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The nuclear receptor PPARÎ²/Î´ programs muscle glucose metabolism in cooperation with AMPK and MEF2. - Genes & development
To identify new gene regulatory pathways controlling skeletal muscle energy metabolism, comparative studies were conducted on muscle-specific transgenic mouse lines expressing the nuclear receptors peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor Î± (PPARÎ±; muscle creatine kinase [MCK]-PPARÎ±) or PPARÎ²/Î´ (MCK-PPARÎ²/Î´). MCK-PPARÎ²/Î´ mice are known to have enhanced exercise performance, whereas MCK-PPARÎ± mice perform at low levels. Transcriptional profiling revealed that the lactate dehydrogenase b (Ldhb)/Ldha gene expression ratio is increased in MCK-PPARÎ²/Î´ muscle, an isoenzyme shift that diverts pyruvate into the mitochondrion for the final steps of glucose oxidation. PPARÎ²/Î´ gain- and loss-of-function studies in skeletal myotubes demonstrated that PPARÎ²/Î´, but not PPARÎ±, interacts with the exercise-inducible kinase AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) to synergistically activate Ldhb gene transcription by cooperating with myocyte enhancer factor 2A (MEF2A) in a PPARÎ²/Î´ ligand-independent manner. MCK-PPARÎ²/Î´ muscle was shown to have high glycogen stores, increased levels of GLUT4, and augmented capacity for mitochondrial pyruvate oxidation, suggesting a broad reprogramming of glucose utilization pathways. Lastly, exercise studies demonstrated that MCK-PPARÎ²/Î´ mice persistently oxidized glucose compared with nontransgenic controls, while exhibiting supranormal performance. These results identify a transcriptional regulatory mechanism that increases capacity for muscle glucose utilization in a pattern that resembles the effects of exercise training.Â© 2011 by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press
Effect of antenatal corticosteroids on fetal growth and gestational age at birth. - Obstetrics and gynecology
To estimate the effect of multiple courses of antenatal corticosteroids on neonatal size, controlling for gestational age at birth and other confounders, and to determine whether there was a dose-response relationship between number of courses of antenatal corticosteroids and neonatal size.This is a secondary analysis of the Multiple Courses of Antenatal Corticosteroids for Preterm Birth Study, a double-blind randomized controlled trial of single compared with multiple courses of antenatal corticosteroids in women at risk for preterm birth and in which fetuses administered multiple courses of antenatal corticosteroids weighed less, were shorter, and had smaller head circumferences at birth. All women (n=1,858) and children (n=2,304) enrolled in the Multiple Courses of Antenatal Corticosteroids for Preterm Birth Study were included in the current analysis. Multiple linear regression analyses were undertaken.Compared with placebo, neonates in the antenatal corticosteroids group were born earlier (estimated difference and confidence interval [CI]: -0.428 weeks, CI -0.10264 to -0.75336; P=.01). Controlling for gestational age at birth and confounding factors, multiple courses of antenatal corticosteroids were associated with a decrease in birth weight (-33.50 g, CI -66.27120 to -0.72880; P=.045), length (-0.339 cm, CI -0.6212 to -0.05676]; P=.019), and head circumference (-0.296 cm, -0.45672 to -0.13528; P<.001). For each additional course of antenatal corticosteroids, there was a trend toward an incremental decrease in birth weight, length, and head circumference.Fetuses exposed to multiple courses of antenatal corticosteroids were smaller at birth. The reduction in size was partially attributed to being born at an earlier gestational age but also was attributed to decreased fetal growth. Finally, a dose-response relationship exists between the number of corticosteroid courses and a decrease in fetal growth. The long-term effect of these findings is unknown.ClinicalTrials.gov, www.clinicaltrials.gov, NCT00187382.II.
Maternal side-effects after multiple courses of antenatal corticosteroids (MACS): the three-month follow-up of women in the randomized controlled trial of MACS for preterm birth study. - Journal of obstetrics and gynaecology Canada : JOGC = Journal d'obstÃ©trique et gynÃ©cologie du Canada : JOGC
A single course of antenatal corticosteroids (ACS) is associated with a reduction in respiratory distress syndrome and neonatal death. Multiple Courses of Antenatal Corticosteroids Study (MACS), a study involving 1858 women, was a multicentre randomized placebo-controlled trial of multiple courses of ACS, given every 14 days until 33+6 weeks or birth, whichever came first. The primary outcome of the study, a composite of neonatal mortality and morbidity, was similar for the multiple ACS and placebo groups (12.9% vs. 12.5%), but infants exposed to multiple courses of ACS weighed less, were shorter, and had smaller head circumferences. Thus for women who remain at increased risk of preterm birth, multiple courses of ACS (every 14 days) are not recommended. Chronic use of corticosteroids is associated with numerous side effects including weight gain and depression. The aim of this postpartum assessment was to ascertain if multiple courses of ACS were associated with maternal side effects.Three months postpartum, women who participated in MACS were asked to complete a structured questionnaire that asked about maternal side effects of corticosteroid use during MACS and included the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. Women were also asked to evaluate their study participation.Of the 1858 women randomized, 1712 (92.1%) completed the postpartum questionnaire. There were no significant differences in the risk of maternal side effects between the two groups. Large numbers of women met the criteria for postpartum depression (14.1% in the ACS vs. 16.0% in the placebo group). Most women (94.1%) responded that they would participate in the trial again.In pregnancy, corticosteroids are given to women for fetal lung maturation and for the treatment of various maternal diseases. In this international multicentre randomized controlled trial, multiple courses of ACS (every 14 days) were not associated with maternal side effects, and the majority of women responded that they would participate in such a study again.
