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The Global Burden of Potential Productivity Loss from Uncorrected Presbyopia. - Ophthalmology
The onset of presbyopia in middle adulthood results in potential losses in productivity among otherwise healthy adults if uncorrected or undercorrected. The economic burden could be significant in lower-income countries, where up to 94% of cases may be uncorrected or undercorrected. This study estimates the global burden of potential productivity lost because of uncorrected functional presbyopia.Population data from the US Census Bureau were combined with the estimated presbyopia prevalence, age of onset, employment rate, gross domestic product (GDP) per capita in current US dollars, and near vision impairment disability weights from the Global Burden of Disease 2010 study to estimate the global loss of productivity from uncorrected and undercorrected presbyopia in each country in 2011. To allow comparison with earlier work, we also calculated the loss with the conservative assumption that the contribution to productivity extends only up to 50 years of age.The economic modeling did not require the use of subjects.We estimated the number of cases of uncorrected or undercorrected presbyopia in each country among the working-age population. The number of working-age cases was multiplied by the labor force participation rate, the employment rate, a disability weight, and the GDP per capita to estimate the potential loss of GDP due to presbyopia.The outcome being measured is the lost productivity in 2011 US dollars resulting from uncorrected or undercorrected presbyopia.There were an estimated 1.272 billion cases of presbyopia worldwide in 2011. A total of 244 million cases, uncorrected or undercorrected among people aged <50 years, were associated with a potential productivity loss of US $11.023 billion (0.016% of global GDP). If all those people aged <65 years are assumed to be productive, the potential productivity loss would be US $25.367 billion or 0.037% of global GDP. Correcting presbyopia to the level achieved in Europe would reduce the burden to US $1.390 billion (0.002% of global GDP).Even with conservative assumptions regarding the productive population, presbyopia is a significant burden on productivity, and correction would have a significant impact on productivity in lower-income countries.Copyright Â© 2015 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Topography of inferior epigastric artery relevant to laparoscopy: a CT angiographic study. - Surgical and radiologic anatomy : SRA
The incidence of inferior epigastric artery (IEA) injury is 0.2-2Â %. The aim of this study was to trace the position and course of the inferior epigastric artery in the anterior abdominal wall above the inguinal ligament at three important landmarks, i.e., at the mid-inguinal point, Anterior Superior Iliac Spine (ASIS) and umbilicus in abdominal CT Angiograms. The study also correlates the relationship of body build and the position of the inferior epigastric artery.In 50 CT Abdominal angiograms, the course of the inferior epigastric artery was traced and distance between the artery and midline was measured at the above landmarks using measurement tool on the picture archival and communication system. The measurements were analyzed using SPSS version 16 and expressed as mean and standard deviation. Mann-Whitney test was used to compare the mean values and ratios in males and females. Linear regression was done to derive formulas by which the position of the inferior epigastric artery could be found.The mean distance of the inferior epigastric artery from the midline was 5.17Â Â±Â 0.93Â cm at the level of mid-inguinal point, 4.57Â Â±Â 1.05Â cm at the level of ASIS and 5.27Â Â±Â 1.17Â cm at the level of umbilicus. There was a definitive predictive pattern in the course of the artery as seen in correlation and regression analysis.The security distance for safe trocar placement was 6Â cm at the level of ASIS and 9Â cm at the level of umbilicus. Preoperative IEA assessment is helpful in reducing injuries to IEA.
