406 Chaise Ln
Eagleville PA 19403
Medical School: Other - Unknown
Accepts Medicare: No
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License #: DC005843L
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Aryl hydrocarbon receptor deficiency causes dysregulated cellular matrix metabolism and age-related macular degeneration-like pathology. - Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a nuclear receptor that regulates xenobiotic metabolism and detoxification. Herein, we report a previously undescribed role for the AhR signaling pathway as an essential defense mechanism in the pathogenesis of early dry age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the leading cause of vision loss in the elderly. We found that AhR activity and protein levels in human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells, cells vulnerable in AMD, decrease with age. This finding is significant given that age is the most established risk factor for development of AMD. Moreover, AhR(-/-) mice exhibit decreased visual function and develop dry AMD-like pathology, including disrupted RPE cell tight junctions, accumulation of RPE cell lipofuscin, basal laminar and linear-like deposit material, Bruch's membrane thickening, and progressive RPE and choroidal atrophy. High-serum low-density lipoprotein levels were also observed in AhR(-/-) mice. In its oxidized form, this lipoprotein can stimulate increased secretion of extracellular matrix molecules commonly found in deposits from RPE cells, in an AhR-dependent manner. This study demonstrates the importance of cellular clearance via the AhR signaling pathway in dry AMD pathogenesis, implicating AhR as a potential target, and the mouse model as a useful platform for validating future therapies.
Report of the task force on designing clinical trials in early (predementia) AD. - Neurology
A large number of promising candidate disease-modifying treatments for Alzheimer disease (AD) continue to advance into phase II and phase III testing. However, most completed trials have failed to demonstrate efficacy, and there is growing concern that methodologic difficulties may contribute to these clinical trial failures. The optimal time to intervene with such treatments is probably in the years prior to the onset of dementia, before the neuropathology has progressed to the advanced stage corresponding to clinical dementia.An international task force of individuals from academia, industry, nonprofit foundations, and regulatory agencies was convened to discuss optimal trial design in early (predementia) AD.General consensus was reached on key principles involving the scope of the AD diagnosis, the selection of subjects for trials, outcome measures, and analytical methods.A consensus has been achieved in support of the testing of candidate treatments in the early (predementia) AD population.
Specific impairments in visuospatial working and short-term memory following low-dose scopolamine challenge in healthy older adults. - Neuropsychologia
Scopolamine-induced deficits in cognitive and motor processes have been widely demonstrated in animals and humans, although the role of acetylcholine in working memory is not as well understood. This study examined the role of acetylcholine neurotransmission in visuospatial short term and working memory using the Groton Maze Learning Test (GMLT). The GMLT is a computerized hidden maze learning test that yields measures of component cognitive processes such as spatial memory, working memory, and visuomotor function, as well as their integration in trial-and-error problem solving. Healthy older adults were administered scopolamine (0.3 mg subcutaneous), the acetlycholinesterase inhibitor donepezil (5 mg oral), scopolamine with donepezil, or placebo. Compared to placebo, low-dose scopolamine led to performance deficits on all measures of the GMLT. The greatest scopolamine-induced deficits were observed in errors reflecting working memory processes (e.g., perseverative errors d=-2.98, and rule-break errors d=-2.49) and these impairments remained robust when statistical models accounted for scopolamine-related slowing in visuomotor speed. Co-administration of donepezil partially ameliorated scopolamine-related impairments and this effect was greatest for measures of working memory than short-term memory. By itself, donepezil was associated with a small improvement in visuomotor function. These results suggest that scopolamine disrupts processes required for rule maintenance and performance monitoring, in combination with visuomotor slowing and sequential location learning.
Nicotine reduces A beta in the brain and cerebral vessels of APPsw mice. - The European journal of neuroscience
Ten days treatment with nicotine reduced insoluble amyloid A beta 1-40 and Alpha beta 1-42 peptides by 80% in the cortex of 9-month-old APPsw mice, which is more than that observed in 14.5-month-old mice following nicotine treatment for 5.5 months. A reduction in A beta associated with cerebral vessels was observed in addition to that deposited as parenchymal plaques after 5.5 months treatment. The diminution in A beta peptides observed was not accompanied by changes in brain alpha, beta or gamma secretase-like activities, NGF or BDNF protein expression measured in brain homogenates. A significant increase in sAPP was observed after nicotine treatment of SH-SY5Yneuroblastoma cells that could be blocked by the nicotinic antagonist mecamylamine. Attenuation of elevated [(125)I]-alpha bungarotoxin binding (alpha 7) in APPsw mice was observed after 5.5 months nicotine treatment. Both these observations suggest that the reduction in insoluble A beta by nicotine might be in part mediated via the alpha 7 nicotinic receptor. Further studies are required to identify potential mechanisms of the nicotine's amyloid-reducing effect.
