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Consumption of anthocyanin-rich cherry juice for 12Â weeks improves memory and cognition in older adults with mild-to-moderate dementia. - European journal of nutrition
Dietary flavonoids, including anthocyanins, may positively influence cognition and may be beneficial for the prevention and treatment of dementia. We aimed to assess whether daily consumption of anthocyanin-rich cherry juice changed cognitive function in older adults with dementia. Blood pressure and anti-inflammatory effects were examined as secondary outcomes.A 12-week randomised controlled trial assessed cognitive outcomes in older adults (+70Â year) with mild-to-moderate dementia (nÂ =Â 49) after consumption of 200Â ml/day of either a cherry juice or a control juice with negligible anthocyanin content. Blood pressure and inflammatory markers (CRP and IL-6) were measured at 6 and 12Â weeks. ANCOVA controlling for baseline and RMANOVA assessed change in cognition and blood pressure.Improvements in verbal fluency (pÂ =Â 0.014), short-term memory (pÂ =Â 0.014) and long-term memory (pÂ â‰¤Â 0.001) were found in the cherry juice group. A significant reduction in systolic (pÂ =Â 0.038) blood pressure and a trend for diastolic (pÂ =Â 0.160) blood pressure reduction was evident in the intervention group. Markers of inflammation (CRP and IL-6) were not altered.Inclusion of an anthocyanin-rich beverage may be a practical and feasible way to improve total anthocyanin consumption in older adults with mild-to-moderate dementia, with potential to improve specific cognitive outcomes.
Highly efficient conversion of superoxide to oxygen using hydrophilic carbon clusters. - Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Many diseases are associated with oxidative stress, which occurs when the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) overwhelms the scavenging ability of an organism. Here, we evaluated the carbon nanoparticle antioxidant properties of poly(ethylene glycolated) hydrophilic carbon clusters (PEG-HCCs) by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, oxygen electrode, and spectrophotometric assays. These carbon nanoparticles have 1 equivalent of stable radical and showed superoxide (O2 (â€¢-)) dismutase-like properties yet were inert to nitric oxide (NO(â€¢)) as well as peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)). Thus, PEG-HCCs can act as selective antioxidants that do not require regeneration by enzymes. Our steady-state kinetic assay using KO2 and direct freeze-trap EPR to follow its decay removed the rate-limiting substrate provision, thus enabling determination of the remarkable intrinsic turnover numbers of O2 (â€¢-) to O2 by PEG-HCCs at >20,000 s(-1). The major products of this catalytic turnover are O2 and H2O2, making the PEG-HCCs a biomimetic superoxide dismutase.
Common genetic variants influence human subcortical brain structures. - Nature
The highly complex structure of the human brain is strongly shaped by genetic influences. Subcortical brain regions form circuits with cortical areas to coordinate movement, learning, memory and motivation, and altered circuits can lead to abnormal behaviour and disease. To investigate how common genetic variants affect the structure of these brain regions, here we conduct genome-wide association studies of the volumes of seven subcortical regions and the intracranial volume derived from magnetic resonance images of 30,717 individuals from 50 cohorts. We identify five novel genetic variants influencing the volumes of the putamen and caudate nucleus. We also find stronger evidence for three loci with previously established influences on hippocampal volume and intracranial volume. These variants show specific volumetric effects on brain structures rather than global effects across structures. The strongest effects were found for the putamen, where a novel intergenic locus with replicable influence on volume (rs945270; P = 1.08â€‰Ã—â€‰10(-33); 0.52% variance explained) showed evidence of altering the expression of the KTN1 gene in both brain and blood tissue. Variants influencing putamen volume clustered near developmental genes that regulate apoptosis, axon guidance and vesicle transport. Identification of these genetic variants provides insight into the causes of variability in human brain development, and may help to determine mechanisms of neuropsychiatric dysfunction.
The impact of viewing a hysteroscopy on a screen on the patient's experience: a randomised trial. - BJOG : an international journal of obstetrics and gynaecology
The introduction of patient screens for outpatient procedures is becoming increasingly common. To date, the impact on the patient of viewing the screen remains unknown.To explore how viewing the screen during a hysteroscopy procedure affects the patient's experience.The outpatient clinics at the Royal Surrey Hospital in Guildford and the Royal Infirmary in Bradford.A randomised control trial.Women undergoing a hysteroscopy procedure were randomly allocated to see the screen (n=81) or not to see the screen (n=76).A quantitative study with measures taken before and after the intervention.Pain perception, mood, illness cognitions, communication.Seeing the screen or not had no impact on several measures of pain perception, mood, illness cognitions or communication. However, women who did not see the screen were more optimistic about the effectiveness of their treatment and felt that the health professional was more receptive to them during the consultation compared with those who saw the screen. After controlling for the use of a local anaesthetic, those who did not see the screen also reported a greater decrease in anxiety after the procedure. However, those who saw the screen described pain more positively (i.e. in terms of comfort, reassurance or encouragement) compared with those who did not see the screen.Viewing the screen does not benefit the patient and may interfere with the patient-physician interaction.
