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Simultaneous determination of praziquantel, pyrantel embonate, febantel and its active metabolites, oxfendazole and fenbendazole, in dog plasma by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. - Biomedical chromatography : BMC
A liquid chromatography-electrospray-mass spectrometry method (LC/MS) has been developed and validated for determination of praziquantel (PZQ), pyrantel (PYR), febantel (FBT), and the active metabolites fenbendazole (FEN) and oxfendazole (OXF), in dog plasma, using mebendazole as internal standard (IS). The method consists of solid-phase extractions on Strata-X polymeric cartridges. Chromatographic separation was carried out on a Phenomenex Gemini C6 -Phenyl column using binary gradient elution containing methanol and 50â€‰mm ammonium-formate (pHâ€‰3). The method was linear (r(2) â€‰â‰¥â€‰0.990) over concentration ranges of 3-250â€‰ng/mL for PYR andFEB, 5-250â€‰ng/mL for OXF and FEN, and 24-1000â€‰ng/mL for PZQ. The mean precisions were 1.3-10.6% (within-run) and 2.5-9.1% (between-run), and mean accuracies were 90.7-109.4% (within-run) and 91.6-108.2% (between-run). The relative standard deviations (RSD) were <9.1%. The mean recoveries of five targeted compounds from dog plasma ranged from 77 to 94%.The new LC/MS method described herein was fully validated and successfully applied to the bioequivalence studies of different anthelmintic formulations such as tablets containing PZQ, PYR embonate and FBT in dogs after oral administration. Copyright Â© 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.Copyright Â© 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Maintenance of bladder urothelia integrity and successful urothelialization of various tissue-engineered mesenchymes in vitro. - In vitro cellular & developmental biology. Animal
Tissue-engineering offers the opportunity to produce hybrid tissues in vitro. The induction of bladder urothelial cells (BUCs) differentiation in vitro has been assessed by several research groups to build bladder models for fundamental studies and clinical applications. However, BUC induction of advanced differentiation in culture remains a challenging task. To reach this goal, optimal culture conditions are required, notably the use of specific additives as well as proper mesenchymal support. The best positive control for BUCs functional state monitoring is native urothelium collected from healthy bladder samples. In order to establish the best culture conditions to maintain and promote BUC differentiated state, native urothelia were cultured on various mesenchymes. Native bladder mesenchymes were used as controls for the maintenance of native urothelia. Histological and ultrastructural analyses showed the necessity to have a cellularized mesenchyme for rapid formation of a pseudostratified urothelium, allowing apical membrane rearrangement of the superficial cells in culture. Taken together, the results strongly suggest that it is possible to conserve the integrity of urothelia in vitro and, thus, potentially use them for eventual clinical applications and pharmacological investigations.
Contribution of interoceptive information to emotional processing: evidence from individuals with spinal cord injury. - Journal of neurotrauma
Many evidence suggest that recognizing and sharing emotions with others require a first-hand experience of those emotions in our own body which, in turn, depends on the adequate perception of our own internal state (interoception) through preserved sensory pathways. Here we explored the contribution of interoception to first-hand emotional experiences and to the recognition of others' emotions. For this aim ten individuals with sensory deafferentation as a consequence of high spinal cord injury (SCI) (5 males and 5 females; mean age: 48Â±14.8 years) and twenty healthy subjects matched for age, sex and education were included in the study. Recognition of facial expressions and judgment of emotionally evocative scenes were investigated in both groups using the Ekman and Friesen set of Pictures of Facial Affect and the International Affective Picture System. A two-way mixed ANOVA and post-hoc comparisons were used to test differences among emotions and groups. As compared to healthy subjects, individuals with SCI, when asked to judge emotionally evocative scenes, had difficulties in judging their own emotional response to complex scenes eliciting fear and anger, while they were able to recognize the same emotions when conveyed by facial expressions. Our findings endorse a simulative view of emotional processing according to which the proper perception of our own internal state (interoception), through preserved sensory pathways, is crucial for first-hand experiences of the more primordial emotions such as fear and anger.
