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Adjunctive sarcosine plus benzoate improved cognitive function in chronic schizophrenia patients with constant clinical symptoms: A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. - The world journal of biological psychiatry : the official journal of the World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry
Objectives Hypofunction of NMDA receptor is implicated in the pathophysiology, particularly cognitive impairment, of schizophrenia. Sarcosine, a glycine transporter I (GlyT-1) inhibitor, and sodium benzoate, a d-amino acid oxidase (DAAO) inhibitor, can both enhance NMDA receptor-mediated neurotransmission. We proposed simultaneously inhibiting DAAO and GlyT-1 may be more effective than inhibition of either in improving the cognitive and global functioning of schizophrenia patients. Methods This study compared add-on sarcosine (2â€‰g/day) plus benzoate (1â€‰g/day) vs. sarcosine (2â€‰g/day) for the clinical symptoms, as well as the cognitive and global functioning, of chronic schizophrenia patients in a 12-week, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial. Participants were measured with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale and the Global Assessment of Functioning Scale every 3 weeks. Seven cognitive domains, recommended by the Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia Committee, were measured at weeks 0 and 12. Results Adjunctive sarcosine plus benzoate, but not sarcosine alone, improved the cognitive and global functioning of patients with schizophrenia, even when their clinical symptoms had not improved. Conclusions This finding suggests N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor-enhancement therapy can improve the cognitive function of patients with schizophrenia, further indicating this pro-cognitive effect can be primary without improvement in clinical symptoms.
Single-mode selection for hard x-ray cavity resonance. - Optics letters
Single-mode selection is realized for hard x-ray cavity resonance using a three-mirror crystal device. The developed device consists of two coupled Si Fabry-Perot resonators (FPRs) and uses (12 4 0) backward diffraction to reflect back and forth the incident 14.4388Â keV x-ray beam. The coupling between the two cavities gives an effective single-mode spectrum with a bandwidth of 0.81Â meV. This method can be used to enhance the longitudinal coherent length without affecting transverse coherence, and is potentially useful in generating nearly total coherent beams in synchrotron or free-electron laser facilities.
Effectiveness of aripiprazole, olanzapine, quetiapine, and risperidone augmentation treatment for major depressive disorder: a nationwide population-based study. - The Journal of clinical psychiatry
Previous studies suggested that antidepressants augmented with second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs), including aripiprazole, olanzapine, quetiapine, and risperidone, resulted in better treatment response or higher rates of remission in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). However, population-based study on SGA augmentation for patients with MDD remains limited. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of SGA augmentation for treatment of MDD using the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan.The subjects were patients with MDD (ICD-9-CM code: 296.2 and 296.3) who were initially admitted to psychiatric inpatient settings for the first time between January 1, 1996, and December 31, 2007, and could be tracked until December 31, 2011. To assess the treatment effect of SGA augmentation, 993 MDD patients who received aripiprazole, olanzapine, quetiapine, or risperidone augmentation treatment for 8 weeks or more were included in this 1-year mirror-image study. Outcome measures included length of psychiatric hospitalization and number of psychiatric admissions and emergency room (ER) visits.After patients received SGA augmentation treatment, key psychiatric service use (including length of psychiatric hospitalization [P < .0001], number of psychiatric admissions [P < .0001], and ER visits [P = .0006]) due to MDD diagnosis was significantly reduced. Subgrouping analysis for each SGA drug also showed significant reduction in number of psychiatric admissions for MDD patients who received aripiprazole (P < .0001), olanzapine (P = .003), quetiapine (P < .0001), and risperidone (P < .0001).The study provides support that aripiprazole, olanzapine, quetiapine, and risperidone augmentation therapy could be effective in reducing psychiatric service utilization among MDD patients.Â© Copyright 2014 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.
