2900 Village Pkwy Suite 350
Highland Village TX 75077
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Improving detection of familial hypercholesterolaemia in primary care using electronic audit and nurse-led clinics. - Journal of evaluation in clinical practice
In the UK fewer than 15% of familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) cases are diagnosed, representing a major gap in coronary heart disease prevention. We wished to support primary care doctors within the Medway Clinical Commissioning Group (CCG) to implement NICE guidance (CG71) and consider the possibility of FH in adults who have raised total cholesterol concentrations, thereby improving the detection of people with FH.Utilizing clinical decision support software (Audit+) we developed an FH Audit Tool and implemented a systematic audit of electronic medical records within GP practices, first identifying all patients diagnosed with FH or possible FH and next electronically flagging patients with a recorded total cholesterol of >7.5â€‰mmolâ€‰L(-1) or LDL-Câ€‰>â€‰4.9â€‰mmolâ€‰L(-1) (in adults), for further assessment. After a 2-year period, a nurse-led clinic was introduced to screen more intensely for new FH index cases. We evaluated if these interventions increased the prevalence of FH closer to the expected prevalence from epidemiological studies.The baseline prevalence of FH within Medway CCG was 0.13% (1 in 750 persons). After 2 years, the recorded prevalence of diagnosed FH increased by 0.09% to 0.22% (1 in 450 persons). The nurse advisor programme ran for 9 months (October 2013-July 2014) and during this time, the recorded prevalence of patients diagnosed with FH increased to 0.28% (1 in 357 persons) and the prevalence of patients 'at risk and unscreened' reduced from 0.58% to 0.14%.Our study shows that two simple interventions increased the detection of FH. This systematic yet simple electronic case-finding programme with nurse-led review allowed the identification of new index cases, more than doubling the recorded prevalence of detected disease to 1 in 357 (0.28%). This study shows that primary care has an important role in identifying patients with this condition.Â© 2015 The Authors. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Non-Band-Gap Photoexcitation of Hydroxylated TiO2. - The journal of physical chemistry letters
The photochemistry of TiO2 has been studied intensively since it was discovered that TiO2 can act as a photocatalyst. Nevertheless, it has proven difficult to establish the detailed charge-transfer processes involved, partly because the excited states involved are difficult to study. Here we present evidence of the existence of hydroxyl-induced excited states in the conduction band region. Using two-photon photoemission, we show that stepwise photoexcitation from filled band gap states lying 0.8 eV below the Fermi level of rutile TiO2(110) excites hydroxyl-induced states 2.73 eV above the Fermi level that has an onset energy of âˆ¼3.1 eV. The onset is shifted to lower energy by the coadsorption of molecular water, which suggests a means of tuning the energy of the excited state.
Stimulus rate increases lateralisation in linguistic and non-linguistic tasks measured by functional transcranial Doppler sonography. - Neuropsychologia
Studies to date that have used fTCD to examine language lateralisation have predominantly used word or sentence generation tasks. Here we sought to further assess the sensitivity of fTCD to language lateralisation by using a metalinguistic task which does not involve novel speech generation: rhyme judgement in response to written words. Line array judgement was included as a non-linguistic visuospatial task to examine the relative strength of left and right hemisphere lateralisation within the same individuals when output requirements of the tasks are matched. These externally paced tasks allowed us to manipulate the number of stimuli presented to participants and thus assess the influence of pace on the strength of lateralisation. In Experiment 1, 28 right-handed adults participated in rhyme and line array judgement tasks and showed reliable left and right lateralisation at the group level for each task, respectively. In Experiment 2 we increased the pace of the tasks, presenting more stimuli per trial. We measured laterality indices (LIs) from 18 participants who performed both linguistic and non-linguistic judgement tasks during the original 'slow' presentation rate (5 judgements per trial) and a fast presentation rate (10 judgements per trial). The increase in pace led to increased strength of lateralisation in both the rhyme and line conditions. Our results demonstrate for the first time that fTCD is sensitive to the left lateralised processes involved in metalinguistic judgements. Our data also suggest that changes in the strength of language lateralisation, as measured by fTCD, are not driven by articulatory demands alone. The current results suggest that at least one aspect of task difficulty, the pace of stimulus presentation, influences the strength of lateralisation during both linguistic and non-linguistic tasks.Copyright Â© 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Oral antihypertensive therapy for severe hypertension in pregnancy and postpartum: a systematic review. - BJOG : an international journal of obstetrics and gynaecology
Pregnant and postpartum women with severe hypertension are at increased risk of stroke and require blood pressure (BP) reduction. Parenteral antihypertensives have been most commonly studied, but oral agents would be ideal for use in busy and resource-constrained settings.To review systematically, the effectiveness of oral antihypertensive agents for treatment of severe pregnancy/postpartum hypertension.A systematic search of MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library was performed.Randomised controlled trials in pregnancy and postpartum with at least one arm consisting of a single oral antihypertensive agent to treat systolic BP â‰¥ 160 mmHg and/or diastolic BP â‰¥ 110 mmHg.Cochrane RevMan 5.1 was used to calculate relative risk (RR) and weighted mean difference by random effects.We identified 15 randomised controlled trials (915 women) in pregnancy and one postpartum trial. Most trials in pregnancy compared oral/sublingual nifedipine capsules (8-10 mg) with another agent, usually parenteral hydralazine or labetalol. Nifedipine achieved treatment success in most women, similar to hydralazine (84% with nifedipine; relative risk [RR] 1.07, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 0.98-1.17) or labetalol (100% with nifedipine; RR 1.02, 95% CI 0.95-1.09). Less than 2% of women treated with nifedipine experienced hypotension. There were no differences in adverse maternal or fetal outcomes. Target BP was achieved ~ 50% of the time with oral labetalol (100 mg) or methyldopa (250 mg) (47% labetelol versus 56% methyldopa; RR 0.85 95% CI 0.54-1.33).Oral nifedipine, and possibly labetalol and methyldopa, are suitable options for treatment of severe hypertension in pregnancy/postpartum.Â© 2014 The Authors BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.
