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Effects of live weight at slaughter on fatty acid composition of Longissimus dorsi and Biceps femoris muscles of indigenous Lori goat. - Tropical animal health and production
This study aimed to determine fatty acid (FA) composition of Longissimus dorsi (LD) and Biceps femoris (BF) muscles of an Iranian indigenous goat (Lori goat) at two live weights at slaughter (LWS). Twenty male Lori goats (5 to 8Â months) raised in nomadic system were slaughtered either at LWS less than 20Â kg (light) or LWS more than 30Â kg (heavy). Carcass dressing and FA composition of intramuscular fat of LD and BF muscles as well as cholesterol content of LD muscle were determined. Heavy goats had higher dressing percentage than light ones (42.7vs.39.3Â %, Pâ€‰<â€‰0.01). The predominant n-6 FA were C18:2, and C20:4 while C22:5, C20:5, C18:3, C20:3, and C22:6 were the n-3 FA detected. Polyunsaturated and saturated FA contributed 22Â % and 36Â % of the total FA in both muscles, respectively. Palmitic acid (C16:0) of LD was higher in heavy compared to the light goats (Pâ€‰<â€‰0.05). BF muscle had higher Î±-linolenic acid (18:3 n-3) as percentage than LD muscle (Pâ€‰<â€‰0.05). The ratio of n-6/n-3 FA and polyunsaturated/saturated FA were 3.8 and 0.6, respectively. Cholesterol content of LD muscle of light and heavy goats were 71.2â€‰Â±â€‰16 and 59.5â€‰Â±â€‰14Â mg per 100Â g fresh meat respectively. In conclusion, desirable PUFA/SFA (0.6) and n-3/n-6 ratio (3.8) found in indigenous Lori goat propose healthy source of lean meat for the consumers.
The Effects of Fenugreek on Radiation Induced Toxicity for Human Blood T-Cells in Radiotherapy. - Journal of medical signals and sensors
Many cellular damages either in normal or cancerous tissues are the outcome of molecular events affected by ionizing radiation. T-cells are the most important among immune system agents and are used for biological radiation dose measurement in recommended standard methods. The herbs with immune modulating properties may be useful to reduce the risk of the damages and subsequently the diseases. The T-cells as the most important immune cells being targeted for biological dosimetry of radiation. This study proposes a flowcytometric-method based on fluorescein isothiocyanate- and propidium iodide (PI)-labeled annexin-V to assess apoptosis in blood T-cells after irradiation in both presence and absence of fenugreek extract. T-cells peripheral blood lymphocyte isolated from blood samples of healthy individuals with no irradiated job background. The media of cultured cells was irradiated 1-h after the fenugreek extract was added. The number of apoptotic cells was assessed by annexin-V protocol and multicolor flowcytometry. An obvious variation in apoptotic cells number was observed in presence of fenugreek extract (>80%). The results suggest that fenugreek extract can potentiate the radiation induced apoptosis or radiation toxicity in blood T-cells (P < 0.05).
Annexin V FITC conjugated as a radiation toxicity indicator in lymphocytes following radiation overexposure in radiotherapy programs. - Advanced biomedical research
Following human radiation exposure in hospital or accidents, dose assessments are of prime importance in radiation accidents. These issues are of continuing importance with respect to socioeconomic policy relating to the industrial and medical uses of ionizing radiation, and also for risk assessment among people who are occupationally exposed to low and/or high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation, such as astronauts, pilots, stewardesses, nuclear power plant workers, and victims of radiation accidents.In this study, an assay for assessing radiation dose based on the induction of apoptosis in human T-lymphocytes was done to examine T-lymphocyte cells isolated from the fresh blood of 16volunteers, cultured and exposed to gamma rays. Radiation-induced apoptosis (RIA) was assessed by flow cytometric identification of cells displaying apoptosis-associated DNA condensation.Dose-response experiments showed that at 2Gy dose level of radiotherapy programs, the RIA frequency was significantly above control. Apoptotic levels significantly depend on the dose of radiation rather than the donor.The results demonstrate the potential use of this assay as a biological indicator of radiation toxicity, optimizing patient dose in radiotherapy and biological dosimetry process.
Energy metabolism and methane production in llamas, sheep and goats fed high- and low-quality grass-based diets. - Archives of animal nutrition
This study aimed to test whether the digestive and metabolic characteristics of pseudo ruminants provide superior ability to utilise low-quality diets compared to true ruminants. A total of 18 mature, non-pregnant, non-lactating female animals, including six llamas (Lama glama), six Danish Landrace goats and six Shropshire sheep, were used in a crossover design study. The experiment lasted for two periods of three weeks. Half of the animals were fed either high-quality grass hay (HP) or low-quality grass seed straw (LP) during each period. Animals were placed in metabolic cages during the last 5 d, and gaseous exchange was measured by open-circuit indirect calorimetry for 22 h. Metabolisable energy for maintenance (MEm) and fasting energy expenditure (FEExp) were estimated by regression approach. Dry matter (DM) intake per kg(0.75) was substantially reduced in llamas and sheep, but not in goats, on the LP compared to HP diet. Llamas had lower daily energy expenditure (324 kJ Â· kg(-0.75)) than sheep (416 kJ Â· kg(-0.75)) and goats (404 kJ Â· kg(-0.75)) on the LP diet. Llamas in comparison with sheep and goats had lower methane emission (0.83 vs 1.34 and 1.24 l Â· d(-1) Â· kg(-0.75), p < 0.05), lower MEm (328 vs 438 and 394 kJ Â· d(-1) Â· kg(-0.75), p < 0.05) and lower FEExp (246 vs 333 and 414 kJ Â· d(-1) Â· kg(-0.75), p < 0.05), respectively. In conclusion, llamas had lower basal metabolic rate and hence maintenance requirements for energy.
