226 E 29Th St Unit B
Loveland CO 80538
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Synthesis and solution aggregation studies of a suite of mixed neutral and zwitterionic chromophores for second-order nonlinear optics. - The Journal of organic chemistry
We report details of the synthesis of a series of bi- and trichromophores. These compounds contain mixtures of chromophores that have zwitterionic (ZWI) and neutral ground state (NGS) components covalently attached to each other. The neutral ground state moieties are based on dyes with aniline donors--such as Disperse Red 1--whereas the zwitterionic components are derived from chromophores with pro-aromatic donors such as 1,4-dihydropyridinylidene. By combining both ZWI and NGS components, we aim to develop novel compounds for nonlinear optics in which there is an enhancement of the overall hyperpolarizability coupled with a decrease in the net dipole moment. Thus, this approach should eliminate the electrostatic effects that result when only one type of chromophore is used, and so reduce the likelihood of undesirable aggregation occurring. This, in turn, should enable us to realize organic materials with large macroscopic optical nonlinearities. An analysis of the UV-vis results suggests that there is a strong dependence on solvent polarity that determines whether the embedded constituents should be treated as discrete elements; in low polarity solvents, there appear to be strong intramolecular interactions occurring, particularly when a 1,4-quinolinylidene-based donor is used in the ZWI component.
The appropriate use of neurostimulation: new and evolving neurostimulation therapies and applicable treatment for chronic pain and selected disease states. Neuromodulation Appropriateness Consensus Committee. - Neuromodulation : journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
The International Neuromodulation Society (INS) has determined that there is a need to provide an expert consensus that defines the appropriate use of neuromodulation technologies for appropriate patients. The Neuromodulation Appropriateness Consensus Committee (NACC) was formed to give guidance to current practice and insight into future developments.The INS executive board selected members of the international scientific community to analyze scientific evidence for current and future innovations and to use clinical experience to fill in any gaps in information. The NACC used PubMed and Google Scholar to obtain current evidence in the field and used clinical and research experience to give a more complete picture of the innovations in the field.The NACC has determined that currently approved neurostimulation techniques and technologies have expanded our ability to treat patients in a more effective and specific fashion. Despite these advances, the NACC has identified several additional promising technologies and potential applications for neurostimulation that could move this field forward and expand the applicability of neuromodulation.The NACC concludes that the field of neurostimulation is an evolving and rapidly changing one that will lead to improved patient access, safety, and outcomes.Â© 2014 International Neuromodulation Society.
The appropriate use of neurostimulation: avoidance and treatment of complications of neurostimulation therapies for the treatment of chronic pain. Neuromodulation Appropriateness Consensus Committee. - Neuromodulation : journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
The International Neuromodulation Society (INS) has determined that there is a need for guidance regarding safety and risk reduction for implantable neurostimulation devices. The INS convened an international committee of experts in the field to explore the evidence and clinical experience regarding safety, risks, and steps to risk reduction to improve outcomes.The Neuromodulation Appropriateness Consensus Committee (NACC) reviewed the world literature in English by searching MEDLINE, PubMed, and Google Scholar to evaluate the evidence for ways to reduce risks of neurostimulation therapies. This evidence, obtained from the relevant literature, and clinical experience obtained from the convened consensus panel were used to make final recommendations on improving safety and reducing risks.The NACC determined that the ability to reduce risk associated with the use of neurostimulation devices is a valuable goal and possible with best practice. The NACC has recommended several practice modifications that will lead to improved care. The NACC also sets out the minimum training standards necessary to become an implanting physician.The NACC has identified the possibility of improving patient care and safety through practice modification. We recommend that all implanting physicians review this guidance and consider adapting their practice accordingly.Â© 2014 International Neuromodulation Society.