Understanding the electronic structure of IrO2 using hard-X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and density-functional theory. - Physical review letters
The electronic structure of IrO2 has been investigated using hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and density-functional theory. Excellent agreement is observed between theory and experiment. We show that the electronic structure of IrO2 involves crystal field splitting of the iridium 5d orbitals in a distorted octahedral field. The behavior of IrO2 closely follows the theoretical predictions of Goodenough for conductive rutile-structured oxides [J. B. Goodenough, J. Solid State Chem. 3, 490 (1971).
Magnesium sulphate for the management of preeclampsia and eclampsia in low and middle income countries: a systematic review of tested dosing regimens. - Journal of obstetrics and gynaecology Canada : JOGC = Journal d'obsteÌtrique et gyneÌcologie du Canada : JOGC
To review systematically the magnesium sulphate (MgSO4) dosing regimens tested in low and middle income countries (LMICs) for women with preeclampsia (prevention) and/or eclampsia (treatment).We searched Medline, EMBASE, IPA, CINAHL, CDSR, and CENTRAL databases for relevant English language publications.Our search yielded 753 publications, of which 26 (10 randomized controlled trials and 16 observational studies) evaluated MgSO4 for preeclampsia and/or eclampsia in World Bank-classified LMICs.Independent, by two authors.Twenty-five studies were conducted in hospital settings and one in the community. Rates of eclampsia were usually < 5% (median 3.0%, range 0.0% to 26.5%) even when MgSO4 was administered for eclampsia. When dosage varied from the standard Pritchard or Zuspan regimens, almost all (n = 22) reduced the dose or duration of treatment, most commonly because of concerns about maternal safety, cost, or resource availability. Four trials of a loading dose only (4 g IV + 10 g IM) versus loading plus maintenance dosing of 5 g/4 hr IM found no difference in eclampsia recurrence (RR 1.64; 95% CI 0.48 to 5.65, n = 396). One study documented less eclampsia recurrence associated with community administration of a MgSO4 loading dose before referral to a care facility versus treatment in a care facility (RR 0.23; 95% CI 0.11 to 0.49, n = 265).Use of MgSO4 for eclampsia treatment and prevention has been well-studied in LMICs, but concern remains about potential toxicity. Further studies are needed to identify the minimum effective dosage of MgSO4 for management of preeclampsia and eclampsia and whether MgSO4 loading can be safely administered in the community.
The Vps/VacJ ABC transporter is required for intercellular spread of Shigella flexneri. - Infection and immunity
The Vps/VacJ ABC transporter system is proposed to function in maintaining the lipid asymmetry of the outer membrane. Mutations in vps or vacJ in Shigella flexneri resulted in increased sensitivity to lysis by the detergent sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), and the vpsC mutant showed minor differences in its phospholipid profile compared to the wild type. vpsC mutants were unable to form plaques in cultured epithelial cells, but this was not due to a failure to invade, to replicate intracellularly, or to polymerize actin via IcsA for movement within epithelial cells. The addition of the outer membrane phospholipase gene pldA on a multicopy plasmid in a vpsC or vacJ mutant restored its resistance to SDS, suggesting a restoration of lipid asymmetry to the outer membrane. However, the pldA plasmid did not restore the mutant's ability to form plaques in tissue culture cells. Increased PldA levels also failed to restore the mutant's phospholipid profile to that of the wild type. We propose a dual function of the Vps/VacJ ABC transporter system in S. flexneri in both the maintenance of lipid asymmetry in the outer membrane and the intercellular spread of the bacteria between adjacent epithelial cells.
