13051 S Us Highway 71
Grandview MO 64030
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License #: 2012000655
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Growth patterns in the first year of life differ in infants born to perinatally vs. nonperinatally HIV-infected women. - AIDS (London, England)
To compare the growth patterns in the first year of life between children born to perinatally HIV-infected (PHIV) vs. nonperinatally HIV-infected (NPHIV) women in the United States.Retrospective cohort study of HIV-infected pregnant women who received care and delivered a live-born at two urban tertiary centers from January 2004 to March 2012.We collected data via chart review on demographics, behavioral risk factors, HIV clinical markers, combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), mode of HIV acquisition, pregnancy outcomes, and infant anthropometrics on study participants. Mixed-effects models were used to assess the association between maternal mode of HIV acquisition and weight-for-age z-score (WAZ), length-for-age z-score (LAZ), and weight-for-length z-score (WLZ).Of the 152 pregnancies evaluated, 32 and 120 infants were born to 25 PHIV and 99 NPHIV women, respectively. Infants of PHIV women exhibited lower mean WAZ and LAZ throughout the first year of life in unadjusted analyses. After adjusting for potential confounders, the relationship between PHIV women and LAZ persisted (Î²â€Š=â€Š-0.54, Pâ€Š=â€Š0.026). Small-for-gestational age for each birth anthropometric parameter (birth length, birth weight, and both birth length and weight) was associated with decreased LAZ (Î²â€Š=â€Š-0.48, Pâ€Š=â€Š0.007), WAZ (Î²â€Š=â€Š-0.99, Pâ€Š<â€Š0.001), and WLZ (Î²â€Š=â€Š-0.36, Pâ€Š=â€Š0.027), respectively. A delivery HIV RNA level below 400â€Šcopies/ml was associated with increased WAZ and WLZ (Î²â€Š=â€Š0.43, Pâ€Š=â€Š0.015 and Î²â€Š=â€Š0.38, Pâ€Š=â€Š0.021, respectively).Infants of PHIV women may remain at persistently decreased lengths throughout the first year of life. Further studies aimed at understanding intrauterine and environmental factors in PHIV women are warranted.
Damage to the optic chiasm in myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein-experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis mice. - Magnetic resonance insights
Optic chiasm lesions in myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)-experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mice were characterized using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and validated using electron microscopy (EM). MR images were collected from 3 days after induction to remission, approximately 20 days after induction. Hematoxylin and eosin, solochrome cyanin-stained sections, and EM images were obtained from the optic chiasms of some mice approximately 4 days after disease onset when their scores were thought to be the highest. T2-weighted imaging and apparent diffusion coefficient map hyperintensities corresponded to abnormalities in the optic chiasms of EAE mice. Mixed inflammation was concentrated at the lateral surface. Degeneration of oligodendrocytes, myelin, and early axonal damage were also apparent. A marked increase in chiasm thickness was observed. T2-weighted and diffusion-weighted MRI can detect abnormalities in the optic chiasms of MOG-EAE mice. MRI is an important method in the study of this model toward understanding optic neuritis.
A library of TAL effector nucleases spanning the human genome. - Nature biotechnology
Transcription activator-like (TAL) effector nucleases (TALENs) can be readily engineered to bind specific genomic loci, enabling the introduction of precise genetic modifications such as gene knockouts and additions. Here we present a genome-scale collection of TALENs for efficient and scalable gene targeting in human cells. We chose target sites that did not have highly similar sequences elsewhere in the genome to avoid off-target mutations and assembled TALEN plasmids for 18,740 protein-coding genes using a high-throughput Golden-Gate cloning system. A pilot test involving 124 genes showed that all TALENs were active and disrupted their target genes at high frequencies, although two of these TALENs became active only after their target sites were partially demethylated using an inhibitor of DNA methyltransferase. We used our TALEN library to generate single- and double-gene-knockout cells in which NF-ÎºB signaling pathways were disrupted. Compared with cells treated with short interfering RNAs, these cells showed unambiguous suppression of signal transduction.
Family support in prevention programs for children at risk for emotional/behavioral problems. - Clinical child and family psychology review
We conducted a review of empirically based prevention programs to identify prevalence and types of family support services within these programs. A total of 238 articles published between 1990 and 2011 that included a family support component were identified; 37 met criteria for inclusion. Following the Institute of Medicine's typology, prevention programs were categorized as universal, selective, or indicated; programs containing more than one prevention level were characterized as multi-level. Family support types included those led by a mental health professional, led by a peer, or team-led. Among the 37 prevention programs reviewed, 27% (n=10) were universal, 41% (n=15) were selective, 16% (n=6) were indicated, and 16% (n=6) were multi-level. The predominant model of family support was professionally led (95%, n=35). Two (n=5%) provided team-led services. None were purely peer-led. In terms of content of family support services, all (100%, n=37) provided instruction/skill build. Information and education was provided by 70% (n=26), followed by emotional support (n=11, 30%) and instrumental or concrete assistance (n=11, 30%). Only 14% (n=5) provided assistance with advocacy. The distribution of models and content of services in prevention studies differ from family support within treatment studies. As family support is likely to be an enduring component of the child and family mental health service continuum, comparative effectiveness studies are needed to inform future development.
Impaired growth of denervated muscle contributes to contracture formation following neonatal brachial plexus injury. - The Journal of bone and joint surgery. American volume
The etiology of shoulder and elbow contractures following neonatal brachial plexus injury is incompletely understood. With use of a mouse model, the current study tests the novel hypothesis that reduced growth of denervated muscle contributes to contractures following neonatal brachial plexus injury.Unilateral brachial plexus injuries were created in neonatal mice by supraclavicular C5-C6 nerve root excision. Shoulder and elbow range of motion was measured four weeks after injury. Fibrosis, cross-sectional area, and functional length of the biceps, brachialis, and subscapularis muscles were measured over four weeks following injury. Muscle satellite cells were cultured from denervated and control biceps muscles to assess myogenic capability. In a comparison group, shoulder motion and subscapularis length were assessed following surgical excision of external rotator muscles.Shoulder internal rotation and elbow flexion contractures developed on the involved side within four weeks following brachial plexus injury. Excision of the biceps and brachialis muscles relieved the elbow flexion contractures. The biceps muscles were histologically fibrotic, whereas fatty infiltration predominated in the brachialis and rotator cuff muscles. The biceps and brachialis muscles displayed reduced cross-sectional and longitudinal growth compared with the contralateral muscles. The upper subscapularis muscle similarly displayed reduced longitudinal growth, with the subscapularis shortening correlating with internal rotation contracture. However, excision of the external rotators without brachial plexus injury caused no contractures or subscapularis shortening. Myogenically capable satellite cells were present in denervated biceps muscles despite impaired muscle growth in vivo.Injury of the upper trunk of the brachial plexus leads to impaired growth of the biceps and brachialis muscles, which are responsible for elbow flexion contractures, and impaired growth of the subscapularis muscle, which correlates with internal rotation contracture of the shoulder. Shoulder muscle imbalance alone causes neither subscapularis shortening nor internal rotation contracture. Impaired muscle growth cannot be explained solely by absence of functioning satellite cells.
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13051 S Us Highway 71 Grandview, MO 64030
12121 Blue Ridge Ext Blue Ridge Family Physicians, Ste. M
13601 S Us Highway 71