Nitric oxide reverses aspirin antagonism of t-PA thrombolysis in a rabbit model of thromboembolic stroke. - Experimental neurology
Randomized trials of thrombolytic therapy in stroke have reported an improvement in neurologic outcome; however, the addition of aspirin has resulted in a significant increase in mortality and antagonism of clot lysis in clinical and animal studies, respectively. This finding is in contradistinction to the known synergy in mortality reduction for aspirin and thrombolytics in myocardial infarction. It is hypothesized that aspirin antagonism of clot lysis is related to inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) and may be reversed by providing a source of NO. Twenty rabbits were treated with aspirin (20 mg/kg, i.v.) prior to internal carotid clot embolization. One-half hour following embolization, rabbits were randomized to receive vehicle (n = 5), the NO precursor L-arginine (300 mg/kg, i.v. bolus at 0.5 and 2.5 h postembolus; n = 5), or a nitric oxide donor (nitroprusside, 1 mg/kg/h, i.a., or nitroglycerin, 10 microg/kg/min, i.v., n = 5 each agent). Tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) (6.3 mg/kg) was administered from 1 to 3 h after embolization. Lysis of the tin-tagged clot was followed with serial X rays and gross examination. No rabbit in the control group experienced complete clot lysis. However, 2 of 5 rabbits in the L-arginine group and 6 of 10 rabbits in the nitric oxide donor (nitroprusside and nitroglycerin) groups noted complete clot lysis (P < 0.05, Fisher exact test). Thus, administration of an NO donor (nitroglycerin or nitroprusside) and, to a lesser extent L-arginine, reversed aspirin's antagonism of t-PA thrombolysis. This study may help explain the discrepant results seen with aspirin and thrombolytics.
Intravenous aspirin causes a paradoxical attenuation of cerebrovascular thrombolysis. - Stroke; a journal of cerebral circulation
Aspirin treatment is recognized as an advantageous adjunct to thrombolytic agents in myocardial infarct patients. In this study we examined the effects of aspirin on the rate of clot lysis and on the frequency and extent of hemorrhagic transformations in rabbit models of embolic stroke.Rabbit models of ex vivo platelet aggregation and cutaneous template bleeding times were used to show the anticoagulant effects of aspirin in our experimental paradigm. We monitored tissue-type plasminogen activator (TPA)-induced clot lysis in two rabbit models of embolic stroke by (1) scintigraphically following the dissolution of a 99mTc-tagged clot or (2) using roentgenography to follow the disappearance of an Sn-tagged clot.In animals pretreated (18 hours) with a single administration of aspirin (1, 5, or 20 mg/kg IV) or 1 mg/kg per day for 3 days, the aggregation response of platelets to collagen (3.3 micrograms/mL) or arachidonic acid (0.5 mmol/L) was attenuated. High-dose aspirin also increased ear template bleeding time from 1.6 to 2.6 minutes. When aspirin (20 mg/kg) was administered 18 hours before embolism and subsequent lysis with TPA (0.3 mg/kg bolus; 3 mg/kg per hour IV), the pretreatment significantly antagonized the rate and extent of TPA-induced clot lysis by up to 70%. This was confirmed in a second embolic stroke model. The suppression of TPA-induced lysis was reversed by administration of the prostacyclin analogue iloprost (10 micrograms/kg per hour) directly into the cerebral circulation.We conclude that aspirin reduces the effects of TPA in embolic stroke models. This effect may be the result of a loss of endothelial prostacyclin production since the effect is reversed by iloprost.
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406 Chaise Ln Eagleville, PA 19403
50 Beech Dr
3055 Ridge Pike Suite 200
Eagleville, PA 19403