Plant selection for ethnobotanical uses on the Amalfi Coast (Southern Italy). - Journal of ethnobiology and ethnomedicine
Many ethnobotanical studies have investigated selection criteria for medicinal and non-medicinal plants. In this paper we test several statistical methods using different ethnobotanical datasets in order to 1) define to which extent the nature of the datasets can affect the interpretation of results; 2) determine if the selection for different plant uses is based on phylogeny, or other selection criteria.We considered three different ethnobotanical datasets: two datasets of medicinal plants and a dataset of non-medicinal plants (handicraft production, domestic and agro-pastoral practices) and two floras of the Amalfi Coast. We performed residual analysis from linear regression, the binomial test and the Bayesian approach for calculating under-used and over-used plant families within ethnobotanical datasets. Percentages of agreement were calculated to compare the results of the analyses. We also analyzed the relationship between plant selection and phylogeny, chorology, life form and habitat using the chi-square test. Pearson's residuals for each of the significant chi-square analyses were examined for investigating alternative hypotheses of plant selection criteria.The three statistical analysis methods differed within the same dataset, and between different datasets and floras, but with some similarities. In the two medicinal datasets, only Lamiaceae was identified in both floras as an over-used family by all three statistical methods. All statistical methods in one flora agreed that Malvaceae was over-used and Poaceae under-used, but this was not found to be consistent with results of the second flora in which one statistical result was non-significant. All other families had some discrepancy in significance across methods, or floras. Significant over- or under-use was observed in only a minority of cases. The chi-square analyses were significant for phylogeny, life form and habitat. Pearson's residuals indicated a non-random selection of woody species for non-medicinal uses and an under-use of plants of temperate forests for medicinal uses.Our study showed that selection criteria for plant uses (including medicinal) are not always based on phylogeny. The comparison of different statistical methods (regression, binomial and Bayesian) under different conditions led to the conclusion that the most conservative results are obtained using regression analysis.
Maskless Lithography and in situ Visualization of Conductivity of Graphene using Helium Ion Microscopy. - Scientific reports
The remarkable mechanical and electronic properties of graphene make it an ideal candidate for next generation nanoelectronics. With the recent development of commercial-level single-crystal graphene layers, the potential for manufacturing household graphene-based devices has improved, but significant challenges still remain with regards to patterning the graphene into devices. In the case of graphene supported on a substrate, traditional nanofabrication techniques such as e-beam lithography (EBL) are often used in fabricating graphene nanoribbons but the multi-step processes they require can result in contamination of the graphene with resists and solvents. In this letter, we report the utility of scanning helium ion lithography for fabricating functional graphene nanoconductors that are supported directly on a silicon dioxide layer, and we measure the minimum feature size achievable due to limitations imposed by thermal fluctuations and ion scattering during the milling process. Further we demonstrate that ion beams, due to their positive charging nature, may be used to observe and test the conductivity of graphene-based nanoelectronic devices in situ.
Molecular cloning and characterization of brain and ovarian cytochrome P450 aromatase genes in the catfish Heteropneustes fossilis: Sex, tissue and seasonal variation in, and effects of gonadotropin on gene expression. - General and comparative endocrinology
Cytochrome P450 aromatase (Cyp19arom) is the rate-limiting enzyme controlling estrogen biosynthesis, coded by Cyp19a1 in most gnathostomes. Most teleosts have two forms expressed differentially in ovary (cyp19a1a) and neural tissue (cyp19a1b). In this study, full length cDNAs of 2006bp and 1913bp with ORFs of 1575bp and 1488bp were isolated from the brain and ovary, respectively, of the catfish Heteropneustes fossilis, an air-breathing species with high aquaculture potential. The ORFs encode predicted proteins of 495 and 524 amino acid residues, respectively. The proteins show 62% identity with each other and cluster in two distinct clades (the brain type and ovary type) in the teleost taxon, separated from the tetrapod type. In the in situ localization study, both cyp19a1a and cyp19a1b transcripts were localized in the brain but the signal intensity was higher for the brain type paralog. The transcript signals were observed in the radial glial cells and in neuronal populations of the dorso-lateral region of the telencephalon, pre-tectum, hypothalamus and medulla oblongata. In the ovary, both paralogs were expressed in the follicular layer with a high signal intensity of the ovarian type (cyp19a1a). The differential expression of the gene paralogs was evident from qPCR analysis. Cyp19a1b has relatively a high abundance in the female brain, followed by other peripheral