Oral and manual force control in preschool-aged children: is there evidence for common control? - Journal of motor behavior
The authors examined and compared the development of oral and manual force control in preschool-aged children. In all, 50 typically developing children (aged 3-5 years) performed maximal strength tasks and submaximal visually guided tasks using tongue elevation, power, and precision grips. Dependent measures included strength, rate of force rise, initial force overshoot, force variability, and rate of force release. The authors performed age- and performance-related analyses. Results revealed similar changes for tongue, fingers, and hands across age- and performance-related measures for strength, initial force overshoot, and rate of force release. There were no significant changes in rate of force rise with increasing age. Force variability measures showed effector-specific changes with decreases across age- and performance-related measures for the hands and fingers but not for the tongue. Changes common across effector systems likely reflect biological development coupled with cognitive-strategic development. Effector-specific changes in force variability likely reflect experience gained through functional tasks influencing biological and cognitive-strategic development. Lack of change in force variability of the tongue suggests that fine control of the tongue is activity specific; thus, nonfunctional tasks are not likely to be sensitive to experience-related biological development.
Power and precision grip force control in three-to-five-year-old children: velocity control precedes amplitude control in development. - Experimental brain research
The aim of this study was to examine the development of underlying motor control strategies in young children by characterizing the changes in performance of a visually guided force regulation task using two different grip formations; a whole-hand power grip (developmentally easier) and a thumb-index finger precision grip (developmentally more advanced). Typically developing preschool children (n=50, 3.0-5.5 years) used precision and power grips to perform a ramp and hold task with their dominant and non-dominant hands. Participants performed five trials with each hand and grip holding the force at 30% of their maximum volitional contraction for 3 s. The data were examined for both age-related and performance-related changes in motor performance. Across ages, children increased in strength, decreased in initial overshoot of the target force level, and decreased in rate of force release. Results of a cluster analysis suggest non-linear changes in the development of force control in preschool children, with a plateau in (or maturation of) velocity measures (rate of force increase and force decrease) earlier than in amplitude-related measures (initial force overshoot and force variability).
Renal tubular dysgenesis and neonatal hemochromatosis without pulmonary hypoplasia. - Pediatric nephrology (Berlin, Germany)
Renal tubular dysgenesis is a rare disorder of differentiation of the fetal kidney. The condition has previously been reported as a postmortem diagnosis in infants who have had oligohydramnios commencing after 20 weeks gestation and have died of renal or respiratory failure shortly after birth with a clinical description of Potter sequence. The absence of clinically significant pulmonary hypoplasia in our case serves to emphasize that renal tubular dysgenesis, fetal anuria and long-standing oligohydramnios can occur without pulmonary insufficiency. The coexistence of renal tubular dysgenesis with neonatal hemochromatosis has been previously described in four published cases. The link between these two rare conditions is clinically important if dialysis or liver transplantation is considered in infants with hepatic and renal failure. Antemortem diagnosis by renal biopsy in our case enabled parental counseling and avoided the inappropriate use of peritoneal dialysis.
Initial sequencing and comparative analysis of the mouse genome. - Nature
The sequence of the mouse genome is a key informational tool for understanding the contents of the human genome and a key experimental tool for biomedical research. Here, we report the results of an international collaboration to produce a high-quality draft sequence of the mouse genome. We also present an initial comparative analysis of the mouse and human genomes, describing some of the insights that can be gleaned from the two sequences. We discuss topics including the analysis of the evolutionary forces shaping the size, structure and sequence of the genomes; the conservation of large-scale synteny across most of the genomes; the much lower extent of sequence orthology covering less than half of the genomes; the proportions of the genomes under selection; the number of protein-coding genes; the expansion of gene families related to reproduction and immunity; the evolution of proteins; and the identification of intraspecies polymorphism.
Lactose in blood in nonpregnant, pregnant, and lactating women. - Journal of pediatric gastroenterology and nutrition
Lactose synthesized in the mammary gland can pass into the bloodstream by either a paracellular or transcellular pathway. In nonpregnant, nonlactating women, the concentration of lactose in the blood plasma was 1.5 +/- 0.1 microM (mean +/- SEM) in 9 women and undetectable in another 11 women. During pregnancy, this concentration was 3.7 +/- 0.4 microM at 10-21 weeks of gestation, with an increase to 8.7 +/- 1.8 microM by 38-40 weeks of gestation. At the initiation of lactation, the concentration of lactose peaked 3-5 days after birth, with a mean peak concentration of 75 +/- 18 microM, and then decreased to 30 +/- 8 microM when lactation was well established at 6 weeks after birth. These findings suggest that the mammary glands are synthetically active by the beginning of the second trimester of pregnancy and reach maximum synthetic capacity soon after birth. Measurement of concentrations of lactose in the blood plasma during pregnancy and lactation may allow an assessment of the successful initiation of both lactogenesis I and II.
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550 N Hillside St Wichita, KS 67214