235 N Northwest Hwy
Palatine IL 60067
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Actin evolution in ciliates (Protist, Alveolata) is characterized by high diversity and three duplication events. - Molecular phylogenetics and evolution
Ciliates possess two distinct nuclear genomes and unique genomic features, including highly fragmented chromosomes and extensive chromosomal rearrangements. Recent transcriptomic surveys have revealed that ciliates have several multi-copy genes providing an ideal template to study gene family evolution. Nonetheless, this process remains little studied in ciliated protozoa and consequently, the evolutionary patterns that govern it are not well understood. In this study, we focused on obtaining fine-scale information relative to ciliate species divergence for the first time. A total of 230 actin gene sequences were derived from this study, among which 217 were from four closely related Pseudokeronopsis species and 13 from other hypotrichous ciliates. Our investigation shows that: (1) At least three duplication events occurred in ciliates: diversification of three actin genes (Actin I, II, III) happened after the divergence of ciliate classes but before that of subclasses. And several recent and genus-specific duplications were followed within Actin I (Sterkiella, Oxytricha, Uroleptus, etc.), Actin II (Sterkiella), respectively. (2) Within the genus Pseudokeronopsis, Actin I gene duplication events happened after P. carnea and P. erythrina diverged. In contrast, in the morphologically similar species P. flava and P. rubra, the duplication event preceded diversification of the two species. The Actin II gene duplication events preceded divergence of the genus Pseudokeronopsis. (3) Phylogenetic analyses revealed that actin is suitable for resolving ciliate classes, but may not be used to infer lower taxon relationships.Copyright Â© 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Family medicine training in China. - Family medicine
In 2010, six ministries of the Chinese government jointly issued a plan for building team-based primary care led by family physicians, prompting the creation of new models of family medicine training across the country. The purpose of this paper is to describe examples of existing family physician training models in China, to present advantages and disadvantages of the various models, and to present a specific model of family medicine residency training implemented at the Zhejiang University Medical School-affiliated Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital in collaboration with the Michigan State University-affiliated Genesys Regional Medical Center.
VEGF-B inhibits hyperglycemia- and Macugen-induced retinal apoptosis. - Scientific reports
Vascular endothelial growth factor B (VEGF-B) was discovered a long time ago. However, its role in hyperglycemia- and VEGF-A inhibition-induced retinal apoptosis remains unknown thus far. Yet, drugs that can block VEGF-B are being used to treat patients with diabetic retinopathy and other ocular neovascular diseases. It is therefore urgent to have a better understanding of the function of VEGF-B in these pathologies. Here, we report that both streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes in rats and Macugen intravitreal injection in mice leads to retinal apoptosis in retinal ganglion cell and outer nuclear layers respectively. Importantly, VEGF-B treatment by intravitreal injection markedly reduced retinal apoptosis in both models. We further reveal that VEGF-B and its receptors, vascular endothelial growth factor 1 (VEGFR1) and neuropilin 1 (NP1), are abundantly expressed in rat retinae and choroids and are upregulated by high glucose with concomitant activation of Akt and Erk. These data highlight an important function of VEGF-B in protecting retinal cells from apoptosis induced by hyperglycemia and VEGF-A inhibition. VEGF-B may therefore have a therapeutic potential in treating various retinal degenerative diseases, and modulation of VEGF-B activity in the eye needs careful consideration.
Histopathology of Incontinence-Associated Skin Lesions: Inner Tissue Damage Due to Invasion of Proteolytic Enzymes and Bacteria in Macerated Rat Skin. - PloS one
A common complication in patients with incontinence is perineal skin lesions, which are recognized as a form of dermatitis. In these patients, perineal skin is exposed to digestive enzymes and intestinal bacterial flora, as well as excessive water. The relative contributions of digestive enzymes and intestinal bacterial flora to skin lesion formation have not been fully shown. This study was conducted to reveal the process of histopathological changes caused by proteases and bacterial inoculation in skin maceration. For skin maceration, agarose gel containing proteases was applied to the dorsal skin of male Sprague-Dawley rats for 4 h, followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa inoculation for 30 min. Macroscopic changes, histological changes, bacterial distribution, inflammatory response, and keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation were examined. Proteases induced digestion in the prickle cell layer of the epidermis, and slight bleeding in the papillary dermis and around hair follicles in the macerated skin without macroscopic evidence of erosion. Bacterial inoculation of the skin macerated by proteolytic solution resulted in the formation of bacteria-rich clusters comprising numerous microorganisms and inflammatory cells within the papillary dermis, with remarkable tissue damage around the clusters. Tissue damage expanded by day 2. On day 3, the proliferative keratinocyte layer was elongated from the bulge region of the hair follicles. Application of proteases and P. aeruginosa induced skin lesion formation internally without macroscopic erosion of the overhydrated area, suggesting that the histopathology might be different from regular dermatitis. The healing process of this lesion is similar to transepidermal elimination.
Effects of cold light bleaching on the color stability of composite resins. - International journal of clinical and experimental medicine
To evaluate the effects of cold light bleaching on the color stability of four restorations using a thermocycling stain challenge. 160 specimens (10 mm in diameter and 2 mm thick) were fabricated from 4 composite resins (Gradia Direct-A, Z350XT, Premisa, and PrÃ©cis) and divided into 4 subgroups. Color was assessed according to the CIEL*a*b* color scale at baseline, after the first cycle of bleaching, after thermocycling stain challenges, and after the second cycle of bleaching. Mean values were compared using three-way analysis of variance, and multiple comparisons of the mean values were performed using the Tukey-Kramer test. All groups showed significant color changes after stain challenge, the color change was more significant in Gradia Direct and Z350XT than in Premisa and PrÃ©cis. After the second cycle of bleaching, color mostly recovered to its original values. The color stability of Gradia Direct and Z350XT was inferior to that of Premisa and PrÃ©cis. The discoloration of composite resin materials can be partly removed after cold light bleaching.
Variants in the Regulatory Region of WNT5A Reduced Risk of Cardiac Conotruncal Malformations in the Chinese Population. - Scientific reports
WNT5A is one of the most highly investigated non-canonical Wnt ligands and is involved in the embryonic heart development, especially in formation of the cardiac conotruncal region by regulating the migration and differentiation of cardiac neural crest (CNC) and second heart field (SHF) cells. No study to date has comprehensively characterized the WNT5A regulatory variants in patients with congenital heart malformations (CHMs). The association between regulatory variants of the WNT5A gene and CHMs was examined in case-control association study in 1,210 CHMs and 798 controls. Individuals carrying a homozygous genotype CC (rs524153) or GG (rs504849) had a similarly reduced risk of conotruncal malformations. The homozygous genotypes (CC for rs524153 and GG for rs504849) were associated with a lower WNT5A transcriptional level compared with the transcriptional level of those with wild-type genotypes. Further functional analysis revealed that an additional upstream single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) rs371954924 (-5244GCCA > CC) in a linkage disequilibrium (LD) block with the above genotyped SNPs decreased WNT5A expression through the attenuated binding affinity with the transcription factor SOX9. This is the first demonstration that genetic variants in the regulatory regions of WNT5A play a vital role in sporadic conotruncal malformations susceptibility through the changeable expression of the WNT5A gene.
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235 N Northwest Hwy Palatine, IL 60067
355 W Northwest Hwy Suite B305
144 Highland Rd
Inverness, IL 60067
553 N North Court #200