420 Lexington Ave 228
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Detection of elevated levels of soluble alpha-synuclein oligomers in post-mortem brain extracts from patients with dementia with Lewy bodies. - Brain : a journal of neurology
A number of neurodegenerative diseases including Parkinson's disease, dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and multiple system atrophy are characterized by the formation and intraneuronal accumulation of fibrillar aggregates of alpha-synuclein (alpha-syn) protein in affected brain regions. These and other findings suggest that the accumulation of alpha-syn in the brain plays an important role in the pathogenesis of these diseases. However, more recently it has been reported that early amyloid aggregates or 'soluble oligomers' are the pathogenic species that lead to neurodegeneration and neuronal cell death rather than the later 'mature fibrils'. In this study, we investigated the presence of alpha-syn oligomers in brain lysates prepared from frozen post-mortem brains of normal, Alzheimer's disease and DLB patients. The brain extracts were subjected to high speed centrifugation, to remove insoluble alpha-syn aggregates, followed by specific detection of soluble oligomers in the supernatants by employing FILA-1, an antibody that specifically binds to alpha-syn aggregates, but not to alpha-syn monomers, or to tau or beta-amyloid aggregates. Using this novel enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method to quantify the amounts of alpha-syn oligomers in the brain extracts, our data clearly show an increase in the levels of soluble oligomers of alpha-syn in the DLB brains compared to those with Alzheimer's disease and the controls (P < 0.0001). Our findings provide strong evidence to support the contention that elevated soluble oligomers of alpha-syn are involved in the pathogenesis of DLB. Furthermore, these findings establish FILA-1 as a very sensitive tool for the detection of oligomeric forms of alpha-syn in human brain lysates.
An investigation into the lipid-binding properties of alpha-, beta- and gamma-synucleins in human brain and cerebrospinal fluid. - Brain research
Parkinson's disease (PD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) are both characterized by the formation and intraneuronal accumulation of fibrillar aggregates of alpha-synuclein (alpha-syn) protein in affected brain regions. alpha-Syn has biochemical properties and a structural motif characteristic of fatty acid binding proteins. Using the fatty acid binding resin Lipidex-1000, we investigated the capture of alpha-, beta-, and gamma-syn proteins as lipid-associated proteins from normal and DLB brain lysates, and from normal human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). These were eluted from Lipidex-1000 and analyzed by SDS-NuPAGE followed by Western blotting. Using this methodology, we have been able to extract full-length and truncated forms of alpha-syn from brain lysates. We also extracted low levels of beta-syn from DLB brains, but failed to extract any gamma-syn. We were able to capture only full-length monomeric alpha-syn from normal human CSF. Our data confirm the fatty acid binding properties of alpha-syn, and to a lesser extent beta-syn, but suggest that gamma-syn does not share this same characteristic.
Decreased alpha-synuclein in cerebrospinal fluid of aged individuals and subjects with Parkinson's disease. - Biochemical and biophysical research communications
There is ample biochemical, pathological, and genetic evidence that the metabolism of alpha-synuclein (alpha-syn) plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson disease (PD). To examine whether quantification of alpha-syn in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is potentially informative in the diagnosis of PD, we developed a specific ELISA system and measured the concentration of alpha-syn in CSF from 33 patients with PD (diagnosed according to UK PD Society Brain Bank criteria) and 38 control subjects including 9 neurologically healthy individuals. We found that PD patients had significantly lower alpha-syn levels in their CSF than the control groups (p<0.0001) even after adjusting for gender and age. Age was independently associated with lower alpha-syn levels. Logistic regression analysis showed that reduction in CSF alpha-syn served as a significant predictor of PD beyond age and gender alone (area under ROC curve, c=0.882). Furthermore, we observed a close inverse correlation between alpha-syn levels in CSF and assigned Hoehn and Yahr score in this cohort of 71 living subjects (p<0.0001), even after adjusting for age. These findings identify in the quantification of alpha-syn from CSF a potential laboratory marker to aid the clinical diagnosis of PD.
