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Natural killer cell education does not affect the magnitude of granzyme B delivery to target cells by antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity. - AIDS (London, England)
Interest in the role of antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) in protection from HIV infection has grown since analyses of the RV144 HIV vaccine trial results found ADCC correlated with protection. Natural killer (NK) cells are among the effector cells that mediate ADCC. The level of antibody-induced NK cell activation depends on NK cell education through inhibitory NK cell receptor human leukocyte antigen (HLA) ligand interactions. Here, we investigated the impact of NK cell education on the delivery of Granzyme B (GzB) to target cells.Lymphocytes from 50 HIV-uninfected [30 Bw4 (Bw4) and 20 Bw4 (Bw6)] KIR3DL1 homozygote persons were used as effectors and cocultured with gp120-coated target cells in the presence of a single source of anti-HIV gp120 antibody to ascertain whether NK cell education status influenced the level of GzB delivered to target cells.The GTL assay assessed the frequency of GzB-positive (%GzB) CEM.NKr.CCR5 target cells generated by effectors from each individual. The frequency of CD107a, interferon (IFN)-Î³ and CCL4 NK cells was assessed as a measure of antibody-induced NK cell activation.KIR3DL1 NK cells from the Bw4 group were more functional than KIR3DL1 NK cells. Despite this, the %GzB target cells generated in the GTL assay did not differ according to the KIR3DL1-HLA-B genotype of the effector cells. The %GzB cells positively correlated with the frequency of CD16KIR3DL1 NK cells in the effector population.ADCC potency does not depend on NK cell education.
A Higher Frequency of NKG2A+ than of NKG2A- NK Cells Responds to Autologous HIV-Infected CD4 Cells irrespective of Whether or Not They Coexpress KIR3DL1. - Journal of virology
Epidemiological and functional studies implicate NK cells in HIV control. However, there is little information available on which NK cell populations, as defined by the inhibitory NK cell receptors (iNKRs) they express, respond to autologous HIV-infected CD4(+) (iCD4) T cells. NK cells acquire antiviral functions through education, which requires signals received from iNKRs, such as NKG2A and KIR3DL1 (here, 3DL1), engaging their ligands. NKG2A interacts with HLA-E, and 3DL1 interacts with HLA-A/B antigens expressing the Bw4 epitope. HIV-infected cells downregulate HLA-A/B, which should interrupt negative signaling through 3DL1, leading to NK cell activation, provided there is sufficient engagement of activating NKRs. We examined the functionality of NK cells expressing or not NKG2A and 3DL1 stimulated by HLA-null and autologous iCD4 cells. Flow cytometry was used to gate on each NKG2A(+)/NKG2A(-) 3DL1(+)/3DL1(-) (NKG2A(+/-) 3DL1(+/-)) population and to measure the frequency of all possible combinations of CD107a expression and gamma interferon (IFN-Î³) and CCL4 secretion. The highest frequency of functional NK cells responding to HLA-null cell stimulation was the NKG2A(+) 3DL1(+) NK cell population. The highest frequencies of functional NK cells responding to autologous iCD4 cells were those expressing NKG2A; coexpression of 3DL1 did not further modulate responsiveness. This was the case for the functional subsets characterized by the sum of all functions tested (total responsiveness), as well as by the trifunctional CD107a(+) IFN-Î³(+) CCL4(+), CD107a(+) IFN-Î³(+), total CD107a(+), and total IFN-Î³(+) functional subsets. These results indicate that the NKG2A receptor has a role in NK cell-mediated anti-HIV responses.HIV-infected CD4 (iCD4) cells activate NK cells, which then control HIV replication. However, little is known regarding which NK cell populations iCD4 cells stimulate to develop antiviral activity. Here, we examine the frequency of NK cell populations, defined by the presence/absence of the NK cell receptors (NKRs) NKG2A and 3DL1, that respond to iCD4 cells. NKG2A and 3DL1 are involved in priming NK cells for antiviral functions upon encountering virus-infected cells. A higher frequency of NKG2A(+) than NKG2A(-) NK cells responded to iCD4 cells by developing antiviral functions such as CD107a expression, which correlates with NK cell killing, and secretion of gamma interferon and CCL4. Coexpression of 3DL1 on the NKG2A(+) and NKG2A(-) NK cells did not modulate responses to iCD4 cells. Understanding the mechanisms underlying the interaction of NK cells with iCD4 cells that lead to HIV control may contribute to developing strategies that harness NK cells for preventing or controlling HIV infection.Copyright Â© 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
