7780 Elmwood Ave
Middleton WI 53562
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Determination of a prostaglandin D2 antagonist and its acyl glucuronide metabolite in human plasma by high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometric detection--a lack of MS/MS selectivity between a glucuronide conjugate and a phase - Journal of chromatography. B, Analytical technologies in the biomedical and life sciences
A method for the determination of a prostaglandin D(2) receptor antagonist (I, a compound being evaluated for the prevention of niacin induced flushing) and its acyl glucuronide metabolite (II) in human plasma is presented. The method utilized high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with tandem mass spectrometric (MS/MS) detection using an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) interface operated in the positive ionization mode. The product ion was a radical cation generated via a homolytic bond cleavage. A chemical analog of the drug was used as internal standard (III). The acyl glucuronide metabolite (II) was detected using the same precursor-to-product ion transition used for the parent compound after chromatographic separation of I and II. Drug and metabolite were extracted using semi-automated, 96-well format solid phase extraction (SPE), and chromatography was performed using a reverse phase analytical column with an isocratic mobile phase. The chromatographic retention factor (k') of II was found to be highly sensitive to mobile phase formic acid concentration. An adjustment in mobile phase formic acid concentration improved the chromatographic separation between II and a mono-hydroxylated metabolite after an unexpected lack of MS/MS selectivity between the two molecules was observed. The dependence of retention factor on formic acid concentration (k' increased as formic acid concentration decreased) was thought to indicate polar interactions between II and the stationary phase. The stability of II in spiked human plasma was determined. The rate of hydrolysis back to parent compound was relatively low (approximately 0.1 and 0.5% per hour at room temperature and 4 degrees C, respectively) indicating that significant changes in analyte concentrations did not occur during sample processing. The concentration range of the assay was 10-2500 ng/mL for both drug and glucuronide metabolite.
Pharmacokinetics, safety, and tolerability of caspofungin in children and adolescents. - Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy
Caspofungin is a parenteral antifungal that inhibits beta-1,3-D-glucan synthesis. Although licensed for adult use, the appropriate caspofungin dosing regimen in pediatric patients is not yet known. We therefore investigated the pharmacokinetics and safety of caspofungin in pediatric patients. Thirty-nine children (ages 2 to 11 years) and adolescents (ages 12 to 17 years) with neutropenia were administered caspofungin using either a weight-based regimen (1 mg/kg of body weight/day) or a body surface area regimen (50 mg/m2/day or 70 mg/m2/day). Plasma samples for caspofungin profiles were collected on days 1 and 4. These results were compared to those from adults treated with either 50 or 70 mg/day for mucosal candidiasis. In children receiving 1 mg/kg/day (maximum, 50 mg/day), the area under the concentration-time curve over 24 h (AUC(0-24)) was significantly smaller (46% after multiple doses) than that observed in adults receiving 50 mg/day (P < 0.001). In children and adolescents receiving 50 mg/m2/day (maximum, 70 mg/day), the AUC(0-24) following multiple doses was similar to that for the exposure in adults receiving 50 mg/day. The AUC(0-24) and concentration trough (at 24 h) in pediatric patients receiving the 50-mg/m2 daily regimen were consistent across the range of ages. Caspofungin was generally well tolerated in this study. None of the patients developed a serious drug-related adverse event or were discontinued for toxicity. These results demonstrate that caspofungin at 1 mg/kg/day in pediatric patients is suboptimal. Caspofungin administration at 50 mg/m2/day provides a comparable exposure to that of adult patients treated with 50 mg/day.
