Irvine CA 92602
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Reduced Sexual Risk Behaviors Among Young Men of Color Who Have Sex with Men: Findings from the Community-Based Organization Behavioral Outcomes of Many Men, Many Voices (CBOP-3MV) Project. - Prevention science : the official journal of the Society for Prevention Research
In 2006, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) funded community-based organizations (CBOs) to deliver Many Men, Many Voices (3MV) to young men of color who have sex with men. Although 3MV, a group-level behavioral intervention designed to reduce human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risk behaviors of black men who have sex with men (MSM), has shown effectiveness when delivered in a controlled research environment, there is limited evidence that the intervention is associated with similar outcomes in "real world" settings. For the current project, CDC funded three CBOs to conduct outcome monitoring of the 3MV intervention to determine if young MSM of color report changes in HIV risk behaviors postintervention. Using a repeated measures design, risk behaviors were collected at baseline and again at 3 and 6Â months postintervention. Changes in risk behaviors were assessed using generalized estimating equations. Participants (nâ€‰=â€‰337) reported decreases in sexual risk behaviors at both follow-up time points, such as sex without a condom, sex without a condom and multiple partners, and sex without a condom with serodiscordant or status unknown partners. Results suggest that 3MV may be an effective tool for reducing HIV risk behaviors in this critical target population.
Estimating the population size of men who have sex with men in the United States to obtain HIV and syphilis rates. - The open AIDS journal
CDC has not previously calculated disease rates for men who have sex with men (MSM) because there is no single comprehensive source of data on population size. To inform prevention planning, CDC developed a national population size estimate for MSM to calculate disease metrics for HIV and syphilis.We conducted a systematic literature search and identified seven surveys that provided data on same-sex behavior in nationally representative samples. Data were pooled by three recall periods and combined using meta-analytic procedures. We applied the proportion of men reporting same-sex behavior in the past 5 years to U.S. census data to produce a population size estimate. We then calculated three disease metrics using CDC HIV and STD surveillance data and rate ratios comparing MSM to other men and to women.Estimates of the proportion of men who engaged in same-sex behavior differed by recall period: past year = 2.9% (95%CI, 2.6-3.2); past five years = 3.9% (3.5-4.4); ever = 6.9% (5.1-8.6). Rates on all 3 disease metrics were much higher among MSM than among either other men or women (38 to 109 times as high).Estimating the population size for MSM allowed us to calculate rates for disease metrics and to develop rate ratios showing dramatically higher rates among MSM than among other men or women. These data greatly improve our understanding of the disproportionate impact of these diseases among MSM in the U.S. and help with prevention planning.
Provision of HIV counseling and testing services at five community-based organizations among young men of color who have sex with men. - AIDS and behavior
In the context of monitoring and improving CDC-funded HIV prevention programs, we describe HIV tests and infections, provision of results, previous HIV tests, and risk behaviors for young (aged 13-29) men of color who have sex with men who received HIV tests at five community-based organizations. Of 1,723 tests provided, 2.1% were positive and 75.7% of positives were previously unaware of their infection. The highest positivity rate was among men aged 25-29 (4.7%). Thirty-four percent of tests were provided to men who were tested for the first time. Over half the tests (53.2%) were provided to men who reported sex with a person of unknown HIV status, and 34% to men who reported sex with an anonymous partner. Continued and more focused prevention efforts are needed to reach and test young men of color who have sex with men and to identify previously undiagnosed HIV infections among this target population.
Coping strategies of adolescents living with HIV: disease-specific stressors and responses. - AIDS care
This study examined disease-specific stressors and coping responses employed by youth with HIV. Data were analyzed from Adolescent Impact, a multi-site study of 166 adolescents infected with HIV in three major US cities. Participants identified HIV-related stressors during a face-to-face interview. Coping strategies were measured using the adolescent version of the Kidcope. Emotional and behavioral functioning were assessed with the Youth or Adult Self Report symptom checklists. Medication-related stressors were most common (30%) and reported more often by perinatally infected youth, whereas youth infected through risk behaviors reported more disclosure-related stressors. Passive emotional regulation was perceived as the most used and most helpful coping strategy overall. Youth reporting medication adherence-related stressors used resignation most frequently. A two-factor model (Passive and Active Coping) emerged. The Passive Coping factor included strategies that do not directly approach the problem, whereas Active Coping included strategies that involve an active approach. Youth with moderately advanced disease (CD4 200-500 cells/mm(3)) used a Passive Coping style more often than healthier youth (CD4 > 500 cells/mm(3)). Additionally, Passive Coping was associated with greater emotional and behavioral problems. Youth infected with HIV may benefit from interventions promoting adaptive coping responses to HIV-specific stressors, particularly medication adherence.