Impaired Th17 polarization of phenotypically naive CD4(+) T-cells during chronic HIV-1 infection and potential restoration with early ART. - Retrovirology
Depletion of mucosal Th17 cells during HIV/SIV infections is a major cause for microbial translocation, chronic immune activation, and disease progression. Mechanisms contributing to Th17 deficit are not fully elucidated. Here we investigated alterations in the Th17 polarization potential of naive-like CD4(+) T-cells, depletion of Th17-commited subsets during HIV pathogenesis, and Th17 restoration in response to antiretroviral therapy (ART).Peripheral blood CD4(+) T-cells expressing a naive-like phenotype (CD45RA(+)CCR7(+)) from chronically HIV-infected subjects receiving ART (CI on ART; median CD4 counts 592 cells/Î¼l; viral load: <50 HIV-RNA copies/ml; time since infection: 156 months) compared to uninfected controls (HIV-) were impaired in their survival and Th17 polarization potential in vitro. In HIV- controls, IL-17A-producing cells mainly originated from naive-like T-cells with a regulatory phenotype (nTregs: CD25(high)CD127(-)FoxP3(+)) and from CD25(+)CD127(+)FoxP3(-) cells (DP, double positive). Th17-polarized conventional naive CD4(+) T-cells (nT: CD25(-)CD127(+)FoxP3(-)) also produced IL17A, but at lower frequency compared to nTregs and DP. In CI on ART subjects, the frequency/counts of nTreg and DP were significantly diminished compared to HIV- controls, and this paucity was further associated with decreased proportions of memory T-cells producing IL-17A and expressing Th17 markers (CCR6(+)CD26(+)CD161(+), mTh17). nTregs and DP compared to nT cells harbored superior levels of integrated/non-integrated HIV-DNA in CI on ART subjects, suggesting that permissiveness to integrative/abortive infection contributes to impaired survival and Th17 polarization of lineage-committed cells. A cross-sectional study in CI on ART subjects revealed that nTregs, DP and mTh17 counts were negatively correlated with the time post-infection ART was initiated and positively correlated with nadir CD4 counts. Finally, a longitudinal analysis in a HIV primary infection cohort demonstrated a tendency for increased nTreg, DP, and mTh17 counts with ART initiation during the first year of infection.These results support a model in which the paucity of phenotypically naive nTregs and DP cells, caused by integrative/abortive HIV infection and/or other mechanisms, contributes to Th17 deficiency in HIV-infected subjects. Early ART initiation, treatment intensification with integrase inhibitors, and/or other alternative interventions aimed at preserving/restoring the pool of cells prone to acquire Th17 functions may significantly improve mucosal immunity in HIV-infected subjects.
The HLA-C*04: 01/KIR2DS4 gene combination and human leukocyte antigen alleles with high population frequency drive rate of HIV disease progression. - AIDS (London, England)
The objective of this study is to identify human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I and killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) genotypes associated with different risks for HIV acquisition and HIV disease progression.A cross-sectional study of a cohort of 468 high-risk individuals (246 HIV-positive and 222 HIV-negative) from outpatient clinics in Lima (PerÃº).The cohort was high-resolution HLA and KIR-typed and analysed for potential differences in single-allele frequencies and allele combinations between HIV-positive and HIV-negative individuals and for associations with HIV viral load and CD4 cell counts in infected individuals.HLA class I alleles associated with a lack of viral control had a significantly higher population frequency than relatively protective alleles (Pâ€Š=â€Š0.0093), in line with a rare allele advantage. HLA-A02â€Š:â€Š01 and HLA-C04â€Š:â€Š01 were both associated with high viral loads (Pâ€Š=â€Š0.0313 and 0.0001, respectively) and low CD4 cell counts (Pâ€Š=â€Š0.0008 and 0.0087, respectively). Importantly, the association between HLA-C04â€Š:â€Š01 and poor viral control was not due to its linkage disequilibrium with other HLA alleles. Rather, the coexpression of its putative KIR ligand KIR2DS4f was critically linked to elevated viral loads.These results highlight the impact of population allele frequency on viral control and identify a novel association between HLA-C04â€Š:â€Š01 in combination with KIR2DS4f and uncontrolled HIV infection. Our data further support the importance of the interplay of markers of the adaptive and innate immune system in viral control.