Comparative effects of fibrates on drug metabolizing enzymes in human hepatocytes. - Pharmaceutical research
The induction potential of different fibric acid derivatives on human drug metabolizing enzymes was evaluated to help assess the role of enzyme induction on pharmacokinetic drug interactions.Effects of gemfibrozil, fenofibric acid, and clofibric acid on expression levels of cytochromes P450 (CYPs) 3A4 and 2C8 and UDP-glucuronyltransferase (UGT) 1A1 were evaluated in primary human hepatocyte cultures. The potential for these fibrates to activate human pregnane X receptor (PXR) also was studied in a cell-based PXR reporter gene assay.All three fibrates caused increases in mRNA levels of CYP3A4 (2- to 5-fold), CYP2C8 (2- to 6-fold), and UGT1A1 (2- to 3-fold). On average, the effects on CYP3A4 were less than (< or =30% of rifampin), while those on CYP2C8 and UGT1A1 were comparable to or slightly higher than (up to 200% of rifampin) the corresponding effects observed with rifampin (10 microM). Consistent with the mRNA results, all fibrates caused moderate (approximately 2- to 3-fold) increases in CYP3A4 activity (measured by testosterone 6beta hydroxylase), as compared to about a 10-fold increase by rifampin. Significant increases (3- to 6-fold) in amodiaquine N-deethylase (a functional probe for CYP2C8 activity) also were observed with clofibric acid, fenofibric acid, and rifampin, in agreement with the mRNA finding. However, in contrast to the mRNA induction, marked decreases (>60%) in CYP2C8 activity were obtained with gemfibrozil treatment. Consistent with this finding, co-incubation of amodiaquine with gemfibrozil, but not with fenofibric acid, clofibric acid, or rifampin, in human liver microsomes or hepatocytes resulted in significantly decreased amodiaquine N-deethylase activity (IC50 = 80 microM for gemfibrozil, >500 microM for fenofibric or clofibric acid, and >50 microM for rifampin). Similar to rifampin, all three fibrates caused a modest change in the glucuronidation of chrysin, a nonspecific substrate of UGTs. No significant activation on human pregnane X receptor (PXR) was observed with the three fibrates in a PXR reporter gene assay.In human hepatocytes, both fenofibric acid and clofibric acid are inducers of CYP3A4 and CYP2C8. Gemfibrozil is also an inducer of CYP3A4, but acts as both an inducer and an inhibitor of CYP2C8. In this system, all fibrates are weak inducers of UGT1A1. The enzyme inducing effects of fibrates appear to be mediated via a mechanism(s) other than PXR activation. These results suggest that fibrates may have potential to cause various pharmacokinetic drug interactions via their differential effects on enzyme induction and/or inhibition.
Disposition of caspofungin, a novel antifungal agent, in mice, rats, rabbits, and monkeys. - Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy
The metabolism, excretion, and pharmacokinetics of caspofungin (Cancidas; Merck & Co., Inc.) were investigated after administration of a single intravenous dose to mice, rats, rabbits, and monkeys. Caspofungin had a low plasma clearance (0.29 to 1.05 ml/min/kg) and a long terminal elimination half-life (11.7 h to 59.7 h) in all preclinical species. The elimination kinetics of caspofungin were multiphasic and displayed an initial distribution phase followed by a dominant beta-elimination phase. The presence of low levels of prolonged radioactivity in plasma was observed and was partially attributable to the chemical degradation product M0. Excretion studies with [(3)H]caspofungin indicated that the hepatic and renal routes play an important role in the elimination of caspofungin, as a large percentage of the radiolabeled dose was recovered in urine and feces. Excretion of radioactivity in all species studied was slow, and low levels of radioactivity were detected in daily urine and fecal samples throughout a prolonged collection period. Although urinary profiles indicated the presence of several metabolites (M0, M1, M2, M3, M4, M5, and M6), the majority of the total radioactivity was associated with the polar metabolites M1 [4(S)-hydroxy-4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-L-threonine] and M2 [N-acetyl-4(S)-hydroxy-4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-L-threonine]. Caspofungin was thus primarily eliminated by metabolic transformation; however, the rate of metabolism was slow. These results suggest that distribution plays a prominent role in determining the plasma pharmacokinetics and disposition of caspofungin, as very little excretion or biotransformation occurred during the early days after dose administration, a period during which concentrations in plasma fell substantially. The disposition of caspofungin in preclinical species was similar to that reported previously in humans.
Disposition of caspofungin: role of distribution in determining pharmacokinetics in plasma. - Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy
The disposition of caspofungin, a parenteral antifungal drug, was investigated. Following a single, 1-h, intravenous infusion of 70 mg (200 microCi) of [(3)H]caspofungin to healthy men, plasma, urine, and feces were collected over 27 days in study A (n = 6) and plasma was collected over 26 weeks in study B (n = 7). Supportive data were obtained from a single-dose [(3)H]caspofungin tissue distribution study in rats (n = 3 animals/time point). Over 27 days in humans, 75.4% of radioactivity was recovered in urine (40.7%) and feces (34.4%). A long terminal phase (t(1/2) = 14.6 days) characterized much of the plasma drug profile of radioactivity, which remained quantifiable to 22.3 weeks. Mass balance calculations indicated that radioactivity in tissues peaked at 1.5 to 2 days at approximately 92% of the dose, and the rate of radioactivity excretion peaked at 6 to 7 days. Metabolism and excretion of caspofungin were very slow processes, and very little excretion or biotransformation occurred in the first 24 to 30 h postdose. Most of the area under the concentration-time curve of caspofungin was accounted for during this period, consistent with distribution-controlled clearance. The apparent distribution volume during this period indicated that this distribution process is uptake into tissue cells. Radioactivity was widely distributed in rats, with the highest concentrations in liver, kidney, lung, and spleen. Liver exhibited an extended uptake phase, peaking at 24 h with 35% of total dose in liver. The plasma profile of caspofungin is determined primarily by the rate of distribution of caspofungin from plasma into tissues.
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7780 Elmwood Ave Middleton, WI 53562
8531 Greenway Blvd Apt 102
1424 N High Point Rd Suite 201
2275 Deming Way, Suite 180