Dr. Raymond  Skunda  Md image

Dr. Raymond Skunda Md

920 Sl Young Blvd
Oklahoma City OK 73104
405 714-4426
Medical School: Other - Unknown
Accepts Medicare: No
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License #: 29927
NPI: 1144664962
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Identification of Novel Zoonotic Activity of Bartonella spp., France. - Emerging infectious diseases
Certain Bartonella species are known to cause afebrile bacteremia in humans and other mammals, including B. quintana, the agent of trench fever, and B. henselae, the agent of cat scratch disease. Reports have indicated that animal-associated Bartonella species may cause paucisymptomatic bacteremia and endocarditis in humans. We identified potentially zoonotic strains from 6 Bartonella species in samples from patients who had chronic, subjective symptoms and who reported tick bites. Three strains were B. henselae and 3 were from other animal-associated Bartonella spp. (B. doshiae, B. schoenbuchensis, and B. tribocorum). Genomic analysis of the isolated strains revealed differences from previously sequenced Bartonella strains. Our investigation identifed 3 novel Bartonella spp. strains with human pathogenic potential and showed that Bartonella spp. may be the cause of undifferentiated chronic illness in humans who have been bitten by ticks.
Econazole Imprinted Textiles with Antifungal Activity. - European journal of pharmaceutics and biopharmaceutics : official journal of Arbeitsgemeinschaft fur Pharmazeutische Verfahrenstechnik e.V
In this work, we propose pharmaceutical textiles imprinted with lipid microparticles of Econazole nitrate (ECN) as a mean to improve patient compliance while maintaining drug activity. Lipid microparticles were prepared and characterized by laser diffraction (3.5±0.1 μm). Using an optimized screen-printing method, microparticles were deposited on textiles, as observed by Scanning Electron Microscopy. The drug content of textiles (97±3 μg/cm(2)) was reproducible and stable up to 4 months storage at 25°C/65% Relative Humidity. Imprinted textiles exhibited a thermosensitive behavior, as witnessed by a fusion temperature of 34.8°C, which enabled a larger drug release at 32°C (temperature of the skin) than at room temperature. In vitro antifungal activity of ECN textiles was compared to commercial 1% (w/w) ECN cream Pevaryl(®). ECN textiles maintained their antifungal activity against a broad range of Candida species as well as major dermatophyte species. In vivo, ECN textiles also preserved the antifungal efficacy of ECN on cutaneous candidiasis infection in mice. Ex vivo percutaneous absorption studies demonstrated that ECN released from pharmaceutical textiles concentrated more in the upper skin layers, where the fungal infections develop, as compared to dermal absorption of Pevaryl(®). Overall, these results showed that this technology is promising to develop pharmaceutical garments textiles for the treatment of superficial fungal infections.Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Post-translational processing targets functionally diverse proteins in Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae. - Open biology
Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is a genome-reduced, cell wall-less, bacterial pathogen with a predicted coding capacity of less than 700 proteins and is one of the smallest self-replicating pathogens. The cell surface of M. hyopneumoniae is extensively modified by processing events that target the P97 and P102 adhesin families. Here, we present analyses of the proteome of M. hyopneumoniae-type strain J using protein-centric approaches (one- and two-dimensional GeLC-MS/MS) that enabled us to focus on global processing events in this species. While these approaches only identified 52% of the predicted proteome (347 proteins), our analyses identified 35 surface-associated proteins with widely divergent functions that were targets of unusual endoproteolytic processing events, including cell adhesins, lipoproteins and proteins with canonical functions in the cytosol that moonlight on the cell surface. Affinity chromatography assays that separately used heparin, fibronectin, actin and host epithelial cell surface proteins as bait recovered cleavage products derived from these processed proteins, suggesting these fragments interact directly with the bait proteins and display previously unrecognized adhesive functions. We hypothesize that protein processing is underestimated as a post-translational modification in genome-reduced bacteria and prokaryotes more broadly, and represents an important mechanism for creating cell surface protein diversity.© 2016 The Authors.