tissues (gonads, liver, gill, kidney and muscle). On the other hand, cyp19a1a has relatively a high transcript abundance in the ovary and female brain, followed by the testis and male brain, and female liver and muscle. The expression was low in male liver and muscle, and the lowest in the gill and kidney. The expression of the two paralogs exhibit brain regional differences; both types have relatively a high transcript abundance in telencephalon-preoptic area with the cyp19a1b expression higher in females than males. In hypothalamus, the expression of both types is higher in males than females. In medulla, the expression of the cyp19a1b is higher than cyp19a1a, and the transcript abundance of the ovarian type is higher in females than males. The expression of the gene paralogs elicits significant seasonal variations in the ovary and brain. In both tissues, the expression increases from the resting to preparatory phases, and decreases through the prespawning phase to low levels in spawning phase. In vivo and/or in vitro treatments with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) stimulated the expression of the gene paralogs in the brain and ovary, time-dependently. In conclusion, both paralogs have an overlapping distribution at different levels of the brain-pituitary-gonad axis and may function as a single functional unit as far as the estrogen synthesis is concerned.Copyright Â© 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Development and validation of two screening assays for the HCV NS3 Q80K polymorphism associated with reduced response to combination treatment regimens containing simeprevir. - Journal of clinical microbiology
Persons with Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) genotype 1a (GT1a) infections harbouring a baseline Q80K polymorphism in NS3 have a reduced virologic response to simeprevir in combination with pegylated interferon-alfa and ribavirin. We aimed to develop, validate, and freely disseminate a NS3 clinical sequencing assay to detect Q80K and potentially other HCV NS3 drug resistance mutations.HCV RNA was extracted from frozen plasma using a NucliSENS easyMAG, amplified by nested RT-PCR and sequenced by Sanger and/or next-generation (MiSeq) methods. Sanger chromatograms were analyzed using in-house software (RECall) and nucleotide mixtures were called automatically. MiSeq reads were iteratively mapped to the H77 reference and consensus NS3 sequences were generated with nucleotides present at >20% called as mixtures. The accuracy, precision and sensitivity in detecting Q80K were assessed in 70 samples previously sequenced by an external laboratory.Comparison of sequences generated by the Sanger and MiSeq methods to those determined by an external lab revealed >98.5% nucleotide sequence concordance and zero discordant calls of Q80K. Results were both highly repeatable and reproducible (>99.7% nucleotide concordance; 100% Q80K concordance). The limits of detection (>2 and âˆ¼5 log10 IU/mL for the Sanger and MiSeq assays, respectively) are sufficiently low to allow genotyping in nearly all chronically-infected, treatment-naÃ¯ve persons. No systematic bias in the under- or over-amplification of minority variants was observed. Co-infection with other viruses (e.g. HIV, HBV) did not affect assay results.The two independent HCV NS3 sequencing assays with automated analysis procedures described here are useful tools to screen for the Q80K polymorphism and other HCV protease inhibitor drug resistance mutations.Copyright Â© 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
Effect of Minimalist Footwear on Running Efficiency: A Randomized Crossover Trial. - Sports health
Although minimalist footwear is increasingly popular among runners, claims that minimalist footwear enhances running biomechanics and efficiency are controversial.Minimalist and barefoot conditions improve running efficiency when compared with traditional running shoes.Randomized crossover trial.Level 3.Fifteen experienced runners each completed three 90-second running trials on a treadmill, each trial performed in a different type of footwear: traditional running shoes with a heavily cushioned heel, minimalist running shoes with minimal heel cushioning, and barefoot (socked). High-speed photography was used to determine foot strike, ground contact time, knee angle, and stride cadence with each footwear type.Runners had more rearfoot strikes in traditional shoes (87%) compared with minimalist shoes (67%) and socked (40%) (P = 0.03). Ground contact time was longest in traditional shoes (265.9 Â± 10.9 ms) when compared with minimalist shoes (253.4 Â± 11.2 ms) and socked (250.6 Â± 16.2 ms) (P = 0.005). There was no difference between groups with respect to knee angle (P = 0.37) or stride cadence (P = 0.20). When comparing running socked to running with minimalist running shoes, there were no differences in measures of running efficiency.When compared with running in traditional, cushioned shoes, both barefoot (socked) running and minimalist running shoes produce greater running efficiency in some experienced runners, with a greater tendency toward a midfoot or forefoot strike and a shorter ground contact time. Minimalist shoes closely approximate socked running in the 4 measurements performed.With regard to running efficiency and biomechanics, in some runners, barefoot (socked) and minimalist footwear are preferable to traditional running shoes.
