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Dust in the wind: How climate variables and volcanic dust affect rates of tooth wear in central american howling monkeys. - American journal of physical anthropology
Two factors have been considered important contributors to tooth wear: dietary abrasives in plant foods themselves and mineral particles adhering to ingested food. Each factor limits the functional life of teeth. Cross-population studies of wear rates in a single species living in different habitats may point to the relative contributions of each factor.We examine macroscopic dental wear in populations of Alouatta palliata (Gray, 1849) from Costa Rica (115 specimens), Panama (19), and Nicaragua (56). The sites differ in mean annual precipitation, with the Panamanian sites receiving more than twice the precipitation of those in Costa Rica or Nicaragua (âˆ¼3,500 mm vs. âˆ¼1,500 mm). Additionally, many of the Nicaraguan specimens were collected downwind of active plinian volcanoes. Molar wear is expressed as the ratio of exposed dentin area to tooth area; premolar wear was scored using a ranking system.Despite substantial variation in environmental variables and the added presence of ash in some environments, molar wear rates do not differ significantly among the populations. Premolar wear, however, is greater in individuals collected downwind from active volcanoes compared with those living in environments that did not experience ash-fall.Volcanic ash seems to be an important contributor to anterior tooth wear but less so in molar wear. That wear is not found uniformly across the tooth row may be related to malformation in the premolars due to fluorosis. A surge of fluoride accompanying the volcanic ash may differentially affect the premolars as the molars fully mineralize early in the life of Alouatta. Am J Phys Anthropol 159:210-222, 2016. Â© 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.Â© 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Comparison of CT-based Lobar Ventilation with (3)He MR Imaging Ventilation Measurements. - Radiology
Purpose To compare lobar lung ventilation computed from expiratory and inspiratory computed tomographic (CT) data with direct measurements of ventilation at hyperpolarized helium 3 ((3)He) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging by using same-breath hydrogen 1 ((1)H) MR imaging examinations to coregister the multimodality images. Materials and Methods The study was approved by the national research ethics committee, and written patient consent was obtained. Thirty patients with asthma underwent breath-hold CT at total lung capacity and functional residual capacity. (3)He and (1)H MR images were acquired during the same breath hold at a lung volume of functional residual capacity plus 1 L. Lobar segmentations delineated by major fissures on both CT scans were used to calculate the percentage of ventilation per lobe from the change in inspiratory and expiratory lobar volumes. CT-based ventilation was compared with (3)He MR imaging ventilation by using diffeomorphic image registration of (1)H MR imaging to CT, which enabled indirect registration of (3)He MR imaging to CT. Statistical analysis was performed by using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test, Pearson correlation coefficient, and Bland-Altman analysis. Results The mean Â± standard deviation absolute difference between the CT and (3)He MR imaging percentage of ventilation volume in all lobes was 4.0% (right upper and right middle lobes, 5.4% Â± 3.3; right lower lobe, 3.7% Â± 3.9; left upper lobe, 2.8% Â± 2.7; left lower lobe, 3.9% Â± 2.6; Wilcoxon signed-rank test, P < .05). The Pearson correlation coefficient between the two techniques in all lobes was 0.65 (P < .001). Greater percentage of ventilation was seen in the upper lobes with (3)He MR imaging and in the lower lobes with CT. This was confirmed with Bland-Altman analysis, with 95% limits of agreement for right upper and middle lobes, -2.4, 12.7; right lower lobe, -11.7, 4.6; left upper lobe, -4.9, 8.7; and left lower lobe, -9.8, 2.8. Conclusion The percentage of regional ventilation per lobe calculated at CT was comparable to a direct measurement of lung ventilation at hyperpolarized (3)He MR imaging. This work provides evidence for the validity of the CT model, and same-breath (1)H MR imaging enables regional interpretation of (3)He ventilation MR imaging on the underlying lung anatomy at thin-section CT. (Â©) RSNA, 2015.
