1527 10Th St
Marysville WA 98270
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License #: CH60143949
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Evaluation of microscopic observation drug susceptibility assay for diagnosis of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in Viet Nam. - BMC infectious diseases
Early diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) and multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB) is important for the elimination of TB. We evaluated the microscopic observation drug susceptibility (MODS) assay as a direct rapid drug susceptibility testing (DST) method for MDR-TB screening in sputum samplesAll adult TB suspects, who were newly presenting to Pham Ngoc Thach Hospital from August to November 2008 were enrolled into the study. Processed sputum samples were used for DST by MODS (DST-MODS) (Rifampicin (RIF) 1 Î¼g/ml and Isoniazid (INH) 0.4 Î¼g/ml), MGIT culture (Mycobacterial Growth Indicator Tube) and Lowenstein Jensen (LJ) culture. Cultures positive by either MGIT or LJ were used for proportional DST (DST-LJ) (RIF 40 Î¼g/ml and INH 0.2 Î¼g/ml). DST profiles on MODS and LJ were compared. Discrepant results were resolved by multiplex allele specific PCR (MAS-PCR).Seven hundred and nine TB suspects/samples were enrolled into the study, of which 300 samples with DST profiles available from both MODS and DST-LJ were analyzed. Cording in MODS was unable to correctly identify 3 Mycobacteria Other Than Tuberculosis (MOTT) isolates, resulting in 3 false positive TB diagnoses. None of these isolates were identified as MDR-TB by MODS. The sensitivity and specificity of MODS were 72.6% (95%CI: 59.8, 83.1) and 97.9% (95%CI: 95.2, 99.3), respectively for detection of INH resistant isolates, 72.7% (95%CI: 30.9, 93.7) and 99.7% (95%CI: 98.1, 99.9), respectively for detecting RIF resistant isolates and 77.8% (95%CI: 39.9, 97.1) and 99.7% (95%CI: 98.1, 99.9), respectively for detecting MDR isolates. The positive and negative predictive values (PPV and NPV) of DST-MODS were 87.5% (95%CI: 47.3, 99.6) and 99.3% (95%CI: 97.5, 99.9) for detection of MDR isolates; and the agreement between MODS and DST-LJ was 99.0% (kappa: 0.8, P < 0.001) for MDR diagnosis. The low sensitivity of MODS for drug resistance detection was probably due to low bacterial load samples and the high INH concentration (0.4 Î¼g/ml). The low PPV of DST-MODS may be due to the low MDR-TB rate in the study population (3.8%). The turnaround time of DST-MODS was 9 days and 53 days for DST-LJ.The DST-MODS technique is rapid with low contamination rates. However, the sensitivity of DST-MODS for detection of INH and RIF resistance in this study was lower than reported from other settings.
Extracranial metastatic patterns on occurrence of brain metastases. - Journal of neuro-oncology
Extracranial metastases and their frequency by sites have been described as prognostic factors for survival of patients with brain metastasis. However, these factors must be identified and described in more detail for a large series of patients. Using routine data from the largest German health insurance fund, 5,074 patients with brain metastasis who were diagnosed and treated in 2008 were analyzed to identify the frequency and distribution of extracranial metastatic sites concurrent with brain metastasis in relation to age, gender, and tumor type. Brain metastases were observed in males more frequently than in females (56.4 and 43.6% respectively PÂ <Â 0.001), and were most often from lung (51.2%), breast (12.3%), and unknown (7.5%) primaries. Extracranial metastatic sites were observed in 58.8% of patients; the number of sites was from 1 to 7, with a mean of 1.11. For the 16 most common primary sites the range was from 0.13 to 1.91 . In 11 of these 16 sites, lungs were the most common concurrent metastatic site. Lung cancer, breast cancer, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and testicular cancer most commonly metastasized to bone, and bladder cancer to kidneys. Different primary tumors have different frequencies and patterns of extracranial metastatic sites concurrently with brain metastasis. The lung is the most common metastatic site of most primary tumors, bone for a few tumors, and kidneys for bladder cancer. For the unknown primary tumor type, screening for these most common metastatic sites must be intensified, in particular when molecular assessment is not available.
Promoter methylation profile of GSTP1 and RASSF1A in prostate cancerand benign hyperplasia in Vietnamese men. - Turkish journal of medical sciences
The GSTP1 and RASSF1A methylations that were considered as prostate cancer-specific molecular biomarkers have been extensively reported in Western/American patients with prostate cancer but are rarely reported in Southeast Asian patients. In the present study, the methylation status of the GSTP1 and RASSF1A promoters was evaluated in prostate cancer (PCa) and benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) tissues from Vietnamese men.The accuracy of methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (MSP) was validated to analyze the methylation pattern of GSTP1 and RASSF1A in 59 PCa and 37 BPH patients, respectively. The methylation status was confirmed by the sequencing of cloned MSP products. The association between methylation status and the clinical and pathological parameters of tumors was statistically analyzed.The methylation of GSTP1 and RASSF1A was detected in 39/59 and 19/59 PCa patients and in 4/37 and 10/37 BPH patients, respectively. The methylation frequency of GSTP1 was significantly associated with PCa (P < 0.01). The RASSF1A methylation frequency (32.2%) observed in the study was lower relative to that detected in other populations.GSTP1 and RASSF1A methylation was accurately detected using the validated MSP method and can be used as a biomarker to diagnose prostate cancer.
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1527 10Th St Marysville, WA 98270