Improving quality of care and long-term health outcomes through continuity of care with the use of an electronic or paper patient-held portable health file (COMMUNICATE): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. - Trials
The advantages of patient-held portable health files (PHF) and personal health records (PHR), paper or electronic, are said to include improved health-care provider continuity-of-care and patient empowerment in maintaining health. Top-down approaches are favored by public sector government and health managers. Bottom-up approaches include systems developed directly by health-care providers, consumers and industry, implemented locally on devices carried by patient-consumers or shared via web-based portals. These allow individuals to access, manage and share their health information, and that of others for whom they are authorized, in a private, secure and confidential environment. Few medical record technologies have been evaluated in randomized trials to determine whether there are important clinical benefits of these interventions. The COMMUNICATE trial will assess the acceptability and long-term clinical outcomes of an electronic and paper patient-held PHF.This is a 48-month, open-label pragmatic, superiority, parallel-group design randomized controlled trial. Subjects (n=792) will be randomized in a 1:1:1 ratio to each of the trial arms: the electronic PHF added to usual care, the paper PHF added to usual care and usual care alone (no PHF). Inclusion criteria include those 60Â years or older living independently in the community, but who have two or more chronic medical conditions that require prescription medication and regular care by at least three medical practitioners (general and specialist care). The primary objective is whether use of a PHF compared to usual care reduces a combined endpoint of deaths, overnight hospitalizations and blindly adjudicated serious out-of-hospital events. All primary analyses will be undertaken masked to randomized arm allocation using intention-to-treat principles. Secondary outcomes include quality of life and health literacy improvements.Lack of blinding creates potential for bias in trial conduct and ascertainment of clinical outcomes. Mechanisms are provided to reduce bias, including balanced study contact with all participants, a blinded adjudication committee determining which out-of-hospital events are serious and endpoints that are objective (overnight hospitalizations and mortality). The PRECIS tool provides a summary of the trial's design on the Pragmatic-Explanatory Continuum.Registered with Clinicaltrials.gov (identifier: NCT01082978 ) on 8 March 2010.
Increased plasma BMP-2 levels are associated with atherosclerosis burden and coronary calcification in type 2 diabetic patients. - Cardiovascular diabetology
Although Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) is a known mediator of bone regeneration and vascular calcification, to date no study has investigated the relationship between BMP-2 and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and its possible role in coronary artery disease (CAD). The purpose of this study is to evaluate the relationship of BMP-2 with atherosclerosis and calcification in patients with T2DM.124 subjects were enrolled in this study: 29 patients with T2DM and CAD; 26 patients with T2DM and without CAD; 36 patients with CAD and without T2DMand 34 without T2DM or CAD (control group). Severity of coronary lesions was assessed using coronary angiography and intravascular ultrasound (IVUS). Plasma BMP-2 levels were quantified using a commercially available ELISA kit.Compared to the control group, the mean plasma BMP-2 level was significantly higher in T2DM patients with or without CAD (20.1â€‰Â±â€‰1.7 or 19.3â€‰Â±â€‰1.5Â pg/ml, vs 17.2â€‰Â±â€‰3.3Â pg/ml, P <0.001). In a multivariable linear regression analysis, both T2DM and CAD were significantly and positively associated with BMP-2 (Estimate, 0.249; standard error (SE), 0.063; p <0.0001; Estimate, 0.400; SE, 0.06; p <0.0001). Plasma BMP-2 was also strongly correlated with glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) (Spearman Ïâ€‰=â€‰-0.31; pâ€‰=â€‰0.0005). SYNTAX score was also significantly associated with BMP-2 (Spearman Ïâ€‰=â€‰0.46; pâ€‰=â€‰0.0002). Using the results from IVUS, plasma BMP-2 levels were shown to positively correlate with plaque burden (Spearman Ïâ€‰=â€‰0.38, Pâ€‰=â€‰0.002) and plaque calcification (Spearman Ï =0.44, Pâ€‰=â€‰0.0003) and to negatively correlate with lumen volume (Spearman Ï =0.31, Pâ€‰=â€‰0.01).Our study demonstrates that patients with T2DM had higher circulating levels of BMP-2 than normal controls. Plasma BMP-2 levels correlated positively with plaque burden and calcification in patients with T2DM.
