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Evaluation of Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Curcumin Gel as an Adjunct to Scaling and Root Planing: A Clinical Study. - Journal of international oral health : JIOH
Complete removal of irritants is not possible with mechanical therapy alone. Adjunctive use of systemic administration of antibiotics results in the distribution of drug throughout the body, which can give rise to toxicity. Curcumin (diferuloylmethane), a constituent of Curcuma longa plant, which possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-carcinogenic, anti-microbial, anti-hyper algesic and hypocholesterolemic properties. The aim of the present study is to compare the effects of the curcumin gel as an adjunct to subgingival scaling and root planning with the effect achieved using subgingival scaling and root planning alone.Thirty patients either male or female with chronic localized or generalized periodontitis aged between 25 and 60 years with pocket depth of 5-7 mm affecting at least two nonadjacent sites were included. In the experimental site scaling and root planning was performed, followed by placement of the curcumin gel and periodontal pack application. In the control site, subgingival scaling alone was performed followed by periodontal pack application. Parameters included were: Plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), probing depth (PD) and clinical attachment loss. These parameters were recorded on day 0, 30 and 45 days.Significant reduction in mean was observed in PI, GI, PD and gain in clinical attachment level were demonstrated in both the groups from baseline to 45 days. However, statistical significant reduction was observed in PI at baseline and 30(th) day and GI at 30(th) day.Curcumin can be effectively used along with scaling and root planning. Future research is required to determine the long-term effects of curcumin on a large sample of subjects.
Design, synthesis, DNA-binding affinity, cytotoxicity, apoptosis, and cell cycle arrest of Ru(II) polypyridyl complexes. - Analytical biochemistry
A novel polypyridyl ligand CNPFIP (CNPFIP=2-(5(4-chloro-2-nitrophenyl)furan-2-yl)-1H-imidazo[4,5f][1,10]phenanthroline) and its mononuclear Ru(II) polypyridyl complexes of [Ru(phen)2CNPFIP](2+)(1) (phen=1,10-phenanthroline), [Ru(bpy)2CNPFIP](2+)(2) (bpy=2,2'-bipyridine), and [Ru(dmb)2CNPFIP](2+)(3) (dmb=4,4'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridine) have been synthesized successfully and characterized thoroughly by elemental analysis, UV/Vis, IR, NMR, and ESI-MS. The interaction of the Ru(II) complexes with calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) was investigated by absorption titration, fluorescence, viscosity measurements. The experimental results suggest that three complexes bind to CT-DNA through an intercalative mode and the DNA-binding affinity of complex 1 is greater than that of complexes 2 and 3. The photocleavage of plasmid pBR322 DNA by ruthenium complexes 1, 2, and 3 was investigated. We have also tested three complexes for their antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli (Gram-negative) and Staphylococcus aureus (Gram-positive) bacteria. The in vitro cytotoxicity of these complexes was evaluated by MTT assay, and complex 1 shows higher cytotoxicity than 2 and 3 on HeLa cells. The induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest of HeLa cells were investigated by flow cytometry for 24h. The molecular docking of ruthenium complexes 1, 2, and 3 with the active site pocket residues of human DNA TOP1 was performed using LibDock.Copyright Â© 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The study of antilingula and its relation to the lingula and mandibular foramen, the presence of mylohyoid bridging in dry mandibles of South Indian population. - Journal of maxillofacial and oral surgery
The mandibular foramen and the lingula, because of their relation to the inferior alveolar nerve are of clinical significance for the orodental surgeons. Identification of the antilingula is important in mandibular ramus surgery in which the medial surface of the ramus is not visualized.The present study includes adult dry 50 mandibles of unknown age and sex. The measurements were taken using vernier calipers. The points taken for measurements were most prominent point on antilingula, tip of lingula, most anterior, posterior and inferior points of mandibular foramen. The measurements were denoted as A, B, C and D which represent the anterior, posterior, superior and inferior distances.Antilingula was present on right side in 25 and on left side in 28 mandibles. There was a significant difference in distances in mean between the antilingula and mandibular foramen of both the sides (pÂ <Â 0.001). Retromolar foramen was observed in 6 mandibles. Mylohyoid bridging was seen in 3 mandibles.The mandibular foramen was located posterosuperior to the antilingula on both the sides. There was no statistical significance in the distances between the lingula and the antilingula. Therefore antilingula can be used as an important surgical landmark for locating the mandibular foramen in mandibular ramus osteotomies.