Temporal Changes in Plasma Concentration of Leptin, IGF-1, Insulin and Metabolites Under Extended Fasting and Re-Feeding Conditions in Growing Lambs. - International journal of endocrinology and metabolism
A fall in plasma concentration of energy status related hormones (leptin, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and insulin) and body energy expenditure occurs in response to short term fasting. Nevertheless, the relations of the fasting-induced changes in energy related hormones and metabolites with fasting energy expenditure (FEE) under extended fasting condition have received little attention so far.It is not clear how energy status related hormones coordinate to cope with feed deprivation under extended fasting time conditions and how quickly these hormones re-bound to fed-state values in response to re-feeding. Thus the objectives of this study were: 1) to determine the effects of extended fasting on plasma concentration of leptin, IGF-1, insulin, glucose, NEFA, 3-Î²-hydroxybutyrate (BOHB) and urea; and 2) to study the relations of energy status related hormones with FEE and substrate oxidations under extended fasting conditions.Eighteen six-month-old growing lambs (9 females and 9 males) were fasted for three days. Blood samples were taken one hour before (-1H) and 48 and 72 hours after fasting (48H and 72H) and two hours after re-feeding (+2H) from jugular vein. During the last 22 hours of fasting, gas exchange (CO2 production and O2 consumption) were measured using an open-circuit indirect calorimeter. Respiratory quotient (RQ), FEE and relative proportions of oxidized protein, fat and carbohydrate were calculated.Plasma levels of leptin, insulin, IGF-1 and glucose decreased but NEFA and urea levels increased within 48H of fasting. Concentration of insulin significantly increased with extended fasting while leptin and IGF-1 levels remained constant. Glucose was the only blood variable that showed a quick re-bound within two hours after re-feeding. Leptin and IGF-1 showed significant positive relations with glucose and BOHB but negative relations with NEFA and Urea. Carbohydrate, fat and proteins contributed to 17%, 61% and 22% of FEE respectively in three-day-fasted lambs. FEE was negatively correlated with insulin and NEFA concentrations in plasma.Even though plasma levels of leptin and IGF-1 decreased and remained constant under extended fasting, neither leptin nor IGF1 re-bounded to fed-status values within two hours after re-feeding. Under extended fasting condition, firstly an insulin resistance develops and secondly, a fall in FEE through a switch from carbohydrate- to fat-based metabolism occurs and there is an evident negative correlation between FEE and plasma concentration of NEFA.
Over expression of HIF-1Î± in human mesenchymal stem cells increases their supportive functions for hematopoietic stem cells in an experimental co-culture model. - Hematology (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
Bone marrow transplantation is a critical approach for the treatment of many hematological disorders. Success of this approach is dependent on many factors the most important of which is the number of hematopoietic stem cells along with an efficient stroma. Co-transplantation of efficient mesenchymal stem cells can greatly improve the outcome of transplantations. Current researches assign a critical role for hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1Î± in protection of various cells and tissues probably through induction of cytokines. To make this feature applicable to human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells, we manipulated these cells to over express HIF-1Î± gene.Full-length cDNA of human HIF-1Î± was inserted into human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells by pcDNA.3.1 non-viral plasmid vector, and the effect of this over expression on production of some hematopoietic growth factors was explored. Moreover, using a co-culture system, the interactive impact of HIF-1Î±-overexpressed mesenchymal stem cells on hematopoietic stem cells was evaluated. Results Over expression of HIF-1Î± in mesenchymal stem cells in normoxia increased production of one of the most important hematopoietic growth factors, Stem cell factor (also known as Steel factor or c-kit ligand). HIF-1Î± overexpression had no effect on production of other hematopoietic growth factors. In co-culture of mesenchymal stem cells-HIF-1Î± with hematopoietic stem cells, enhancement of colony formation and reduced differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells were observed. Conclusion Over expression of HIF-1Î± in human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells can augment the production of some hematopoietic growth factors, and we suggest this response of mesenchymal stem cells could help to improve the outcome of bone marrow transplantation.