Multiple courses of antenatal corticosteroids for preterm birth study: 2-year outcomes. - Pediatrics
The aim of this study was to determine the effects of repeated courses of prenatal corticosteroid therapy versus placebo on death or neurologic impairment among the children enrolled in the Multiple Courses of Antenatal Corticosteroids for Preterm Birth Study, at 18 to 24 months of age.A total of 2305 infants were eligible for follow-up evaluation; 2104 infants (1069 in the prenatal corticosteroid therapy group and 1035 in the placebo group) were monitored. The primary outcome was death or neurologic impairment, defined as either cerebral palsy or cognitive delay, at 18 to 24 months of age. The secondary outcomes were measurements of growth (height, weight, and head circumference).Children exposed to multiple courses of prenatal corticosteroid therapy had similar rates of death or neurologic impairment, compared with children exposed to placebo (148 children [13.8%] vs 142 children [13.7%]; odds ratio: 1.001[95% confidence interval: 0.75-1.30]; P = .95). They had a mean weight of 11.94 kg, compared with 12.14 kg in the placebo group (P = .04), a mean height of 85.51 cm, compared with 85.46 cm (P = .87), and a mean head circumference of 48.18 cm, compared with 48.25 cm (P = .45).Multiple courses of prenatal corticosteroid therapy, given every 14 days, did not increase or decrease the risk of death or neurologic impairment at 18 to 24 months of age, compared with a single course of prenatal corticosteroid therapy. Continued follow-up monitoring of these children is necessary to assess neurobehavioral function, school performance, and possible susceptibility to disease.
Multiple courses of antenatal corticosteroids for preterm birth (MACS): a randomised controlled trial. - Lancet (London, England)
One course of antenatal corticosteroids reduces the risk of respiratory distress syndrome and neonatal death. Weekly doses given to women who remain undelivered after a single course may have benefits (less respiratory morbidity) or cause harm (reduced growth in utero). We aimed to find out whether multiple courses of antenatal corticosteroids would reduce neonatal morbidity and mortality without adversely affecting fetal growth.1858 women at 25-32 weeks' gestation who remained undelivered 14-21 days after an initial course of antenatal corticosteroids and continued to be at high risk of preterm birth were randomly assigned to multiple courses of antenatal corticosteroids (n=937) or placebo (n=921), every 14 days until week 33 or delivery, whichever came first. The primary outcome was a composite of perinatal or neonatal mortality, severe respiratory distress syndrome, intraventricular haemorrhage (grade III or IV), periventricular leucomalacia, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, or necrotising enterocolitis. Analysis was by intention to treat. All patients and caregivers were unaware of the treatment given. This trial is registered as number ISRCTN2654148.Infants exposed to multiple courses of antenatal corticosteroids had similar morbidity and mortality to those exposed to placebo (150 [12.9%] vs 143 [12.5%]). Those receiving multiple doses of corticosteroids also weighed less at birth than those exposed to placebo (2216 g vs 2330 g, p=0.0026), were shorter (44.5 cm vs 45.4 cm, p<0.001), and had a smaller head circumference (31.1 cm vs 31.7 cm, p<0.001).Multiple courses of antenatal corticosteroids, every 14 days, do not improve preterm-birth outcomes, and are associated with a decreased weight, length, and head circumference at birth. Therefore, this treatment schedule is not recommended.Canadian Institutes of Health Research.
Skeletal muscle PGC-1Î² signaling is sufficient to drive an endurance exercise phenotype and to counteract components of detraining in mice. - American journal of physiology. Endocrinology and metabolism
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-Î³ coactivator (PGC)-1Î± and -1Î² serve as master transcriptional regulators of muscle mitochondrial functional capacity and are capable of enhancing muscle endurance when overexpressed in mice. We sought to determine whether muscle-specific transgenic overexpression of PGC-1Î² affects the detraining response following endurance training. First, we established and validated a mouse exercise-training-detraining protocol. Second, using multiple physiological and gene expression end points, we found that PGC-1Î² overexpression in skeletal muscle of sedentary mice fully recapitulated the training response. Lastly, PGC-1Î² overexpression during the detraining period resulted in partial prevention of the detraining response. Specifically, an increase in the plateau at which O2 uptake (VÌ‡o2) did not change from baseline with increasing treadmill speed [peak VÌ‡o2 (Î”VÌ‡o2max)] was maintained in trained mice with PGC-1Î² overexpression in muscle 6 wk after cessation of training. However, other detraining responses, including changes in running performance and in situ half relaxation time (a measure of contractility), were not affected by PGC-1Î² overexpression. We conclude that while activation of muscle PGC-1Î² is sufficient to drive the complete endurance phenotype in sedentary mice, it only partially prevents the detraining response following exercise training, suggesting that the process of endurance detraining involves mechanisms beyond the reversal of muscle autonomous mechanisms involved in endurance fitness. In addition, the protocol described here should be useful for assessing early-stage proof-of-concept interventions in preclinical models of muscle disuse atrophy.Copyright Â© 2017 the American Physiological Society.
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