Role of Brain Perfusion SPECT with 99mTc HMPAO in the Assessment of Response to Drug Therapy in Patients with Autoimmune Vasculitis: A Prospective Study. - North American journal of medical sciences
The diagnosis of vasculitis in the brain remains a quite difficult achievement. To the best of our knowledge, there is no imaging method reported in literature which is capable of reaching to a diagnosis of vasculitis with very high sensitivity.The aim of this study was to determine whether perfusion brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) can be usefully employed in monitoring the treatment of vasculitis, allowing treating only potentially responder patients and avoiding the side effects on patients who do not respond.Twenty patients (two males and 18 females) suffering from systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE; n = 5), Behcet's disease (BD; n = 5), undifferentiated vasculitis (UV; n = 5), and Sjogren's syndrome (SS; n = 5) were included in the study. All patients underwent a wide neurological anamnestic investigation, a complete objective neurological examination and SPECT of the brain with 99mTc-hexamethyl-propylene-aminoxime (HMPAO). The brain SPECT was then repeated after appropriate medical treatment. The neurological and neuropsychiatric follow-up was performed at 6 months after the start of the treatment.Overall, the differences between the scintigraphic results obtained after and before the medical treatment indicated a statistically significant increase of the cerebral perfusion (CP). In 19 out of 200 regions of interest (ROI) studied, the difference between pre- and post treatment percentages had negative sign, indicating a worsening of CP. This latter event has occurred six times (five in the same patients) in the UV, 10 times (eight in the same patients) in the SLE, never in BD, and three times (two in the same patient) in the SS.The reported results seem to indicate the possibility of identifying, by the means of a brain SPECT, responder and nonresponder (unchanged or worsened CP) patients, affected by autoimmune vasculitis, to the therapy.
The growing fibroadenoma. - Acta radiologica open
Fibroadenomas (FAs) are the most common tumors of the breast clinically and pathologically in adolescent and young women but may be discovered at any age. With increasing use of core biopsy rather than excision for diagnosis, it is now commonplace to follow these lesions with imaging.To assess the incidence of epithelial abnormalities (atypia, in situ or invasive, ductal or lobular malignancies) in FAs diagnosed by core biopsy and to re-evaluate the management paradigm for any growing FA.A retrospective review of the senior author's pathology results over 19 years identified 2062 nodular FAs (biopsied by ultrasound or stereotactic guidance). Eighty-three core biopsied FAs were identified which subsequently enlarged.Twelve of 2062 of core biopsied nodules demonstrated atypia, in situ, or invasive malignancy (ductal or lobular) within or adjacent to the FA (0.58%). Eighty-three FAs enlarged and underwent either surgical excision (nâ€‰=â€‰65), repeat core biopsy (nâ€‰=â€‰9), or imaging follow-up (nâ€‰=â€‰9). The incidence of atypia, in situ or invasive malignancy was 0/83 (0%). Two enlarging FAs were subsequently surgically diagnosed as benign phyllodes tumors (PT).Malignancy in or adjacent to a core biopsied FA is rare. The risk of cancer in a growing FA is even rarer; none were present in our series. FAs with abnormal epithelial abnormalities require excision. Otherwise, FAs without epithelial abnormality diagnosed by core biopsy need no specific follow-up considering the negligible incidence of conversion to malignancy. The breast interventionalist must know how to manage discordant pathology results.