Effect of vitamin E supplementation or alfalfa grazing on fatty acid composition and expression of genes related to lipid metabolism in lambs. - Journal of animal science
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of vitamin E (VE) supplementation and alfalfa grazing during fattening on fatty acid composition and mRNA expression of genes related to lipid metabolism in the LM of Rasa Aragonesa light lambs. After weaning, 48 lambs were kept indoors and fed a commercial concentrate and a VE supplemented concentrate (480 mg -Î±-tocopheryl acetate/kg DM) for 0 (control [CON]), 10 (VE10d), 20 (VE20d), and 30 d (VE30d) before slaughtering at 22 to 24 kg. Simultaneously, 8 unweaned lambs grazed in alfalfa (154 mg Î±-tocopherol/kg DM) paddocks with their dams and supplemented with the commercial concentrate (ALF). Immediately after slaughter, LM was sampled to determine gene expression. After 24 h of cooling at 4Â°C, LM was extracted to determine intramuscular fat (IMF) content and fatty acid composition. The IMF content did not differ with the dietary treatment ( = 0.212). Unweaned grazing alfalfa lambs had greater concentration of rumenic acid (C18:2 9,11; < 0.001) and lower oleic acid (C18:1 9; = 0.001) content and PUFA -6:-3 ratio ( < 0.001) but similar expression of genes implicated in lipid metabolism compared to the concentrate-fed lambs. Vitamin E supplementation did not modify muscle fatty acid composition; however, it increased the expression of and , which are involved in desaturation of long-chain fatty acid and the elongation of SFA and MUFA. The results showed that a short period of VE supplementation, especially 10 (VE10d) and 20 d (VE20d), modified gene expression. Overall, the results showed that VE may be acting as a regulatory factor for transcriptional control of genes related to lipid metabolism in the muscle of Rasa Aragonesa light lambs (22-24 kg live weight and younger than 90 d old).
Dietary calcium and zinc deficiency risks are decreasing but remain prevalent. - Scientific reports
Globally, more than 800 million people are undernourished while >2 billion people have one or more chronic micronutrient deficiencies (MNDs). More than 6% of global mortality and morbidity burdens are associated with undernourishment and MNDs. Here we show that, in 2011, 3.5 and 1.1 billion people were at risk of calcium (Ca) and zinc (Zn) deficiency respectively due to inadequate dietary supply. The global mean dietary supply of Ca and Zn in 2011 was 684â€‰Â±â€‰211 and 16â€‰Â±â€‰3 mg capita(-1) d(-1) (Â±SD) respectively. Between 1992 and 2011, global risk of deficiency of Ca and Zn decreased from 76 to 51%, and 22 to 16%, respectively. Approximately 90% of those at risk of Ca and Zn deficiency in 2011 were in Africa and Asia. To our knowledge, these are the first global estimates of dietary Ca deficiency risks based on food supply. We conclude that continuing to reduce Ca and Zn deficiency risks through dietary diversification and food and agricultural interventions including fortification, crop breeding and use of micronutrient fertilisers will remain a significant challenge.
Double-Duct Sign in the Clinical Context. - Pancreas
Double-duct sign (combined dilatation of the common bile duct and pancreatic duct) is an infrequently encountered finding in cross-sectional radiological imaging of the pancreatobiliary system. This sign is commonly deemed to signify on ominous pathology and suggests the presence of pancreatic or biliary malignancy.We aim to correlate double-duct sign discovered on magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatogram (MRCP) in the clinical context. We retrospectively analyzed MRCP database over a period of 4 years, January 2010 to December 2013. Follow-up information was available for a median of 27 months (range, 12-42 months)The commonest cause of double-duct sign was choledocholithiasis followed closely by pancreatobiliary malignancy. Patients with jaundice in the context of double-duct sign had a higher incidence of malignancy (48%). None of the anicteric patients were found to have malignancy (P = 0.002).In patients with MRCP evidence of double-duct sign, the absence of jaundice makes a malignant etiology unlikely. Conversely, in jaundiced patients, a malignant cause is much more likely. Figures from larger series are needed to support this conclusion.
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