Analysis of oxidative stress status through MN test and serum MDA levels in PCOS women. - Pakistan journal of biological sciences : PJBS
Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is a multifactorial reproductive healthcare problem affecting 4-12% of women and a leading cause of female infertility worldwide. The potential genetic contributors of PCOS are unclear. However, over the past decade emerging evidence has shown that increased Oxidative Stress (OS) and decreased antioxidant status were often linked with PCOS. The present case-control study was aimed to assess the reactive oxygen species induced OS in women from South India. A total of 164 individuals comprising of 89 patients and 75 controls were enrolled in the present study. For all the subjects, the frequency of micronucleated cells (MNC) in epithelial samples and serum Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were estimated to assess genomic instability and cytotoxicity respectively. A statistically significant difference between the groups were identified with respect to Body Mass Index, Waist to Hip Ratio, luteinizing hormone and prolactin levels (< 0.05), however the mean follicle stimulating hormone was not different between the groups (p = 0.055). The frequency of MN cells (5.89 Â± 4.86 vs. 2.24 Â± 2.01) and mean serum MDA (360.84 Â± 87.08 vs. 301.70 Â± 82.82) levels were considerably higher in patients than controls (p = < 0.0001), furthermore, a positive correlation was observed between MNC and MDA levels in patients (r = 0.349, p = 0.0008) and not in controls (r = 0.104, p = 0.37), suggest high OS in PCOS women. Therefore, MN assay and serum MDA levels may serve together or individually as biomarkers of OS in PCOS women.
Molecular cloning, characterisation and expression analysis of melanoma differentiation associated gene 5 (MDA5) of green chromide, Etroplus suratensis. - Gene
Innate immune system recognises pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by limited number of germline encoded and non-clonally developed pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs). Retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like receptors (RLRs) are important cytosolic PRRs for sensing viral RNAs. The receptor encoded by melanoma differentiation associated gene 5 (MDA5), an RLR, recognises viral RNA and enhances antiviral response in host cells. The full-length MDA5 cDNA in Etroplus suratensis was cloned and found to have 3673 nucleotides encoding a polypeptide of 978 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence contains four main structural domains: two CARD domains in the N-terminal region, a DExDc (DEAH/DEAD box helicase domain), HELICc (C-terminal helicase) domain and a C-terminal regulatory domain (RD). Phylogenetic analysis revealed a close relationship of E. suratensis MDA5 (EsMDA5) with MDA5 of Neolamprologus brichardi and Oreochromis niloticus, both belonging to Cichlidae family. EsMDA5 transcripts were ubiquitously expressed in all the 12 tissues tested in healthy fish. Although, transcript level was found to be the highest in muscle, high expression was also detected in the spleen, head kidney and hindgut. In poly I:C-injected fish, EsMDA5 transcripts showed peak expression in the spleen, intestine and heart at 12h post-injection (hpi). However, in gill and kidney tissues, maximum up-regulation of EsMDA5 was observed at 6 and 48 hpi, respectively. Further, liver tissue showed an increasing trend in expression profile from 6 to 48 hpi. Interferon promoter stimulator-1 (IPS-1) gene, an adaptor triggering RIG-I- and MDA5-mediated type I interferon induction, also showed up-regulated expression at initial time-points in poly I:C-injected E. suratensis. The constitutive expression and up-regulation of EsMDA5 and the IPS-1 genes in different tissues indicate that EsMDA5 may play an important role in sensing viral PAMPs in conjunction with IPS-1.Copyright Â© 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
High-efficient production of boron nitride nanosheets via an optimized ball milling process for lubrication in oil. - Scientific reports
Although tailored wet ball milling can be an efficient method to produce a large quantity of two-dimensional nanomaterials, such as boron nitride (BN) nanosheets, milling parameters including milling speed, ball-to-powder ratio, milling ball size and milling agent, are important for optimization of exfoliation efficiency and production yield. In this report, we systematically investigate the effects of different milling parameters on the production of BN nanosheets with benzyl benzoate being used as the milling agent. It is found that small balls of 0.1-0.2 mm in diameter are much more effective in exfoliating BN particles to BN nanosheets. Under the optimum condition, the production yield can be as high as 13.8% and the BN nanosheets are 0.5-1.5 Î¼m in diameter and a few nanometers thick and of relative high crystallinity and chemical purity. The lubrication properties of the BN nanosheets in base oil have also been studied. The tribological tests show that the BN nanosheets can greatly reduce the friction coefficient and wear scar diameter of the base oil.
Variation in swimming speed of Escherichia coli in response to attractant. - Archives of microbiology
It is well known that Escherichia coli executes chemotactic motion in response to chemical cues by modulating the flagellar motor bias alone. However, previous studies have reported the possibility of variation in run speed in the presence of attractants although it is unclear whether bacteria can deliberately modulate their swimming speeds in response to environmental cues or if the motor speeds are hardwired. By studying the detailed motion of cells in a uniform concentration of glucose and its non-metabolizable analogue, we show that changing concentrations may be accompanied by variation in the swimming speed. For a fixed run duration, cells exposed to the attractants achieved a higher peak-swimming speed after a tumble compared with that in plain motility buffer. Our experiments using the mutant strain lacking the Trg sensor show no change in swimming speed with varying concentrations of the non-metabolizable analogue, suggesting that sensing may play a role in the observed variation of swimming speed.