Characterization of acinar airspace involvement in asthmatic patients by using inert gas washout and hyperpolarized (3)helium magnetic resonance. - The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology
The multiple-breath inert gas washout parameter acinar ventilation heterogeneity (Sacin) is thought to be a marker of acinar airway involvement but has not been validated by using quantitative imaging techniques in asthmatic patients.We aimed to use hyperpolarized (3)He diffusion magnetic resonance at multiple diffusion timescales and quantitative computed tomographic (CT) densitometry to determine the nature of acinar airway involvement in asthmatic patients.Thirty-seven patients with asthma and 17 age-matched healthy control subjects underwent spirometry, body plethysmography, multiple-breath inert gas washout (with the tracer gas sulfur hexafluoride), and hyperpolarized (3)He diffusion magnetic resonance. AÂ subset of asthmatic patients (nÂ = 27) underwent quantitative CT densitometry.Ninety-four percent (16/17) of patients with an increased Sacin had Global Initiative for Asthma treatment step 4 to 5 asthma, and 13 of 17 had refractory disease. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of (3)He at 1 second was significantly higher in patients with Sacin-high asthma compared with that in healthy control subjects (0.024 vs 0.017, PÂ < .05). Sacin correlated strongly with ADCs at 1 second (RÂ = 0.65, PÂ < .001) but weakly with ADCs at 13 ms (RÂ = 0.38, PÂ < .05). ADCs at both 13 ms and 1 second correlated strongly with the mean lung density expiratory/inspiratory ratio, a CT marker of expiratory air trapping (RÂ = 0.77, PÂ < .0001 for ADCs at 13 ms; RÂ =Â 0.72,Â PÂ <Â .001 for ADCs at 1 second).Sacin is associated with alterations in long-range diffusion within the acinar airways and gas trapping. The precise anatomic nature and mechanistic role in patients with severe asthma requires further evaluation.Crown Copyright Â© 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Validation of an ultrasensitive LC-MS/MS method for PTH 1-34 in porcine plasma to support a solid dose PK study. - Bioanalysis
The bioanalysis of Teriparatide (PTH 1-34) is extremely challenging due to the low plasma concentrations present at a therapeutic level. An LC-MS/MS-based method was developed that detected PTH 1-34 at 15 pg/ml in porcine plasma, and was validated using the bioanalytical method validation guidelines.The analytical methodology demonstrated good linearity over a range of 15-1000 pg/ml, and demonstrated good precision and accuracy. The validated method was used to support a trial comparing a solid state dose to a solution-based injection (Forteoâ„¢).The ability to quantify the peptide at low pg/ml in porcine plasma demonstrates that it is possible to develop very sensitive LC-MS/MS-based methodologies to support the bioanalysis of large peptide biotherapeutics.