Functional analysis of NK cell subsets activated by 721.221 and K562 HLA-null cells. - Journal of leukocyte biology
HLA-null cell lines [721.221 (henceforth, 721) and K562] are often used to study NK cell activation. NK cells are innate immune lymphocytes that express a variety of stochastically expressed inhibitory and activating receptors. Although it is known that 721 and K562 have divergent origins, they have been used interchangeably to stimulate NK cells in many studies. We hypothesized that the differences between 721 and K562 cells may result in differential NK cell-activation patterns. In this report, we assessed all possible combinations of CD107a expression and IFN-Î³ and CCL4 secretion in total NK and 3DL1(+/-) NK cell populations induced by these 2 cell lines. 721 activates a significantly higher frequency of NK cells and 3DL1(+) NK cells than K562. The NK cell functional subsets that are stimulated to a higher degree by 721 than K562 include those secreting IFN-Î³ and/or CCL4. On the other hand, the functional subsets that include CD107 expression contribute to a higher proportion of the total NK cell response following stimulation with K562 than 721. These results have implications for the selection of HLA-null cell lines to use as NK cell stimuli in investigations of their role in infectious diseases, cancer, and transplantation.Â© Society for Leukocyte Biology.
The HIV-1 gp120 CD4-bound conformation is preferentially targeted by antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity-mediating antibodies in sera from HIV-1-infected individuals. - Journal of virology
Recent studies have linked antibody Fc-mediated effector functions with protection or control of human immunodeficiency type 1 (HIV-1) and simian immunodeficiency (SIV) infections. Interestingly, the presence of antibodies with potent antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) activity in the Thai RV144 vaccine trial was suggested to correlate with decreased HIV-1 acquisition risk. These antibodies recently were found to recognize HIV envelope (Env) epitopes exposed upon Env-CD4 interaction. CD4 downregulation by Nef and Vpu, as well as Vpu-mediated BST-2 antagonism, were reported to modulate exposure of those CD4-induced HIV-1 Env epitopes and were proposed to play a role in reducing the susceptibility of infected cells to ADCC mediated by this class of antibodies. Here, we report the high prevalence of antibodies recognizing CD4-induced HIV-1 Env epitopes in sera from HIV-1-infected individuals, which correlated with their ability to mediate ADCC responses against HIV-1-infected cells, exposing these Env epitopes at the cell surface. Furthermore, our results indicate that Env variable regions V1, V2, V3, and V5 do not represent a major determinant for ADCC responses mediated by sera from HIV-1-infected individuals. Altogether, these findings suggest that HIV-1 tightly controls the exposure of certain Env epitopes at the surface of infected cells in order to prevent elimination by Fc-effector functions.Here, we identified a particular conformation of HIV-1 Env that is specifically targeted by ADCC-mediating antibodies present in sera from HIV-1-infected individuals. This observation suggests that HIV-1 developed sophisticated mechanisms to minimize the exposure of these epitopes at the surface of infected cells.Copyright Â© 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
Time to seroconversion in HIV-exposed subjects carrying protective versus non protective KIR3DS1/L1 and HLA-B genotypes. - PloS one
Natural killer (NK) cells play a role in the clearance of viral infections. Combinations of alleles at the polymorphic HLA-B locus and the NK cell surface killer immunoglobulin-like receptor locus KIR3DL1/S1 have been shown to influence time to AIDS in HIV-infected individuals and risk of seroconversion in HIV exposed seronegative (HESN) subjects. Here, we assessed time to seroconversion or duration of seronegative status in a group of 168 HIV exposed individuals, including 74 seroconverters and 94 HESN based on carriage or not of KIR3DL1/S1/HLA-B genotypes previously shown to be associated with protection from infection and/or slow time to AIDS. KIR3DL1/S1 genotyping was performed by sequence-specific primer polymerase chain reaction using two pairs of specific primers for each locus. The MHC class IB locus was typed to four-position resolution to resolve Bw4 and Bw6 alleles and the amino acid present at position 80. KIR3DL1/S1 heterozygotes became HIV infected significantly faster than KIR3DS1 homozygotes. Individuals who carried both KIR3DS1 and Bw4*80I did not remain HIV seronegative longer than those from a control group who were homozygous for HLA-Bw6 and carried no HLA-A locus Bw4 alleles Subjects who were *h/*y+B*57 showed a trend towards slower time to serconversion than those with other KIR3DL1 homozygous and KIR3DL1/S1 heterozygous genotypes. Thus, KIR3DS1 homozygosity is associated with protection from HIV infection while co-carriage of KIR3DS1 and Bw4*80I is not. The requirements for protection from HIV infection can differ from those that influence time to AIDS in HIV infected individuals.