Detection of oligomeric forms of alpha-synuclein protein in human plasma as a potential biomarker for Parkinson's disease. - FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
To date there is no accepted clinical diagnostic test for Parkinson's disease (PD) based on biochemical analysis of blood or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). alpha-Synuclein (alpha-syn) protein has been linked to the pathogenesis of PD with the discovery of mutations in the gene encoding alpha-syn in familial cases with early-onset PD. Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites, which constitute the main pathological features in the brains of patients with sporadic PD and dementia with Lewy bodies, are formed by the conversion of soluble monomers of alpha-syn into insoluble aggregates. We recently reported the presence of alpha-syn in normal human blood plasma and in postmortem CSF. Here, we investigated whether alpha-syn can be used as a biomarker for PD. We have developed a novel ELISA method that detects only oligomeric "soluble aggregates" of alpha-syn. Using this ELISA, we report the presence of significantly elevated (P=0.002) levels of oligomeric forms of alpha-syn in plasma samples obtained from 34 PD patients compared with 27 controls; 52% (95% confidence intervals 0.353-0.687) of the PD patients displayed signals >0.5 OD with our ELISA assay in comparison to only 14.8% (95% confidence intervals 0.014-0.281) for the control cases. An analysis of the test's diagnostic value revealed a specificity of 0.852 (95% confidence intervals 0.662-0.958), sensitivity of 0.529 (95% confidence intervals 0.351-0.702) and a positive predictive value of 0.818 (95% confidence intervals 0.597-0.948). These observations offer new opportunities for developing diagnostic tests for PD and related diseases and for testing therapeutic agents aimed at preventing or reversing the aggregation of alpha-syn.
A strategy for designing inhibitors of alpha-synuclein aggregation and toxicity as a novel treatment for Parkinson's disease and related disorders. - FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Convergent biochemical and genetic evidence suggests that the formation of alpha-synuclein (alpha-syn) protein deposits is an important and, probably, seminal step in the development of Parkinson's disease (PD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and multiple system atrophy (MSA). It has been reported that transgenic animals overexpressing human alpha-syn develop lesions similar to those found in the brain in PD, together with a progressive loss of dopaminergic cells and associated abnormalities of motor function. Inhibiting and/or reversing alpha-syn self-aggregation could, therefore, provide a novel approach to treating the underlying cause of these diseases. We synthesized a library of overlapping 7-mer peptides spanning the entire alpha-syn sequence, and identified amino acid residues 64-100 of alpha-syn as the binding region responsible for its self-association. Modified short peptides containing alpha-syn amino acid sequences from part of this binding region (residues 69-72), named alpha-syn inhibitors (ASI), were found to interact with full-length alpha-syn and block its assembly into both early oligomers and mature amyloid-like fibrils. We also developed a cell-permeable inhibitor of alpha-syn aggregation (ASID), using the polyarginine peptide delivery system. This ASID peptide was able to inhibit the DNA damage induced by Fe(II) in neuronal cells transfected with alpha-syn(A53T), a familial PD-associated mutation. ASI peptides without this delivery system did not reverse levels of Fe(II)-induced DNA damage. Furthermore, the ASID peptide increased (P<0.0005) the number of cells stained positive for Bcl-2, while significantly (P<0.05) decreasing the percentage of cells stained positive for BAX. These short peptides could serve as lead compounds for the design of peptidomimetic drugs to treat PD and related disorders.
Alpha-synuclein implicated in Parkinson's disease is present in extracellular biological fluids, including human plasma. - FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Parkinson's disease (PD) and other related disorders are characterized by the accumulation of fibrillar aggregates of alpha-synuclein protein (alpha-syn) inside brain cells. It is likely that the formation of alpha-syn aggregates plays a seminal role in the pathogenesis of at least some of these diseases, because two different mutations in the gene encoding alpha-syn have been found in inherited forms of PD. alpha-Syn is mainly expressed by neuronal cells and is generally considered to exist as a cytoplasmic protein. Here, we report the unexpected identification of alpha-syn in conditioned culture media from untransfected and alpha-syn-transfected human neuroblastoma cells, as well as in human cerebrospinal fluid and blood plasma. The method used was immunocapture by using anti-alpha-syn antibodies coupled to magnetic beads, followed by detection on Western blots. In all cases, alpha-syn was identified as a single 15 kDa band, which co-migrated with a recombinant form of the protein and reacted with five different antibodies to alpha-syn. Our findings suggest that cells normally secrete alpha-syn into their surrounding media, both in vitro and in vivo. The detection of extracellular alpha-syn and/or its modified forms in body fluids, particularly in human plasma, offers new opportunities for the development of diagnostic tests for PD and related diseases.
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