A clinical perspective on the analysis and presentation of the number of incontinence episodes following treatment for OAB. - Neurourology and urodynamics
To provide a clinical view and interpretation on the methods for analysis of incontinence in patients with overactive bladder.Results are analyzed using the total number of incontinence episodes in a 3-day diary period, using fixed and random effect Poisson regression models to calculate ratio of event rates and 95% confidence interval (CI) together with P-values and are compared with the analysis of the mean number of incontinence episodes/24â€‰hr using analysis of covariance models to calculate P-values and 95% CI for the difference between treatments.Using random effects Poisson regression models demonstrated that the number of incontinence episodes was reduced by 26% more with mirabegron 50â€‰mg than with placebo. For solifenacin 5 and 10â€‰mg, treatment resulted in a 43% (41%) greater decrease in the number of incontinence episodes compared with placebo.Instead of providing a fixed number of incontinence episodes/24â€‰hr that reflects the mean effect, the estimate using Poisson methodology provides an efficacy estimate that can be interpreted in the context of, and relative to, the patient's baseline (severity). Using the total number of incontinence episodes in the diary period, and expressing this as percent decrease in the number of episodes, may be easier to interpret; for example, because this results in a relative measure of effect that provides an alternative understanding of a patient's improvement at end of treatment compared with the comparator arm. Also, it is based on statistical methods that are more suitable for the analysis of count data. Neurourol. Urodynam. Â© 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.Â© 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Dietary inference from upper and lower molar morphology in platyrrhine primates. - PloS one
The correlation between diet and dental topography is of importance to paleontologists seeking to diagnose ecological adaptations in extinct taxa. Although the subject is well represented in the literature, few studies directly compare methods or evaluate dietary signals conveyed by both upper and lower molars. Here, we address this gap in our knowledge by comparing the efficacy of three measures of functional morphology for classifying an ecologically diverse sample of thirteen medium- to large-bodied platyrrhines by diet category (e.g., folivore, frugivore, hard object feeder). We used Shearing Quotient (SQ), an index derived from linear measurements of molar cutting edges and two indices of crown surface topography, Occlusal Relief (OR) and Relief Index (RFI). Using SQ, OR, and RFI, individuals were then classified by dietary category using Discriminate Function Analysis. Both upper and lower molar variables produce high classification rates in assigning individuals to diet categories, but lower molars are consistently more successful. SQs yield the highest classification rates. RFI and OR generally perform above chance. Upper molar RFI has a success rate below the level of chance. Adding molar length enhances the discriminatory power for all variables. We conclude that upper molar SQs are useful for dietary reconstruction, especially when combined with body size information. Additionally, we find that among our sample of platyrrhines, SQ remains the strongest predictor of diet, while RFI is less useful at signaling dietary differences in absence of body size information. The study demonstrates new ways for inferring the diets of extinct platyrrhine primates when both upper and lower molars are available, or, for taxa known only from upper molars. The techniques are useful in reconstructing diet in stem representatives of anthropoid clade, who share key aspects of molar morphology with extant platyrrhines.
Identification of plasma protease derived metabolites of glucagon and their formation under typical laboratory sample handling conditions. - Rapid communications in mass spectrometry : RCM
Glucagon modulates glucose production, and it is also a biomarker for several pathologies. It is known to be unstable in human plasma, and consequently stabilisers are often added to samples, although these are not particularly effective. Despite this, there have not been any studies to identify in vitro plasma protease derived metabolites; such a study is described here. Knowledge of metabolism should allow the development of more effective sample stabilisation strategies.Several novel metabolites resulting from the incubation of glucagon in human plasma were identified using high-resolution mass spectrometry with positive electrospray ionisation. Tandem mass spectrometric (MS/MS) scans were acquired for additional confirmation using a QTRAP. Separation was performed using reversed-phase ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography. The formation of these metabolites was investigated during a time-course experiment and under specific stress conditions representative of typical laboratory handling conditions. Clinical samples were also screened for metabolites.Glucagon(3-29) and [pGlu](3) glucagon(3-29) were the major metabolites detected, both of which were also present in clinical samples. We also identified two oxidised forms of [pGlu](3) glucagon(3-29) as well as glucagon(19-29), or 'miniglucagon', along with the novel metabolites glucagon(20-29) and glucagon(21-29). The relative levels of these metabolites varied throughout the time-course experiment, and under the application of the different sample handling conditions. Aprotinin stabilisation of samples had negligible effect on metabolite formation.Novel plasma protease metabolites of glucagon have been confirmed, and their formation characterised over a time-course experiment and under typical laboratory handling conditions. These metabolites could be monitored to assess the effectiveness of new sample stabilisation strategies, and further investigations into their formation could suggest specific enzyme inhibitors to use to increase sample stability. In addition the potential of the metabolites to affect immunochemistry-based assays as a result of cross-reactivity could be investigated.Copyright Â© 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Development of a high-throughput UHPLC-MS/MS (SRM) method for the quantitation of endogenous glucagon from human plasma. - Bioanalysis
Published LC-MS/MS methods are not sensitive enough to quantify endogenous levels of glucagon.An ultra high performance liquid chromatography-MS/MS (SRM) method for the quantitation of endogenous levels glucagon was successfully developed and qualified. A novel 2D extraction procedure was used to reduce matrix suppression, background noise and interferences. Glucagon levels in samples from healthy volunteers were found to agree with radioimmunoassay (RIA) derived literature values. Bland-Altman analysis showed a concentration-dependent positive bias of the LC/MS-MS assay versus an RIA. Both assays produced similar pharmacokinetic profiles, both of which were feasible considering the nature of the study.Our method is the first peer reviewed LC-MS/MS method for the quantitation of endogenous levels of glucagon, and offers a viable alternative to RIA-based approaches.