Glucocerebrosidase enzyme activity in GBA mutation Parkinson's disease. - Journal of clinical neuroscience : official journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
Mutations in the glucocerebrosidase (GBA1) gene, the most common genetic contributor to Parkinson's disease (PD), are associated with an increased risk of PD in heterozygous and homozygous carriers. While glucocerebrosidase enzyme (GCase) activity is consistently low in Gaucher disease, there is a range of leukocyte GCase activity in healthy heterozygous GBA1 mutation carriers. To determine whether GCase activity may be a marker for PD with heterozygous GBA1 mutations (GBA1 mutation PD, GBA PD), GBA PD patients (n=15) were compared to PD patients without heterozygous GBA1 mutations (idiopathic PD; n=8), heterozygous GBA1 carriers without PD (asymptomatic carriers; n=4), and biallelic mutation carriers with PD (Gaucher disease with PD, GD1 PD; n=3) in a pilot study. GCase activity (nmol/mg protein/hour) in GD1 PD (median [interquartile range]; minimum-maximum: 6.4 [5.7]; 5.3-11) was lower than that of GBA PD (16.0 [7.0]; 11-40) (p=0.01), while GCase activity in GBA PD was lower than idiopathic PD (28.5 [15.0]; 16-56) (p=0.01) and asymptomatic carriers (25.5 [2.5]; 23-27) (p=0.04). Therefore, GCase activity appears to be a possible marker of heterozygous GBA1 mutation PD, and larger studies are warranted. Prospective studies are also necessary to determine whether lower GCase activity precedes development of PD.Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Measurement of differential cross sections for Higgs boson production in the diphoton decay channel in pp collisions at [Formula: see text]. - The European physical journal. C, Particles and fields
A measurement is presented of differential cross sections for Higgs boson (H) production in pp collisions at [Formula: see text][Formula: see text]. The analysis exploits the [Formula: see text] decay in data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.7[Formula: see text] collected by the CMS experiment at the LHC. The cross section is measured as a function of the kinematic properties of the diphoton system and of the associated jets. Results corrected for detector effects are compared with predictions at next-to-leading order and next-to-next-to-leading order in perturbative quantum chromodynamics, as well as with predictions beyond the standard model. For isolated photons with pseudorapidities [Formula: see text], and with the photon of largest and next-to-largest transverse momentum ([Formula: see text]) divided by the diphoton mass [Formula: see text] satisfying the respective conditions of [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text], the total fiducial cross section is [Formula: see text][Formula: see text].
Search for flavour-changing neutral current top-quark decays to [Formula: see text] in [Formula: see text] collision data collected with the ATLAS detector at [Formula: see text] TeV. - The European physical journal. C, Particles and fields
A search for the flavour-changing neutral-current decay [Formula: see text] is presented. Data collected by the ATLAS detector during 2012 from proton-proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider at a centre-of-mass energy of [Formula: see text] TeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 20.3 fb[Formula: see text], are analysed. Top-quark pair-production events with one top quark decaying through the [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]) channel and the other through the dominant Standard Model mode [Formula: see text] are considered as signal. Only the decays of the Z boson to charged leptons and leptonic W boson decays are used. No evidence for a signal is found and an observed (expected) upper limit on the [Formula: see text] branching ratio of [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]) is set at the 95 % confidence level.
Study of B Meson Production in p+Pb Collisions at sqrt[s_{NN}]=5.02  TeV Using Exclusive Hadronic Decays. - Physical review letters
The production cross sections of the B^{+}, B^{0}, and B_{s}^{0} mesons, and of their charge conjugates, are measured via exclusive hadronic decays in p+Pb collisions at the center-of-mass energy sqrt[s_{NN}]=5.02  TeV with the CMS detector at the CERN LHC. The data set used for this analysis corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 34.6  nb^{-1}. The production cross sections are measured in the transverse momentum range between 10 and 60  GeV/c. No significant modification is observed compared to proton-proton perturbative QCD calculations scaled by the number of incoherent nucleon-nucleon collisions. These results provide a baseline for the study of in-medium b quark energy loss in Pb+Pb collisions.