The relationship between spiritual well-being and quality of life among elderly people. - Holistic nursing practice
This study aims to identify the relationship between spiritual well-being and quality of life among elderly people residing in Kahrizak Senior House, Tehran, Iran. It was an analytical study. After obtaining approval from the ethics committee of the Iran University of Medical Sciences Research Deputy; the 141 elderly people residing in Kahrizak Senior House who signed the inform consent were recruited by census. Data were collected by Ellison & Palutzian Spiritual Well-Being Index and Short Form Quality of Life (SF-36). The mean score of quality of life was (50.36 Â± 11.3). The mean score of spiritual well-being was (96.26 Â± 17.93). There was a positive correlation between spiritual well-being and quality of life (P = .008). According to positive correlation between spiritual well-being and quality-of-life scores, awareness of the importance of spiritual well-being in caring of these people is recommended.
Characterization of a large novel phage-like plasmid in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. - FEMS microbiology letters
Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is a food-borne pathogen and a leading cause of gastroenteritis in humans. Recently, we sequenced a phage-type DT108 strain (L945) and found reads with high similarity to both Salmonella typhi strain CT18 plasmid pHCM2 and bacteriophage SSU5. In this study, we completely sequenced the novel phage-like plasmid which was designated as pSTM_Î¦. The presence of this phage-like plasmid was examined in a collection of 284 Salmonella Typhimurium isolates using PCR of the parB gene and only one other isolate (L946) was found to carry the phage-like plasmid suggesting that it is infrequently present amongst Salmonella Typhimurium isolates. pSTM_Î¦ is a circular phage-like plasmid of 107.7 kb encoding 132 coding regions (ORFs) with the majority of the ORFs encoding hypothetical proteins. Comparative analysis with other closely related phage-like plasmids and the SSU5 phage revealed that there were four divergent lineages of phage-like plasmids found in the family of Enterobacteriaceae. In conclusion, pSTM_Î¦ is a new member of an emerging family of phage-like plasmids.Â© FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
The effects of acute tension increase on rat esophageal muscle contractions: An in vitro study. - Journal of pediatric surgery
In long-gap esophageal atresia surgeries, anastomoses can be tensioned by several traction methods in order to establish esophageal continuity. It is unclear whether the etiology of esophageal dysmotility after traction is related with esophageal atresia itself or tensioned esophagus. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of acute in vitro esophageal tension application on esophageal muscle contractility in rats. 26 Wistar rats weighing 250-300g were included to the study. After diethyl ether anesthesia, proximal segment (PS) and distal segment (DS) of esophagus were removed and suspended in an isolated organ bath kept at 37Â°C, Krebs-Henseleit solution. Rats were enrolled into four groups including control group (CG, n=14) without tension, 5g (5G, n=4), 15g (15G, n=4) and 25g (25G, n=4) tension groups. In all groups, contractile responses to electrical field stimulation (EFS), carbachol and KCl, and relaxation responses to serotonin were obtained. In CG, higher contractile responses were obtained in PS than DS after EFS. Both PS and DS showed higher contractile amplitudes in 5G with respect to that of CG, 15G and 25G (p<0.05). In 5G, contractile responses to carbachol were significantly increased in both PS and DS with respect to CG (p<0.05). However, contractile amplitudes in response to carbachol were decreased in PS when tension was increased to 15g and 25g. In DS, contractile responses in 15G and 25G were lower than 5G, and still higher than CG. Serotonin relaxation responses in PS were decreased when compared to CG at tension levels of 5g, 15g and 25g (p<0.05). In DS, responses to serotonin were also decreased in tension groups. PS had higher contraction amplitudes than DS when contractile responses were obtained by high K(+) (p<0.05). Tension groups of both PS and DS showed increased contractions to high K(+) compared to CG (p<0.05). Increased esophageal tension led to increase in cholinergic responses of smooth muscles as well as in EFS-induced skeletal muscle responses. On the other hand, relaxation responses induced by serotonin decreased. These data indicate that esophageal tension increase impairs esophageal motility in both segments.Copyright Â© 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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