A method for quantitative analysis of regional lung ventilation using deformable image registration of CT and hybrid hyperpolarized gas/1H MRI. - Physics in medicine and biology
Hyperpolarized gas magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) generates highly detailed maps of lung ventilation and physiological function while CT provides corresponding anatomical and structural information. Fusion of such complementary images enables quantitative analysis of pulmonary structure-function. However, direct image registration of hyperpolarized gas MRI to CT is problematic, particularly in lungs whose boundaries are difficult to delineate due to ventilation heterogeneity. This study presents a novel indirect method of registering hyperpolarized gas MRI to CT utilizing (1)H-structural MR images that are acquired in the same breath-hold as the gas MRI. The feasibility of using this technique for regional quantification of ventilation of specific pulmonary structures is demonstrated for the lobes.The direct and indirect methods of hyperpolarized gas MRI to CT image registration were compared using lung images from 15 asthma patients. Both affine and diffeomorphic image transformations were implemented. Registration accuracy was evaluated using the target registration error (TRE) of anatomical landmarks identified on (1)H MRI and CT. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to test statistical significance.For the affine transformation, the indirect method of image registration was significantly more accurate than the direct method (TRE = 14.7 Â± 3.2 versus 19.6 Â± 12.7 mm, p = 0.036). Using a deformable transformation, the indirect method was also more accurate than the direct method (TRE = 13.5 Â± 3.3 versus 20.4 Â± 12.8 mm, p = 0.006).Accurate image registration is critical for quantification of regional lung ventilation with hyperpolarized gas MRI within the anatomy delineated by CT. Automatic deformable image registration of hyperpolarized gas MRI to CT via same breath-hold (1)H MRI is more accurate than direct registration. Potential applications include improved multi-modality image fusion, functionally weighted radiotherapy planning, and quantification of lobar ventilation in obstructive airways disease.
The effect of differences in methodology among some recent applications of shearing quotients. - American journal of physical anthropology
A shearing quotient (SQ) is a way of quantitatively representing the Phase I shearing edges on a molar tooth. Ordinary or phylogenetic least squares regression is fit to data on log molar length (independent variable) and log sum of measured shearing crests (dependent variable). The derived linear equation is used to generate an 'expected' shearing crest length from molar length of included individuals or taxa. Following conversion of all variables to real space, the expected value is subtracted from the observed value for each individual or taxon. The result is then divided by the expected value and multiplied by 100. SQs have long been the metric of choice for assessing dietary adaptations in fossil primates. Not all studies using SQ have used the same tooth position or crests, nor have all computed regression equations using the same approach. Here we focus on re-analyzing the data of one recent study to investigate the magnitude of effects of variation in 1) shearing crest inclusion, and 2) details of the regression setup. We assess the significance of these effects by the degree to which they improve or degrade the association between computed SQs and diet categories. Though altering regression parameters for SQ calculation has a visible effect on plots, numerous iterations of statistical analyses vary surprisingly little in the success of the resulting variables for assigning taxa to dietary preference. This is promising for the comparability of patterns (if not casewise values) in SQ between studies. We suggest that differences in apparent dietary fidelity of recent studies are attributable principally to tooth position examined.Â© 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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