2-(3-Cyano-4-methyl-5,5-diphenyl-5H-furan-2-yl-idene)malono-nitrile. - Acta crystallographica. Section E, Structure reports online
The title compound, C21H13N3O, crystallizes with two independent molecules with similar conformations per asymmetric unit. The dihydrofuran rings are essentially planar with maximum deviations of 0.017â€…(1) and 0.006â€…(1)â€…Ã… for the O atoms. The dihedral angles between the di-hydro-furan ring and the attached phenyl rings are 79.90â€…(6) and 82.07â€…(6)Â° in one mol-ecule and 79.36â€…(6) and 72.26â€…(6)Â° in the other. In the crystal, the molecules are linked by weak C-Hâ‹¯Ï€ and C-Hâ‹¯N inter-actions similar to those in other closely related crystals. The replacement of appended methyl by phenyl groups has not significantly affected the dihydrofuran ring structure or the crystal packing interactions.
C-Hâ‹¯Ï€ packing inter-actions in 2-[5,5-bis-(4-benzyl-oxyphen-yl)-3-cyano-4-methyl-2,5-dihydro-furan-2-yl-idene]malononitrile. - Acta crystallographica. Section E, Structure reports online
The title mol-ecule, C(35)H(25)N(3)O(3), packs utilizing C-Hâ‹¯Ï€ attractive inter-actions causing the identical 4-benzyl-oxyphenyl groups to pack with different conformational angles. This difference is consistent with the variable inter-planar dihedral angles found in closely related structures.
Gene sequences for cytochromes p450 1A1 and 1A2: the need for biomarker development in sea otters (Enhydra lutris). - Comparative biochemistry and physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & molecular biology
There has been recent public concern regarding the impacts of environmental pollution on populations of otters. Population level impacts have been seen with otter (Lutra lutra) populations in Europe due to polychlorinated biphenyls, and with some segments of the Prince William Sound, AK, sea otter (Enhydra lutris) population following the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Despite public interest in these animals and their ecological significance, there are few tools that allow for the study of otter's response to contaminant exposure. Cytochrome p450 1A (CYP1A) performs the first step in metabolizing many xenobiotics, including many polychlorinated biphenyls and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. CYP1A induction is a frequently used biomarker of exposure to these compounds. Despite the potential importance of this gene in ecological risk assessment, the complete coding sequence has not been published for any otter species. This study's objective was to isolate the gene for CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 in sea otters using a series of PCR-based approaches. The coding sequences from CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 from sea otters were identified and published in GenBank. Both CYP1A sequences are homologous to those obtained from marine mammals and other carnivores. These sequences will be useful as tools for researchers assessing contaminant exposure in mustelid populations.
Immediate and one-year post-intervention effectiveness of Maryland's lead law treatments. - Environmental research
A 1994 Maryland law prescribes a lead-based paint risk reduction standard for pre-1950, privately owned rental housing. This standard, applied at each tenancy change, can be met by sampling to verify that dust lead loadings are within acceptable limits or by performing specific lead hazard reduction treatments, followed by an independent visual inspection without dust sampling. We evaluated the ability of visual inspection to predict treatment completion and dust lead loadings. Fifty-two Baltimore housing units were enrolled and received the law-specified treatments. Before treatment, study risk assessors conducted visual assessments and dust lead wipe sampling in each unit. After treatment, Maryland-certified visual inspectors conducted the law's required visual inspection, followed by the study risk assessors, who performed a separate visual assessment and collected dust wipe samples. One year later, study risk assessors performed another visual assessment and dust wipe sampling (n=34). Dust lead loadings declined significantly immediately after prescribed lead treatments were implemented. Fifty-three percent, 20%, and 47% of units had at least one sample that exceeded 1995 EPA/HUD floor, window sill and window trough clearance guidance of 100, 500 and 800 microg/ft2, respectively. Overall, 73% of units had one or more immediate post-intervention single surface sample results exceeding the 1995 clearance values that were in effect at the time of the study. One-year post-intervention loadings remained significantly below pre-intervention levels for floors but not window sills or troughs. Visual assessments alone, without dust lead testing, did not ensure that prescribed treatments were completed or that dust lead loadings were below clearance values.
Orbital pseudotumour presenting as orbital cellulitis. - CJEM
A 33-year-old woman presented to a community emergency department with a 4-day history of monocular orbital pain, photophobia and pain on extraocular movement. Findings included chemosis, conjunctival injection and restricted extraocular movements causing strabismus. She was diagnosed with orbital cellulitis during her initial emergency department visit and treated with intravenous antibiotics. On her second ED visit later the same day, a diagnosis of orbital pseudotumour was made after computed tomography revealed inflammation of the sclera, optic nerve, muscle and adipose tissue within the orbit. Antibiotics were discontinued and tapering steroids were initiated, with prompt resolution of symptoms.