Toll-pathway in tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) responds to white spot syndrome virus infection: evidence through molecular characterisation and expression profiles of MyD88, TRAF6 and TLR genes. - Fish & shellfish immunology
The Toll-pathway plays key roles in regulating the innate immune response in invertebrates. Myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) and Tumour necrosis factor receptor (TNFR)-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) are key molecules in this signalling pathway. To investigate the role of Toll-pathway in innate immune response of shrimp, Penaeus monodon, MyD88 (PmMyD88) and TRAF6 (PmTRAF6) were identified and characterised. PmMyD88 cDNA is 1716 bp long with an open reading frame (ORF) of 1449 bp encoding a putative protein of 482 amino acids, with a death domain, a TIR domain and C-terminal extension domain. PmTRAF6 cDNA is 2563 bp long with an ORF of 1785 bp (594 amino acids) with an N-terminal RING-type zinc finger domain, two TRAF-type zinc finger domains, a coiled region and a MATH domain. In healthy shrimp, PmMyD88, PmTRAF6 and PmToll were detected in 15 tissues with the highest expression in midgut, eyestalk and lymphoid organ, respectively. Responses of these genes to WSSV in experimentally-infected P. monodon as well as in cultured haemocytes and also effect of poly I:C on the gene expression in vitro was investigated at six time-points in seven tissues. PmToll showed significant up-regulation at all time-points of infection in six tissues and until 24 h post-infection in vitro. However, poly I:C-induced haemocytes showed up-regulation of the gene until 48 h post-exposure. WSSV caused significant up-regulation of PmMyD88 in most of the tissues tested. The virus challenge as well as poly I:C induction in vitro also resulted in significant up-regulation of the gene. Up-regulated expression of PmTRAF6 was detected in haemocytes and lymphoid organ at late stage of infection. In vitro virus challenge showed significant up-regulation of PmTRAF6 at almost all time-points whereas no significant change in the expression was observed on poly I:C induction. The responses of these key genes, observed in the present study, suggest that Toll-pathway as a whole may play a crucial role in the immune response against viruses in shrimp.Copyright Â© 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Prevalence, patterns, characteristics and challenges in management of multi-drug resistant tuberulosis cases under DOTS-PLUS. - The Indian journal of tuberculosis
Inspite of the success of RNTCP in tuberculosis control in India, the problem of drug resistant forms of tuberculosis still remains untackled. The present study focuses on the prevalence of MDR-TB, pattern of drug resistance and characteristics of MDR-TB patients in district Amritsar, Punjab in north India. The programme-related aspects studied are the challenges in effective implementation of DOTS-PLUS.A retrospective study was conducted in the month of April, 2013. The records from November 2011 to April 2013 were analysed.Amongst a total of 200 MDR-suspects as per the criterion A of RNTCP, prevalence of drug resistance was 22.50% in Cat I failures and 36.25% in Cat II fourth month or later positive. Out of 67 patients who were to be initiated on Cat IV (H and R resistant or R resistant), 55 patients were put on treatment. The total time taken by the patients from identification as MDR-TB cases to initiation of Cat IV regimen at DOTS-plus site was 17.89 days.The findings of the study highlight the need for early referral, rapid diagnosis and prompt initiation of Cat IV of MDR-TB cases to decrease morbidity, mortality and disease transmission.
Correlation of subendometrial-endometrial blood flow assessment by two-dimensional power Doppler with pregnancy outcome in frozen-thawed embryo transfer cycles. - Journal of human reproductive sciences
Various markers have been proposed to evaluate endometrial receptivity, such as molecular markers and sonographic markers. Commonly used sonographic markers include endometrial thickness and pattern. A good endometrial blood flow is considered necessary for improved pregnancy outcome.The aim of the present study is to evaluate the role of subendometrial endometrial blood flow with two-dimensional-power Doppler (2D-PD) in predicting pregnancy outcome in hormone replacement frozen-thawed embryo transfer (FET) cycles.Prospective, non-randomized observational study. A total of 165 patients undergoing their first FET cycle were evaluated for subendometrial-endometrial blood flow by 2D-PD once the endometrium was â‰¥7 mm thick. Group A consisted of 127 women showing the presence of subendometrial-endometrial blood flow. Group B comprised of 38 women in whom subendometrial blood flow was absent. Progesterone supplement was added and transfer of 2-3 cleavage stage good quality embryos was done after 3 days.Independent two-tailed t-test and Chi-square test.There was no significant difference in body mass index, endometrial thickness, follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone levels, number of mature oocytes, semen parameters and the number of good quality embryos in the two groups (P > 0.05). The mean age in Group A was 32.05 years and 33.73 years in Group B, and the difference was statistically significant (P = 0.04). Overall pregnancy rate (PR) was 30.90%. PRs were significantly higher in the presence of subendometrial-endometrial blood flow than in its absence (35.43% vs. 15.78%, P = 0.02). Furthermore, clinical pregnancy rate and implantation rate were significantly higher in Group A when compared to Group B (31.49% and 14.79% vs. 13.15% and 6.52%, P = 0.02 and 0.03, respectively).The presence of endometrial blood flow significantly improves cycle outcome in hormone replacement therapy-FET cycles.
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