%) were male and 109 (38.24%) female. The mean age was 37 +/- 19.90 years. The DST showed drug sensitive and drug resistant isolates in 80 (28.05%) and 205 (71.92%) cases respectively (p=0.001). The drug resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) rates for individual drugs; INH, RIF, EMB, PZA and SM were 51,22%, 15.4%, 13.33%, 9%12, and 3.85% respectively (p=0.03). The MDR-TB isolates were detected in 120 (42.10%) cases, including 5 (5.88%) in category I and 115 (57.50%) in category II patients (p=0.0001).Drug resistant and multidrug resistant tuberculosis was observed mainly in category II patients. However, primary MDR was also observed in category I patients and reflects dissemination of MDR cases within the community.
Frequency of stress hyperglycaemia and its' influence on the outcome of patients with spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage. - JPMA. The Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
To observe the frequency of admission hyperglycaemia and its influence on the outcome of patients with intracerebral haemorrhage.This case series study included 450 consecutive patients received in medical wards at Liaquat University Hospital Jamshoro/Hyderabad with a diagnosis of Spontaneous Intracerebral Haemorrhage within 24 hours of their first stroke onset, between September 2006 to December 2008. The patients with haemorrhage secondary to brain tumours, trauma, haemorrhagic transformation of cerebral infarct, with previous history of haemorrhagic stroke, and patients with Glycosylated Haemoglobin greater than 8.5% were excluded from the study. Hyperglycaemia was defined as an admission or in-hospital fasting blood glucose level of 126 mg/dl (7 mmol/liter) or more or a random blood glucose level of 200 mg/dl (11.1 mmol/liter) or more on 2 or more determinations. The patients were divided into 2 broad groups, good outcome groups (i.e. patients who survived), and poor outcome group (patient died). Categorical variables such as age, sex, volume of haematoma, GCS score, presence of admission hyperglycaemia, Mean arterial pressure (MAP), and site of haematoma were expressed as percentage and frequency. Chi-square test was applied for comparing categorical variables such as hyperglycaemia, GCS score, and age with the outcome of the patients. Multivariate logistical regression analysis was done. A p-value 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. All calculations were done using SPSS version 16 (Chicago, IL, USA).Of the 450 consecutive patients, 399 fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Males were 261(65.4%) and females 136 (36, 4%).Patients of over 65 years age numbered 222 (55.6%) and 177 (44.4%) were less than 65 years. Stress hyperglycaemia was present in 109 (27.3%) cases and 290 (72.7%) patients were normoglycaemic. Of the 109 patients who died during hospitalization, 59 (54.12%) had presented with admission hyperglycaemia (0.001).Stress hyperglycaemia is a common finding in patients presenting with intracerebral haemorrhage. It is a marker of poor outcomes and higher mortality, more so in patients with no known history of diabetes.
The Gs-linked receptor GPR3 inhibits the proliferation of cerebellar granule cells during postnatal development. - PloS one
During postnatal murine and rodent cerebellar development, cerebellar granule precursors (CGP) gradually stop proliferating as they differentiate after migration to the internal granule layer (IGL). Molecular events that govern this program remain to be fully elucidated. GPR3 belongs to a family of Gs-linked receptors that activate cyclic AMP and are abundantly expressed in the adult brain.To investigate the role of this orphan receptor in CGP differentiation, we determined that exogenous GPR3 expression in rat cerebellar granule neurons partially antagonized the proliferative effect of Sonic hedgehog (Shh), while endogenous GPR3 inhibition by siRNA stimulated Shh-induced CGP proliferation. In addition, exogenous GPR3 expression in CGPs correlated with increased p27/kip expression, while GPR3 knock-down led to a decrease in p27/kip expression. In wild-type mice, GPR3 expression increased postnatally and its expression was concentrated in the internal granular layer (IGL). In GPR3 -/- mice, the IGL was widened with increased proliferation of CGPs, as measured by bromodeoxyuridine incorporation. Cell cycle kinetics of GPR3-transfected medulloblastoma cells revealed a G0/G1 block, consistent with cell cycle exit.These results thus indicate that GPR3 is a novel antiproliferative mediator of CGPs in the postnatal development of murine cerebellum.
Frequency of lower extremity amputation in diabetics with reference to glycemic control and Wagner's grades. - Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons--Pakistan : JCPSP
To determine the frequency of minor and major amputations in diabetic patients at different Wagner s grades of severity and to correlate it with the glycaemic control.Cross-sectional analytical study.Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre, Karachi, over a period of 3 years from August 1999 to August 2002.The study included 60 patients of diabetic foot disease, who were distributed in to six grades of severity according to the Wagner s method. Glycaemic control was determined by baseline fasting and random blood sugar and HbA1c levels. Patients were treated accordingly and followed-up. Frequencies of minor and major amputations were found and these were correlated with the glycemic control of the patients.There was no patient in grade-0, 6 (10%) patients in grade-I, 13 (21.6%) in grade-II, 14 (23.3%) in grade-III, 18 (30%) in grade-IV and 9 (15%) patients in grade-V respectively. Thirty-seven (61.6%) patients were male. The mean age of the patients was 50.88 +/- 11.06 years. In 40 (66.7%) patients, the duration of diabetes was 8 years or longer. Fifty six (93.3%) were having NIDDM and 35 (58.3%) were smokers. Staphylococcus aureus was the most common pathogen isolated from the wound. Only 1 (16.6%) patient in grade I underwent minor amputation, while 3 (23.7%), 8 (57.14%) and 8 (44.44%) underwent minor amputation in grades II, III and IV respectively. Three (21.42%), 10 (55.55%) and all 9 (100%) underwent major amputation in grade III, IV and V respectively. Below-the-knee amputation was the most commonly performed procedure. Overall frequency of minor and major amputation were 20 (33.3%) and 22 (36.3%) respectively. Patients with poor glycaemic control had higher percentage of minor and major amputation (p-value = 0.001).The frequency of minor and major amputation increases with the higher grades of diabetic foot. Poor glycaemic control is a significant risk factor for amputation in diabetic foot patients.
Bee-eaters ( Merops orientalis) respond to what a predator can see. - Animal cognition
Two sets of experiments are reported that show that the small green bee-eater ( Merops orientalis, a small tropical bird) can appreciate what a predator can or cannot see. Bee-eaters avoid entering the nest in the presence of a potential nest predator. In the first set of experiments bee-eaters entered the nest more frequently when the predator was unable to see the nest from its position, as compared to an approximately equidistant position from which the nest could be seen. In the second set of experiments bee-eaters entered the nest more frequently when the predator was looking away from the nest. The angle of gaze from the nest was associated significantly positively with the probability of entering the nest whereas the angle from the bird was not. Birds showed considerable flexibility as well as individual variation in the possible methods of judging the predator's position and direction of gaze.
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