Salivary Cortisol Levels and Depressive Symptomatology in Consumers and Nonconsumers of Self-Help Books: A Pilot Study. - Neural plasticity
The self-help industry generates billions of dollars yearly in North America. Despite the popularity of this movement, there has been surprisingly little research assessing the characteristics of self-help books consumers, and whether this consumption is associated with physiological and/or psychological markers of stress. The goal of this pilot study was to perform the first psychoneuroendocrine analysis of consumers of self-help books in comparison to nonconsumers. We tested diurnal and reactive salivary cortisol levels, personality, and depressive symptoms in 32 consumers and nonconsumers of self-help books. In an explorative secondary analysis, we also split consumers of self-help books as a function of their preference for problem-focused versus growth-oriented self-help books. The results showed that while consumers of growth-oriented self-help books presented increased cortisol reactivity to a psychosocial stressor compared to other groups, consumers of problem-focused self-help books presented higher depressive symptomatology. The results of this pilot study show that consumers with preference for either problem-focused or growth-oriented self-help books present different physiological and psychological markers of stress when compared to nonconsumers of self-help books. This preliminary study underlines the need for additional research on this issue in order to determine the impact the self-help book industry may have on consumers' stress.
A Model-Based Approach to Assess the Exposure-Response Relationship of Lorenzo's Oil in Adrenoleukodystrophy. - British journal of clinical pharmacology
X-linked Adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is a peroxisomal disorder, most commonly affecting boys, associated with increased very long chain fatty acids (C26:0) in all tissues, causing cerebral demyelination and adrenocortical insufficiency. Certain monounsaturated long chain fatty acids including oleic and erucic acids, known as Lorenzo's oil (LO), lower plasma C26:0 levels. The aims of this study were to characterize the effect of LO administration on plasma C26:0 concentrations and to determine whether there is an association between plasma concentrations of erucic acid or C26:0 and the likelihood of developing brain MRI abnormalities in asymptomatic boys.Non-linear mixed effects modeling was performed on 2384 samples collected during an open-label single-arm trial. The subjects (n=104) were administered LO daily at ~2-3mg/kg with a mean follow-up of 4.88±2.76 years. The effect of erucic acid exposure on plasma C26:0 concentrations was characterized by an inhibitory fractional Emax model. Weibull model was used to characterize the time-to-developing MRI abnormality.The population estimate for the fractional maximum reduction of C26:0 plasma concentrations was 0.76 (bootstrap 95% CI: 0.73-0.793). Our time-to-event analyses showed that every mg/l increase in time-weighted average of erucic acid, and C26:0 plasma concentrations was respectively associated with a 3.7% reduction, and a 753% increase in the hazard of developing MRI abnormality; however, the results were not significant (p=0.5344, 0.1509, respectively).LO administration significantly reduces the abnormally high plasma C26:0 concentrations in X-ALD patients. Further studies to evaluate the effect of LO on the likelihood of developing brain MRI abnormality are warranted.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
On-chip acoustophoretic isolation of microflora including S. typhimurium from raw chicken, beef and blood samples. - Journal of microbiological methods
Pathogen analysis in food samples routinely involves lengthy growth-based pre-enrichment and selective enrichment of food matrices to increase the ratio of pathogen to background flora. Similarly, for blood culture analysis, pathogens must be isolated and enriched from large excess of blood cells to allow further analysis. Conventional techniques of centrifugation and filtration are cumbersome, suffer from low sample throughput, are not readily amenable to automation and carry a risk of damaging biological samples. We report on-chip acoustophoresis as a pre-analytical technique for the resolution of total microbial flora from food and blood samples. The resulting 'clarified' sample is expected to increase the performance of downstream systems for the specific detection of the pathogens. A microfluidic chip with three inlets, a central separation channel and three outlets was utilized. Samples were introduced through the side inlets, buffer through the central inlet. Upon ultrasound actuation, large debris particles (10-100μm) from meat samples were continuously partitioned into the central buffer channel, leaving the "clarified" outer sample streams containing both, the pathogenic cells and the background flora (ca. 1μm) to be collected over a 30min operation cycle before further analysis. The system was successfully tested with Salmonella typhimurium-spiked (ca. 10(3)CFUmL(-1)) samples of chicken and minced beef, demonstrating a high level of the pathogen recovery (60-90%). When applied to S. typhimurium contaminated blood samples (10(7)CFUmL(-1)), acoustophoresis resulted in a high depletion of the red blood cells (99.8%) which partitioned in the buffer stream, whilst sufficient numbers of the viable S. typhimurium remained in the outer channels for further analysis. These results indicate that the technology may provide a generic approach for pre-analytical sample preparation prior to integrated and automated downstream detection of bacterial pathogens.Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

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