Significance of cytochrome P450 system responses and levels of bile fluorescent aromatic compounds in marine wildlife following oil spills. - Marine pollution bulletin
The relationships among cytochrome P450 induction in marine wildlife species, levels of fluorescent aromatic compounds (FAC) in their bile, the chemical composition of the inducing compounds, the significance of the exposure pathway, and any resulting injury, as a consequence of exposure to crude oil following a spill, are reviewed. Fish collected after oil spills often show increases in cytochrome P450 system activity, cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) and bile fluorescent aromatic compounds (FAC), that are correlated with exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in the oil. There is also some evidence for increases in bile FAC and induction of cytochrome P450 in marine birds and mammals after oil spills. However, when observed, increases in these exposure indicators are transitory and generally decrease to background levels within one year after the exposure. Laboratory studies have shown induction of cytochrome P450 systems occurs after exposure of fish to crude oil in water, sediment or food. Most of the PAH found in crude oil (dominantly 2- and 3-ring PAH) are not strong inducers of cytochrome P450. Exposure to the 4-ring chrysenes or the photooxidized products of the PAH may account for the cytochrome P450 responses in fish collected from oil-spill sites. The contribution of non-spill background PAH, particularly combustion-derived (pyrogenic) PAH, to bile FAC and cytochrome P450 system responses can be confounding and needs to be considered when evaluating oil spill effects. The ubiquity of pyrogenic PAH makes it important to fully characterize all sources of PAH, including PAH from natural resources, e.g. retene, in oil spill studies. In addition, such parameters as species, sex, age, ambient temperature and season need to be taken into account. While increases in fish bile FAC and cytochrome P450 system responses, can together, be sensitive general indicators of PAH exposure after an oil spill, there is little unequivocal evidence to suggest a linkage to higher order biological effects, e.g. toxicity, lesions, reproductive failure.
Regional comparisons of coastal sediment contamination detected by a biomarker (P450 HRGS; EPA Method 4425). - Environmental science & technology
Pollution investigations by the Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) have been conducted since 1984 and have incorporated extensive biological and chemical analyses. Since 1993, one of the biological tests utilized in these studies has been the biomarker P450HRGS, which is more recently described as EPA Method 4425. Extracts of sediments are applied to a human cell line with a reporter gene (firefly luciferase) at the CYP1A1 site. Light produced by the extracts is a function of the concentrations and potencies of those compounds with an affinity for Ah-receptor (certain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, and dioxins/ furans). These compounds are carcinogenic and can produce chronic toxicity, and those containing chlorine are persistent and bioaccumulated. Nineteen coastal regions and 1309 samples from the three U.S. coasts have been evaluated as part of the NOAA investigations. The stratified random sampling approach used by NOAA provides estimates of the areas (km2) of each region containing levels of the compounds above thresholds. From analysis of the database, sediments with concentrations at or below 11 microg benzo[a]pyrene equivalents (B[a]PEq)/g would not be expected to produce effects on the benthos. At 32 microg B[a]PEq/g and above there is the potential for impacts on the biota, and above 60 microg/g, the degradation of the benthic community has been observed. Several of the regional surveys found no samples at or above 60 microg B[a]PEq/g, but 60% of the samples from New York Harbor (280 km2) were above this level. Analyses of data from Puget Sound and Chesapeake Bay demonstrate an increase in samples above 32 microg B[a]PEq/g in more populated and industrial regions. Method 4425 serves as both a biomarker, simulating the response of an organism (with CYP1A) exposed to inducing compounds, and as a bioanalytical technique measuring the levels of these chemicals in the samples. A targeted investigation of the distribution of the three important classes of compounds identified by Method 4425 would be more cost-effective by first screening samples by this method before expending substantial funds in the detailed chemical analysis of all samples.
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226 E 29Th St Unit B Loveland, CO 80538
2500 Rocky Mountain Ave Ste 100
2500 Rocky Mountain Ave
1900 Boise Ave Suite 200