eEF2 and Ras-GAP SH3 domain-binding protein (G3BP1) modulate stress granule assembly during HIV-1 infection. - Nature communications
Stress granules (SG) are translationally silent sites of RNA triage induced by environmental stresses including viral infection. Here we show that HIV-1 Gag blocks SG assembly irrespective of eIF2Î± phosphorylation and even when SG assembly is forced by overexpression of Ras-GAP SH3 domain-binding protein (G3BP1) or TIAR. The overexposed loops in the amino-terminal capsid domain of Gag and host eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF2) are found to be critical for the SG blockade via interaction. Moreover, cyclophilin A (CypA) stabilizes the Gag-eEF2 association. eEF2 depletion not only lifts the SG blockade but also results in impaired virus production and infectivity. Gag also disassembles preformed SGs by recruiting G3BP1, thereby displacing eEF2, revealing another unsuspected virus-host interaction involved in the HIV-1-imposed SG blockade. Understanding how HIV-1 counters anti-viral stress responses will lay the groundwork for new therapeutic strategies to bolster host cell immune defences against HIV-1 and other pathogens.
Flow cytometry-based assay to study HIV-1 gp120 specific antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity responses. - Journal of virological methods
Increased attention on the role of Fc-mediated effector functions against HIV-1 has led to renewed interest into the role that antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) could play in controlling viral transmission and/or the rate of disease progression. While (51)Chromium release assays have traditionally been used to study ADCC responses against HIV-1, a number of alternative flow-cytometry-based assays were recently developed. In this study, an alternative flow-cytometry-based assay was established to allow non-radioactive measurement of ADCC-mediated elimination of HIV-1 gp120 envelope glycoprotein (Env)-coated target cells. This assay relies on staining target and effector cells with different dyes, which allows precise gating and permits the calculation of the number of surviving target cells by normalization to flow-cytometry particles. By using small concentrations of recombinant gp120 Env, suitable targets cells that recapitulate the ADCC response mediated against HIV-1-infected cells were generated. Finally, this method was applied successfully to screen human sera for ADCC activity directed against HIV-1 gp120 Env.Copyright Â© 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
HIV protective KIR3DL1/S1-HLA-B genotypes influence NK cell-mediated inhibition of HIV replication in autologous CD4 targets. - PLoS pathogens
Carriage of the genetic combination encoding a high expression inhibitory Killer Immunoglobulin-like Receptor (KIR)3DL1 with its ligand, HLA-B*57 (*h/*y+B*57) is associated with slower time to AIDS and better HIV viral load control than being a Bw6 homozygote (Bw6hmz). Natural Killer (NK) cells from *h/*y+B*57 carriers receive potent educational signals through HLA-B*57 KIR3DL1 ligation leading to high functional potential. NK cells from Bw6hmz are not educated through KIR3DL1 because Bw6 antigens do not interact with this inhibitory receptor. To better understand the impact of KIR/HLA combinations on NK cell mediated anti-viral activity we measured NK cell mediated inhibition of HIV replication in autologous infected CD4 (iCD4) cells by assessing the frequency of p24 positive CD4 targets and supernatant levels of HIV p24 longitudinally in the presence versus absence of NK cells. Forty-seven HIV uninfected subjects were studied, including carriers of *h/*y+B*57, a low expression KIR3DL1 genotype with HLA-B*57 termed *l/*x+B*57, a genotype designated 3DS1+*80I and Bw6hmz. NK cells from *h/*y+B*57 carriers, like those from 3DS1+*80I subjects, inhibited HIV replication in autologous iCD4 cells better than those from Bw6hmz and *l/*x+B*57 carriers. Cell contact between NK and iCD4 cells activated NK cells to inhibit viral replication in a non-contact dependent fashion through secretion of CC-chemokines. iCD4 stimulated NK cells from *h/*y+B*57 and 3DS1+*80I carriers produced higher levels of CC-chemokines than those from Bw6hmz or *l/*x+B*57 carriers. Higher levels of CC-chemokines were produced by KIR3DL1(+) than KIR3DL1(-) NK cells. We conclude that NK-mediated inhibition of viral replication in autologous iCD4 cells is partially due to a block at the level of HIV entry into new targets by secreted CC-chemokines.
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