Inverse association between cancer risks and age in schizophrenic patients: a 12-year nationwide cohort study. - Cancer science
The association between schizophrenia and cancer risk is contentious in the clinical and epidemiological literature. Studies from different populations, tumor sites, or health care systems have provided inconsistent findings. In the present study, we examined a less well-investigated hypothesis that age plays a crucial role in cancer risk in schizophrenia. We conducted a nationwide cohort study using Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) between 1995 and 2007. Overall, gender-, and age-stratified standardized incidence ratios (SIR) were used to investigate the pattern of cancer risk by age. Of the 102 202 schizophrenic patients, 1738 developed cancer after a diagnosis of schizophrenia (SIR = 0.92; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.90-0.96). However, the age-stratified SIR declined with age (e.g. SIR [95% CI] = 1.97 [1.85-2.33], 0.68 [0.65-0.78], and 0.36 [0.34-0.45] for those aged 20-29, 60-69, and â‰¥70 years, respectively) in both genders and for major cancers. Cancer risks in schizophrenic patients were lower for cancers that are more likely to develop at an older age in the general population (e.g. stomach cancer [SIR = 0.62; 95% CI 0.57-0.80], pancreatic cancer [SIR = 0.49; 95% CI 0.39-0.84], and prostate cancer [SIR = 0.35; 95% CI 0.29-0.58]). In contrast, cancer risks were higher for cancers that have a younger age of onset, such as cancers of the nasopharynx (SIR = 1.18; 95% CI 1.08-1.49), breast (SIR = 1.50; 95% CI 1.44-1.66) and uterine corpus (SIR = 2.15; 95% CI 1.98-2.74). The unique age structures and early aging potential of schizophrenia populations may contribute to the observed inverse relationship between age and cancer risk. Higher cancer comorbidity in young schizophrenic patients deserves more attention.Â© 2013 Japanese Cancer Association.
Tumor necrosis factor-Î± induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition of renal cell carcinoma cells via a nuclear factor kappa B-independent mechanism. - Experimental biology and medicine (Maywood, N.J.)
Chronic low dose of tumor necrosis factor-Î± (TNF-Î±) stimulation promotes tumorigenesis by facilitating tumor proliferation and metastasis. The plasma levels of TNF-Î± are increased in patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Furthermore, high-grade clear cell RCC cell lines secrete more TNF-Î± than low-grade ones, and allow low-grade cell lines' gain of invasive ability. However, the molecular mechanism of TNF-Î± in mediating progression of RCC cells remains unclear. In the present study, TNF-Î± induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of RCC cells by repressing E-cadherin, promoting invasiveness and activating matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 9 activity. RCC cells underwent promoted growth in vivo following stimulation with TNF-Î±. In addition, TNF-Î± induced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-ÎºB) and Akt in a time-dependent manner, and increased nuclear translocation and promoter activity of NF-ÎºB. To investigate the role of NF-ÎºB activation in TNF-Î±-induced EMT of RCC, we employed chemical inhibitors (NF-ÎºB activation inhibitor and Bay 11-7082) and transfected dominant-negative (pCMV-IÎºBÎ±M) and overexpressive (pFLAG-p65) vectors of NF-ÎºB. While overexpression of NF-ÎºB p65 alone could induce E-cadherin loss in RCC, EMT phenotypes and MMP9 expressions induced by TNF-Î± were not reversed by the inhibitors of NF-ÎºB activation. These results suggest that the TNF-Î± signaling pathway is involved in the tumorigenesis of RCC. However, NF-ÎºB activation is not crucial for invasion and EMT enhanced by TNF-Î± in RCC cells.
Tumor-derived tumor necrosis factor-alpha promotes progression and epithelial-mesenchymal transition in renal cell carcinoma cells. - Cancer science
Pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines are involved in promoting tumorigenesis by facilitating tumor proliferation and metastasis. The serum levels of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1 beta, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) are significantly elevated in patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC). However, the mechanisms of how these cytokines participate in the progression of RCC remains unknown. In the present study, we investigated the effects of tumor-derived cytokines on invasion and the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of RCC cells. We found that expression of IL-1 beta, IL-6, TNF-alpha, hypoxia-inducible factor-alpha (HIF-1 alpha), and matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP2) were significantly elevated in high malignancy A498 cells compared to low malignancy 786-O cells. The invasion ability of A498 was three-fold higher than that of 786-O cells. The invasiveness of 786-O cells was markedly enhanced by adding conditioned medium derived from A498 cells. This phenomenon was significantly inhibited by immunodepletion of TNF-alpha followed by MMP2, IL-6, or IL-1 beta from A498 conditioned medium. Synergistic inhibition was also noted after simultaneous immunodepletion of TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta, and IL-6. RCC cell lines with higher malignancy produced more TNF-alpha, which was correlated with their stronger invasive ability. The invasiveness of 786-O cells was significantly promoted by TNF-alpha in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, TNF-alpha induced the EMT of 786-O cells by repressing E-cadherin, promoting vimentin expression, and activating MMP9 activity. Our findings demonstrate that pro-inflammatory cytokines, especially TNF-alpha, can enhance invasion and the EMT of renal cancer cells, which provides a therapeutic target to prevent and treat advanced RCC.
