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Fluorescent Protein Aided Insights on Plastids and their Extensions: A Critical Appraisal. - Frontiers in plant science
Multi-colored fluorescent proteins targeted to plastids have provided new insights on the dynamic behavior of these organelles and their interactions with other cytoplasmic components and compartments. Sub-plastidic components such as thylakoids, stroma, the inner and outer membranes of the plastid envelope, nucleoids, plastoglobuli, and starch grains have been efficiently highlighted in living plant cells. In addition, stroma filled membrane extensions called stromules have drawn attention to the dynamic nature of the plastid and its interactions with the rest of the cell. Use of dual and triple fluorescent protein combinations has begun to reveal plastid interactions with mitochondria, the nucleus, the endoplasmic reticulum and F-actin and suggests integral roles of plastids in retrograde signaling, cell to cell communication as well as plant-pathogen interactions. While the rapid advances and insights achieved through fluorescent protein based research on plastids are commendable it is necessary to endorse meaningful observations but subject others to closer scrutiny. Here, in order to develop a better and more comprehensive understanding of plastids and their extensions we provide a critical appraisal of recent information that has been acquired using targeted fluorescent protein probes.
Differential coloring reveals that plastids do not form networks for exchanging macromolecules. - The Plant cell
Stroma-filled tubules named stromules are sporadic extensions of plastids. Earlier, photobleaching was used to demonstrate fluorescent protein diffusion between already interconnected plastids and formed the basis for suggesting that all plastids are able to form networks for exchanging macromolecules. However, a critical appraisal of literature shows that this conjecture is not supported by unequivocal experimental evidence. Here, using photoconvertible mEosFP, we created color differences between similar organelles that enabled us to distinguish clearly between organelle fusion and nonfusion events. Individual plastids, despite conveying a strong impression of interactivity and fusion, maintained well-defined boundaries and did not exchange fluorescent proteins. Moreover, the high pleomorphy of etioplasts from dark-grown seedlings, leucoplasts from roots, and assorted plastids in the accumulation and replication of chloroplasts5 (arc5), arc6, and phosphoglucomutase1 mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana suggested that a single plastid unit might be easily mistaken for interconnected plastids. Our observations provide succinct evidence to refute the long-standing dogma of interplastid connectivity. The ability to create and maintain a large number of unique biochemical factories in the form of singular plastids might be a key feature underlying the versatility of green plants as it provides increased internal diversity for them to combat a wide range of environmental fluctuations and stresses.
Color recovery after photoconversion of H2B::mEosFP allows detection of increased nuclear DNA content in developing plant cells. - Plant physiology
Many higher plants are polysomatic whereby different cells possess variable amounts of nuclear DNA. The conditional triggering of endocycles results in higher nuclear DNA content (C value) that in some cases has been correlated to increased cell size. While numerous multicolored fluorescent protein (FP) probes have revealed the general behavior of the nucleus and intranuclear components, direct visualization and estimation of changes in nuclear-DNA content in live cells during their development has not been possible. Recently, monomeric Eos fluorescent protein (mEosFP) has emerged as a useful photoconvertible protein whose color changes irreversibly from a green to a red fluorescent form upon exposure to violet-blue light. The stability and irreversibility of red fluorescent mEosFP suggests that detection of green color recovery would be possible as fresh mEosFP is produced after photoconversion. Thus a ratiometric evaluation of the red and green forms of mEosFP following photoconversion could be used to estimate production of a core histone such as H2B during its concomitant synthesis with DNA in the synthesis phase of the cell cycle. Here we present proof of concept observations on transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) Bright Yellow 2 cells and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants stably expressing H2B::mEosFP. In Arabidopsis seedlings an increase in green fluorescence is observed specifically in cells known to undergo endoreduplication. The detection of changes in nuclear DNA content by correlating color recovery of H2B::mEosFP after photoconversion is a novel approach involving a single FP. The method has potential for facilitating detailed investigations on conditions that favor increased cell size and the development of polysomaty in plants.
AtMic60 Is Involved in Plant Mitochondria Lipid Trafficking and Is Part of a Large Complex. - Current biology : CB
The mitochondrion is an organelle originating from an endosymbiotic event and playing a role in several fundamental processes such as energy production, metabolite syntheses, and programmed cell death. This organelle is delineated by two membranes whose synthesis requires an extensive exchange of phospholipids with other cellular organelles such as endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and vacuolar membranes in yeast. These transfers of phospholipids are thought to occur by a non-vesicular pathway at contact sites between two closely apposed membranes. In plants, little is known about the biogenesis of mitochondrial membranes. Contact sites between ER and mitochondria are suspected to play a similar role in phospholipid trafficking as in yeast, but this has never been demonstrated. In contrast, it has been shown that plastids are able to transfer lipids to mitochondria during phosphate starvation. However, the proteins involved in such transfer are stillÂ unknown. Here, we identified in Arabidopsis thaliana a large lipid-enriched complex called the mitochondrial transmembrane lipoprotein (MTL) complex. The MTL complex contains proteins located in the two mitochondrial membranes and conserved in all eukaryotic cells, such as the TOM complex and AtMic60, a component of the MICOS complex. We demonstrate that AtMic60 contributes to the export of phosphatidylethanolamine from mitochondria and the import of galactoglycerolipids from plastids during phosphate starvation. Furthermore, AtMic60 promotes lipid desorption from membranes, likely as an initial step for lipid transfer, and binds to Tom40, suggesting that AtMic60 could regulate the tethering between the inner and outer membranes of mitochondria.Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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1423 N Jefferson Ave Ste A Springfield, MO 65802
1423 N Jefferson Ave Ste B100
1330 E Cherry St Suite 1
1423 N Jefferson #B100
2949 E Chestnut Expressway
1423 N Jefferson Ave #B100
1423 N Jefferson Ave #B100