Dr. Anatolio  Cruz  Md image

Dr. Anatolio Cruz Md

7979 Wurzbach Rd
San Antonio TX 78229
210 571-1400
Medical School: Other - Unknown
Accepts Medicare: No
Participates In eRX: No
Participates In PQRS: No
Participates In EHR: No
License #: D4082
NPI: 1134236110
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Morphologic and immunophenotypic markers as surrogate endpoints of tamoxifen effect for prevention of breast cancer. - Breast cancer research and treatment
Prevention trials using incidence or mortality as endpoints require a large number of participants and long follow-up. Trials using biomarkers as endpoints would potentially require fewer participants, less time, and significantly less resources to test promising new agents for breast cancer prevention. To test this idea, a randomized trial of tamoxifen for 1 year versus observation for 1 year was conducted to determine whether tamoxifen can cause regression of hyperplastic breast tissue, whether it changes the biomarker phenotype of premalignant disease or normal breast epithelium, and if biomarkers can be used as early surrogate indicators of response to tamoxifen. Women were identified by having an abnormal mammogram and ductal hyperplasia diagnosed by core needle biopsy. Image-directed needle biopsy was repeated in the same site of the breast after 1 year. Approximately 3000 women were screened, and 265 were eligible. Sixty-three women were randomized and paired biopsies from 45 subjects were available for analysis. There was no evidence of substantial regression of hyperplasia--fewer samples showed hyperplasia at 1 year follow-up, but this was seen in both untreated and tamoxifen-treated women. There were trends for reductions in ER and PgR and trends for increases in bcl-2 in normal and hyperplastic tissue in the tamoxifen-treated arm, though these changes did not reach statistical significance. Proliferation, determined by Ki67 staining, was not significantly changed. Clinical trials of this type are difficult to carry out and modifications in trial design are needed to make this process more efficient.
HER-2/neu expression as a predictor of response to neoadjuvant docetaxel in patients with operable breast carcinoma. - Cancer
The use of biologic markers to predict response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy may permit tailoring regimens to achieve maximal tumor response. Taxanes have demonstrated excellent activity in breast carcinoma; however, tumor-specific factors that predict clinical response have not been characterized thoroughly.The authors performed a historic review evaluating the association of tumor prognostic factors and response to neoadjuvant cyclophosphamide and doxorubicin (AC) with or without docetaxel (D) (AC vs. AC+D) in 121 women who previously were enrolled in a Phase III, randomized, clinical trial. Using pretreatment biopsy materials, immunohistochemical studies were performed for estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), HER-2/neu, p53, and Ki-67. Outcome variables were pathologic complete response (pCR) and positive clinical response (cPOS), which was defined as a >/= 50% regression in clinical tumor size prior to surgery.In a multivariate analysis that controlled for tumor size and lymph node status, improved cPOS rates were observed with the addition of docetaxel in women with HER-2/neu-negative tumors (81% vs. 51%; P < 0.05), yielding an adjusted odds ratio of 3.5 (95% confidence interval, 1.2-13.0) in favor of docetaxel. Women who had HER-2/neu-negative tumors appeared to have a lower response rate with AC alone compared with women who had HER-2/neu-positive tumors (51% vs. 75%; P = 0.06), but response rates were matched when docetaxel was added (81% vs. 78%; P = 0.99). ER, PR, p53, and Ki-67 results were not associated significantly with response rates.HER-2/neu status may predict improved clinical response rates from the addition of docetaxel to anthracycline-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Docetaxel may "rescue" the response in women who have HER-2/neu-negative tumors to match that observed in women who have HER-2/neu-positive tumors treated with AC alone.
Positive margins following surgical resection of breast carcinoma: analysis of pathologic correlates. - Journal of surgical oncology
Histologic margin positivity represents a significant source of adverse clinical outcome affecting breast conservation therapy for in situ or invasive malignancy. Elucidation of factors associated with positive margin status might clarify and improve local therapy strategies. In order to define our experience with margin positivity and to identify relevant pathologic criteria, we retrospectively analyzed the cases of 143 patients who underwent resections for carcinoma with intent of breast conservation between 1995 and 1999.Histologic features and indices of biologic aggressiveness were compared among tumors resected with positive versus negative margins in order to determine whether such markers could be used to anticipate outcome.Twenty-eight pathologic specimens were identified to possess histologically positive margins. Twenty-six patients underwent additional operative procedures. Of the 26 re-excision specimens, 17 (65%) contained residual malignancy. Statistical analysis demonstrated that margin positivity correlated with in situ histology and with Her 2/neu positivity.These data suggest certain pathologic factors that may portend difficulty in achieving negative resection margins in patients in whom breast conservation therapy is considered.Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Pathologic review of atypical hyperplasia identified by image-guided breast needle core biopsy. Correlation with excision specimen. - Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
Management of breast needle core biopsies diagnosed as atypical ductal hyperplasia, atypical lobular hyperplasia, and lobular carcinoma in situ is controversial. Current recommendations involve excisional biopsy to rule out ductal carcinoma in situ and/or invasive carcinoma, which have been reported in more than 50% of cases in some series.To determine how frequently these diagnoses made on needle core biopsy are ultimately found to represent in situ or invasive carcinoma based on excisional biopsy specimens, in order to identify predictive factors.One thousand eight hundred thirty-six image-guided needle core biopsies were performed between January 1, 1995 and May 1, 2001. Fifty-four (2.9%) patients diagnosed with atypical ductal hyperplasia (n = 36), atypical lobular hyperplasia (n = 12), atypical ductal hyperplasia + atypical lobular hyperplasia (n = 3), or lobular carcinoma in situ (n = 3) subsequently underwent breast excisions. Pathologic features were reviewed in each of the needle core biopsies using Page's criteria and were then correlated with excision specimens.University medical center.Review of the needle core biopsy cases with either ductal carcinoma in situ or invasive carcinoma + ductal carcinoma in situ on final excision showed that nucleoli were evident in most of the needle core cases, with foci of nuclear pleomorphism and individual cell necrosis or apoptosis.A more precise diagnosis can be made by using strict criteria for atypical ductal hyperplasia versus ductal carcinoma in situ on needle core biopsy. Cytologic atypia, even if in a small area, particularly when there is apoptosis/individual cell necrosis, correlates with the finding of a more serious lesion on excision.
Analysis of sentinel lymph node mapping with immediate pathologic review in patients receiving preoperative chemotherapy for breast carcinoma. - Annals of surgical oncology
Sentinel lymph node mapping (SLNM) and neoadjuvant chemotherapy are becoming established components of therapy for selected patients with breast carcinoma. However, neoadjuvant therapy has been considered a relative contraindication to SLNM. In an effort to learn whether patients who have received preoperative chemotherapy can undergo accurate SLNM, we evaluated our experience with this technique.From January 1997 to June 2000, SLNM and axillary lymph node dissection were concurrently performed in 35 patients who received preoperative chemotherapy. Mapping was performed with (99m)Tc sulfur colloid only in one patient and Lymphazurin dye only in 15 patients, and the two methods were combined in the remainder.SLNM successfully identified a sentinel lymph node in 30 (86%) patients. Metastatic disease was identified in the sentinel lymph nodes of four patients during surgery. The intraoperative pathologic diagnosis proved to be correct in 19 (79%) of 24 patients. The final pathologic diagnosis of the sentinel lymph node reflected the status of the axillary contents in all patients in whom it was identified.These results demonstrate that SLNM can be consistently performed in patients receiving preoperative chemotherapy for breast cancer, suggesting the utility of this technique in this patient population.

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