Relationship between post-stroke depression and lesion location: a meta-analysis. - The Kaohsiung journal of medical sciences
Our understanding of the relationship between the neuroanatomic loci of brain damage and the incidence of post-stroke depression (PSD) is not complete. Many studies have investigated this relationship and the evidence is conflicting. With the purpose of gaining a consistent, strong, and credible conclusion on the relationship between PSD and the loci of brain damage, a meta-analysis was used in this study to systematically reanalyze the findings of related studies and to investigate the sources of heterogeneity among study results. The key words "stroke or cerebrovascular" and "depression or mood or affective" were entered into the MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and EMBASE databases to search for relevant studies. The references cited in the studies found were also used to locate additional studies. For each eligible study, the important study characteristics were recorded, and the effect sizes of the relationship between PSD and lesion location were computed. Furthermore, we conducted subgroup analyses to explore the heterogeneity among study results. A total of 3,668 patients participating in 52 studies were included in this meta-analysis. There was a weak relationship between PSD and right hemisphere lesion. The major sources of heterogeneous study results included systematic exclusion of patients with language dysfunction and use of different assessors and instruments for diagnosing depression. Future efforts should aim to enhance standards for reporting studies, improve assessment tools for assessing depression of aphasic patients, and adopt appropriate study methodologies for investigating the relationship between PSD and lesion location.
Acute renal failure after uterine artery embolization. - Cardiovascular and interventional radiology
Renal failure is a potential complication of any endovascular procedure using iodinated contrast, including uterine artery embolization (UAE). In this report we present a case of acute renal failure (ARF) following UAE performed as a treatment for uterine fibroids. The likely causes of ARF in this patient are explored and the possible etiologies of renal failure in patients undergoing UAE are reviewed.
RISK OF NEW ONSET TYPE II DM IN MDD PATIENTS RECEIVING SECOND-GENERATION ANTIPSYCHOTICS TREATMENT: A NATIONWIDE COHORT STUDY. - Depression and anxiety
Second-generation antipsychotics (SGA) augmentation treatment has showed better efficacy in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). However, the association between SGA and diabetes mellitus (DM) in MDD patients deserves further investigation. The study aimed to examine the risk of new onset type II DM in MDD patients receiving SGA treatment.From the Psychiatric Inpatient Medical Claim Dataset, MDD patients treated with SGA continuously for more than 8 weeks were analyzed in a 1:1 propensity score matched pair sample to 1,049 patients that had never been treated with SGA. Patients were followed up to 5 years based on ICD-9 CM codes indicating incident type II DM. Cumulative incidences of type II DM were calculated and the Cox proportional hazards model with competing risk was applied to determine the risk factors for type II DM onset.Cumulative incidences of new-onset type II DM between the two groups were similar. Use of SGA showed no significant increase in risk for new-onset type II DM (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.898; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.605-1.334; P-value = 0.596). Increased risk for type II DM was shown to be associated with aging (per year) (HRÂ = 1.039; 95% CI, 1.026-1.053; P-value < 0.001) and history of hyperlipidemia (HRÂ = 2.323; 95% CI, 1.469-3.675; P-value < 0.001).This study indicated that there is no significant difference in the risk of developing type II DM between MDD patients with and without SGA exposure. More studies focused on the benefit-risk assessment of SGA treatment in patients with MDD are warranted.Â© 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Sapphire hard X-ray Fabry-Perot resonators for synchrotron experiments. - Journal of synchrotron radiation
Hard X-ray Fabry-Perot resonators (FPRs) made from sapphire crystals were constructed and characterized. The FPRs consisted of two crystal plates, part of a monolithic crystal structure of Al2O3, acting as a pair of mirrors, for the backward reflection (0â€…0â€…0â€…30) of hard X-rays at 14.3147â€…keV. The dimensional accuracy during manufacturing and the defect density in the crystal in relation to the resonance efficiency of sapphire FPRs were analyzed from a theoretical standpoint based on X-ray cavity resonance and measurements using scanning electron microscopic and X-ray topographic techniques for crystal defects. Well defined resonance spectra of sapphire FPRs were successfully obtained, and were comparable with the theoretical predictions.
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