Pharmacotherapy for preeclampsia in low and middle income countries: an analysis of essential medicines lists. - Journal of obstetrics and gynaecology Canada : JOGC = Journal d'obsteÌtrique et gyneÌcologie du Canada : JOGC
To determine the prevalence of drugs for comprehensive management of preeclampsia in national essential medicine lists (EMLs) in low and middle income countries (LMICs)We collected EMLs from the 144 LMICs identified by the World Bank through broad-based Internet searches and in collaboration with the World Health Organization. We identified therapies for hypertension, eclampsia, preeclampsia complications (e.g., pulmonary edema, thrombosis), preterm birth, and labour induction contained in the EMLs.In 91 EMLs obtained from 144 LMICs, the most commonly listed parenteral antihypertensive therapies were verapamil (63.7%), hydralazine (61.5%), sodium nitroprusside (48.3%), and propranolol (39.6%). The most prevalent oral antihypertensive therapies were nifedipine (95.6%), methyldopa (93.4%), propranolol (90.1%), and atenolol (87.9%). For eclampsia/preeclampsia, magnesium sulphate was present in 84.6% of EMLs and calcium gluconate in 85.7%. For pulmonary edema, most EMLs (94.5%) listed oral furosemide, for thrombosis 92.3% listed heparin, for acceleration of fetal pulmonary maturity 90.1% listed parenteral dexamethasone, and for labour induction 97.8% listed oxytocin or a prostanoid (usually misoprostol, 40.7%).EMLs of LMICs provide comprehensive coverage of preeclampsia pharmacotherapy. These EMLs may be used as advocacy tools to ensure the availability of these therapies within each country.
Preeclampsia in low and middle income countries-health services lessons learned from the PRE-EMPT (PRE-Eclampsia-Eclampsia Monitoring, Prevention and Treatment) project. - Journal of obstetrics and gynaecology Canada : JOGC = Journal d'obsteÌtrique et gyneÌcologie du Canada : JOGC
The hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, in particular preeclampsia, matter because adverse events occur in women with preeclampsia and, to a lesser extent, in women with the other hypertensive disorders. These adverse events are maternal, perinatal, and neonatal and can alter the life trajectory of each individual, should that life not be ended by complications. In this review we discuss a number of priorities and dilemmas that we perceive to be facing health services in low and middle income countries as they try to prioritize interventions to reduce the health burden related to preeclampsia. These priorities and dilemmas relate to calcium for preeclampsia prevention, risk stratification, antihypertensive and magnesium sulphate therapy, and mobile health. Significant progress has been and is being made to reduce the impact of preeclampsia in low and middle income countries, but it remains a priority focus as we attempt to achieve Millennium Development Goal 5.
PP164. Magnesium sulphate for prevention and treatment of eclampsia in low and middle income countries: Systematic review of tested regimens. - Pregnancy hypertension
Magnesium sulphate (MgSO4) is regarded as the most effective prophylactic and therapeutic agent for eclampsia. Although well studied and widely used in high income countries (HICs), MgSO4 is under utilized in low and middle income countries (LMICs) due to many factors including lack of adequately trained health care providers, supplies for administration, or the MgSO4 itself, in addition to fear of potential adverse effects.To systematically review the dosing and effectiveness of MgSO4 regimens administered in LMICs to women with pre-eclampsia or eclampsia.We searched Medline, EMBASE, IPA, CINAHL, CDSR and CENTRAL databases for English language randomized controlled trials (RCT) and observational studies of MgSO4 regimens administered in LMICs to women with pre-eclampsia or eclampsia. Two authors independently reviewed search results and extracted relevant data from eligible studies. No quality assessment was performed.Twenty two papers (7 RCT and 15 observational studies) from 12 LMIC met our inclusion criteria, of which 21 were conducted in hospital settings. Two studied MgSO4 for eclampsia prevention ,14 for eclampsia treatment and 6 studied MgSO4 for both. In 20 studies, both loading and maintenance MgSO4 dosing was administered, with intravenous (IV) or combined IV and intramuscular (IM) loading doses of 4-15g and IV or IM maintenance doses up to 2g/h. Five studies used only the IV route of administration, while the remainder coupled IV with IM administration. All studies were effective at preventing the initiation and/or recurrence of eclamptic seizures. One study of 265 women with eclampsia found that MgSO4 loading dose administration in the community (4g IV over 20min plus 3g IM in each buttock) before referral and administration of maintenance therapy in hospital was more effective in decreasing recurrent eclampsia compared with the standard practice of referral to hospital where the initial dose of MgSO4 was administered [RR of 0.23, 95% CI 0.11, 0.49]. The two studies of 4g IV plus 10g IM loading dose-only regimens did not show a significant reduction in eclamptic seizures compared with identical loading dose plus 5g/4h IM maintenance dose regimens [RR of 1.38, 95% CI of 0.23, 8.45]. However the combined sample size was small (N=180 women).In LMICs, most studies of MgSO4 for pre-eclampsia or eclampsia were conducted in high level health care facilities and administered MgSO4 by the IV route, at least in part. The one study of community administration of a MgSO4 loading dose showed this approach to be effective. There are limited data to support loading dose-only regimens.Copyright Â© 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.
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2900 Village Pkwy Suite 350 Highland Village, TX 75077
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