Emotional and behavioral problems and mental health service utilization of youth living with HIV acquired perinatally or later in life. - AIDS care
This study sought to examine predictors of psychological symptoms and psychiatric service receipt among youth with HIV. Data were from the baseline assessment of Adolescent Impact, a study of 13-21-year-old youth with HIV in three US cities. Between August 2003 and February 2005, participants completed the age-appropriate youth or adult self-report symptom checklists (Achenbach system of empirically based assessment) and reported their psychiatric treatment history. Psychiatric diagnoses were abstracted from medical records. The 164 participating youth living with HIV were Black (81%), female (52%), Heterosexually identified (62%), and perinatally HIV-infected (60%). Thirty-one percentage reported levels of internalizing (i.e., self-focused/emotional), externalizing (i.e., outwardly focused/behavioral), or overall symptoms consistent with clinical psychopathology. In multivariate analyses, questioning one's sexual identity was associated with greater internalizing problems, whereas identifying as Bisexual was associated with greater externalizing problems (p<0.05). Symptoms were not associated with HIV transmission group. Participants with > or =1 composite score within the clinical range were more likely to have received > or =1 psychiatric service (Odds ratio (OR): 2.51; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.22, 5.13) and a psychiatric diagnosis in the past year (OR: 2.16; 95% CI: 1.09, 4.27). However, 27% with clinically elevated scores had never received psychiatric care. Results suggest that among youth with HIV, those who identify as Bisexual or Questioning are at greatest risk for emotional and behavioral problems. Despite available mental health services, some youth with HIV are not receiving needed mental health care. Enhanced evaluation, referral and mental health service linkage is needed for these high-risk youth.
Characterizing social support: global and specific social support experiences of HIV-infected youth. - AIDS patient care and STDs
This study examined the nature, type, and source of social support available to a diverse group of HIV-infected adolescents and the relationship between social support and depression. Data were obtained from the baseline assessment of Adolescent Impact, a behavioral intervention conducted in 2003-2006 involving 166 HIV-infected youth, ages 13-21, in care at four urban medical centers. Youth completed the Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Survey, Beck Depression Inventory, and questions about HIV-specific social support including locus (family and friends) and type (structural, perceived, instrumental, and satisfaction). Linear regression modeling examined the relation between HIV-specific and general perceived social support, and between social support and depression. Participants were predominately minority (72% black and 20% Hispanic); perinatally infected (60% PIY), and female (53%). Most had someone to either remind them to attend (71%) or to bring them to clinic (60%), a majority family (53%) and fewer friends (4%). More youth reported being satisfied with family (64%) social support than that from friends (51%). Behaviorally infected youth (BIY) had significantly more friends who knew their serostatus than PIY (means = 4.5 and 1.7; p < 0.001), but received significantly less help from family in accessing care (p < 0.001). Satisfaction with family social support was the best predictor of general perceived social support with general perceived social support and behavioral mode of transmission the best predictors of depression. Regular screening of HIV-positive youth for social support needs, especially BIY, and identification of sources for social support should be a regular part of care.
Age differences in emotion-regulation strategies in handling everyday problems. - The journals of gerontology. Series B, Psychological sciences and social sciences
We examined age differences in problem-focused and emotion-regulatory problem-solving strategy use for self-generated family problems. Young, middle-aged, and older participants generated family problem situations that were high and low in emotional salience. They were asked both how they solved the problem and how they managed emotions involved in the problem. We conducted analyses on three categories of problem-solving strategies: instrumental strategies, proactive emotion regulation, and passive emotion regulation. When regulating emotions, middle-aged adults used more proactive emotion-regulation strategies than older adults, and older adults used more passive emotion-regulation strategies than middle-aged adults. These effects were driven by the high emotional salience condition.
The effects of age-stereotype priming on the memory performance of older adults. - Experimental aging research
The effects of age-stereotype priming on the memory performance of older adults were investigated through a conceptual replication and extension of Levy's (1996. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 71, 1092-1107) study. Sixty young and 60 older adults were subliminally primed with a positive age stereotype, a negative age stereotype, or neutral primes. Memory performance on two tasks (a photo recall task and a dot location task) was measured before and after the priming intervention. Although the study does not provide unequivocal support for Levy's (1996) findings, results did show that priming a negative age stereotype undermined memory performance for a small sample of older adults who were "unaware" of the primes. However, contrary to Levy's findings, priming a positive age stereotype did not increase older adults' memory performance. There were no significant effects of priming positive or negative age stereotypes on the memory performance of young adults.
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81 Linhaven Irvine, CA 92602
13662A Jamboree Rd The Market Place Ii
13662A Jamboree Rd The Market Place Ii