HIF-1Î± confers resistance to induced stress in bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells. - Archives of medical research
The major limiting factor in therapeutic application of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is their high vulnerability during the early days of transplantation. Hence, researchers have been encouraged to find various strategies to make the cells resistant to different stresses before and after transplantation. Overexpression of HIF-1Î± in MSCs to confer resistance against harmful conditions was the aim of this study.Using an inÂ vitro approach, we engineered MSCs to overexpress HIF-1Î± and then evaluated their viability following exposure to hypoxic and oxidative stresses. The inherent expression of HIF-1Î± was downregulated by siRNA. Viability and apoptosis of the MSCs were then evaluated inÂ vitro following their exposure to hypoxic and oxidative stress conditions.Whereas overexpression of HIF-1Î± in MSCs was protective against cell death and apoptosis triggered by hypoxic and oxidative stress conditions, its downregulation increased apoptosis and death rate.Our study is the first to demonstrate how human MSCs can be manipulated to gain protection against stresses that potentially limit their clinical application.Copyright Â© 2013 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Effects of different levels of vitamin premix in finisher diets on performance, immuno-competence and meat lipid oxidation of chickens fed on corn-soybean meal. - Veterinary research forum : an international quarterly journal
The present study was carried out to examine the effects of a vitamin premix (VP) reduction or withdrawal from finisher diet (29-43 days) on performance, immuno-competence, and characteristics of leg bones and meat lipid oxidation of chickens fed on corn-soybean meal based diet. A total of 900 male broiler chickens (Ross 308) were allocated to five treatment groups (0, 33%, 66%, 100% and 133% VP), with nine replicates per treatment group. At 29 and 36 days of ages, four birds from each replicate were injected with sheep red blood cells (SRBC). The cell-mediated immunity was determined via phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and 1-chloro 2-4-dinitrobenzen (DNCB) at 34 and 42 days of ages. At 33, 38 and 43 days of age, 42 days of ages, and two birds of each replicate were slaughtered and bone parameters measured. The oxidative stability was evaluated by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) on the thigh samples that were stored for 90 day at -80 ËšC. The results showed that reduction or withdrawal of VP from diets at different time points of the finisher period did not affect performance, immunocompetence and characteristics of leg bones. Results of TBARS showed that lipid peroxidation of the treatment without VP was significantly higher than of the other treatments when slaughtered at 43 days of age. Finally, the results of this study demonstrated that it is not possible to reduce the VP in finisher broilers' diets without negative effects on meat quality during the time of freezing.
Long-term effects of foetal undernutrition on intermediary metabolism in growing lambs. - Archives of animal nutrition
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of foetal undernutrition on the metabolism in growing lambs. Seven-month-old lambs whose mothers had been fed either restrictively (RN; n = 14) or adequately (AN; n = 6) in late gestation were fasted for three days. One hour before fasting and after 48 h and 72 h fasting, changes in plasma concentrations of metabolites, i.e. glucose, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), 3-beta-hydroxybutyrate (BOHB) and urea as well as hormones, i.e. insulin, the insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I) and leptin, were determined. Blood glucose, NEFA, urea, insulin, IGF-I and leptin were not different between the two groups of lambs. Unexpectedly, at the end of the 3 d fasting, in spite of lower NEFA concentration (1.6 +/- 0.03 vs. 1.9 +/- 0.05 mM in Groups RN and AN, respectively), the BOHB concentration in RN lambs (0.94 +/- 0.02 mM) was significantly higher than that in AN lambs (0.78 +/- 0.04 mM). This higher rate of BOHB production might be interpreted as perturbations in ketone body metabolism potentially induced by undernutrition during foetal life. However, more investigations are necessary to clarify this interrelationship.
Delayed anti-arrhythmic effect of nitroglycerin in anesthetized rats: involvement of CGRP, PKC and mK ATP channels. - International journal of cardiology
Delayed anti-infarct and anti-stunning effects of nitroglycerin (NTG) have well been established in some animal models. The main goals of this study in anesthetized rats were to determine whether NTG has a delayed anti-arrhythmic effect and if so, whether calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), protein kinase C (PKC) and mitochondrial K(ATP) channels (mK(ATP)) are involved in triggering this response. For this purpose, on day 0, male Wistar rats received NTG (120 microg/kg, iv) with or without pre-administration of PKC inhibitor chelerythrine (CHE), capsaicin (CAP) to deplete CGRP from sensory nerves or mK(ATP) channel blocker 5-hydroxydecaonic acid (5HD). On day 1, their hearts were subjected to 30 min ischemia and 120 min reperfusion. In rats pretreated with NTG, the incidence of ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation and the mortality rate significantly reduced (from 100%, 61% and 18.1% in the control group to 45.4%, 10% and 0% in the NTG group, respectively). Infarct size also reduced from 58+/-4.7% in the control group to 31+/-3.7% in the NTG group. These effects were abolished by CHE, CAP and 5HD, which none of them alone had any effect on infarct size or the incidence of myocardial arrhythmias. These results show that a low dose of NTG has a delayed anti-arrhythmic effect and this effect may share a common mechanism with anti-infarct effects of this drug, involving CGRP release and PKC and mK(ATP) activation.
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