Dr. Carmen  Auiles  Phd image

Dr. Carmen Auiles Phd

Fernandez Juncos Carolina Medical Plaza A1
Carolina PR 00985
787 410-0774
Medical School: Other - Unknown
Accepts Medicare: No
Participates In eRX: No
Participates In PQRS: No
Participates In EHR: No
License #: 1433
NPI: 1104873777
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Patterns of Care, Predictors, and Outcomes of Adjuvant Therapy for Early- and Advanced-Stage Uterine Clear Cell Carcinoma: A Population-Based Analysis. - International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
The aim of the study was to examine the patterns of care and the impact of chemotherapy and radiation on survival in women diagnosed with uterine clear cell carcinoma (UCCC). The primary outcomes of this analysis were receipt of treatment within 6 months of diagnosis and overall survival.Women diagnosed with UCCC from 2003 to 2011 were identified through the National Cancer Data Base. Standard univariate and multivariable analyses with logistic regression were performed. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was used to generate overall survival data. Factors predictive of outcome were evaluated using the log-rank test and Cox proportional hazards model.A total of 3212 patients were identified. Chemotherapy, radiation, and combination chemotherapy and radiation were administered in 23.3%, 19.7%, and 11.1% of women, respectively. After adjusting for age, race, socioeconomic status, facility type, stage, surgery, lymph node dissection, comorbidity index, period of diagnosis, and registry location, there was an association between combined chemotherapy and radiation (hazard ratio, 0.74; 95% confidence interval, 0.61-0.90) with improved survival. Adjuvant therapy was not associated with improved survival among patients with early-stage disease (stages I and II). Both chemotherapy and combined chemotherapy and radiation were associated with significantly improved survival among patients with advanced-stage disease (stages III and IV).In patients with early-stage UCCC, adjuvant therapy was not associated with significantly improved survival. Chemotherapy and combination of chemotherapy and radiation were associated with improved survival in patients with advanced-stage UCCC.
Lactobacillus casei BL23 regulates Treg and Th17 T-cell populations and reduces DMH-associated colorectal cancer. - Journal of gastroenterology
Chronic intestinal inflammation alters host physiology and could lead to colorectal cancer (CRC). We have previously reported beneficial effects of the probiotic strain of Lactobacillus casei BL23 in different murine models of intestinal inflammation. In addition, there is an emerging interest on the potential beneficial effects of probiotics to treat CRC. We thus explored whether L. casei BL23 displays protective effects on CRC.Mice were subcutaneously injected with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) weekly during 10 weeks and orally administered with L. casei BL23 in the drinking water until the 10th week. Multiple plaque lesions in the large intestine were observed macroscopically and counted and intestinal tissues were also histologically analyzed. Finally, T-cell populations and cytokine production were evaluated after co-incubation of L. casei BL23 with spleen cells from non-treated mice to determine the immuno-modulatory effects of this bacterium.Our results show that oral treatment with this probiotic bacterium modulates host immune responses and significantly protect mice against DMH-induced CRC. This protection may be associated with the modulation of regulatory T-cells towards a Th17-biased immune response accompanied by the expression of regulatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-17, IL-10 and TGF-β), as demonstrated in L. casei BL23-treated splenocytes, but also with the colonic expression of IL-22 observed in vivo on L. casei BL23-treated mice; suggesting the induction of a fine-tune Th17-biased response.Altogether our results reveal the high potential of L. casei BL23 to treat CRC and opens new frontiers for the study of immunomodulatory functions of probiotics.
Cervical cancer control in Latin America: A call to action. - Cancer
Cervical cancer (CC) is second most common cause of cancer in Latin America and is a leading cause of cancer mortality among women. In 2015, an estimated 74,488 women will be diagnosed with CC in Latin America and 31,303 will die of the disease. CC mortality is projected to increase by 45% by 2030 despite human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination and screening efforts. In this setting, the goal was of the current study was to examine CC control efforts in Latin America and identify deficiencies in these efforts that could be addressed to reduce CC incidence and mortality. The authors found that HPV vaccination has been introduced in the majority of Latin American countries, and there is now a need to monitor the success (or shortcomings) of these programs and to ensure that these programs are sustainable. This topic was also reviewed in light of emerging data demonstrating that visual inspection with acetic acid and HPV DNA testing without Papanicolaou tests have efficacy from a screening perspective and are good alternatives to cytology-based screening programs. Overall, there is a need to build capacity for CC control in Latin America and the best strategy will depend on the country/region and must be tailored to meet the needs of the population as well as available resources. Cancer 2015. © 2015 American Cancer Society.© 2015 American Cancer Society.
Concordance study between one-step nucleic acid amplification and morphologic techniques to detect lymph node metastasis in papillary carcinoma of the thyroid. - Human pathology
Tumor resection in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is often accompanied by lymph node (LN) removal of the central and lateral cervical compartments. One-step nucleic acid amplification (OSNA) is a polymerase chain reaction-based technique that quantifies cytokeratin 19 (CK19) messenger RNA copies. Our aim is to assess the value of OSNA in detection of LN metastases in PTC, in comparison with imprints and microscopic analysis of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue. A total of 387 LNs from 37 patients were studied. From each half LN, 2 imprints were taken and analyzed with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and CK19 immunostaining. One half of the LN was submitted to OSNA and one half to FFPE processing and H&E and CK19 staining. For concordance analysis, every single LN was considered as a case. A group of 11 cases with discordant results between OSNA and H&E/CK19 FFPE sections were subjected to additional FFPE serial sectioning and H&E and CK19 staining. We found a high degree of concordance between the assays used, with sensitivities ranging from 0.81 to 0.95, and specificities ranging from 0.87 and 0.98. OSNA allowed upstaging of patients from pN0 to pN1, in comparison with standard pathologic analysis. Identification of a metastatic LN with more than 15000 CK19 messenger RNA copies predicted the presence of a second LN with macrometastasis (<5000 copies). In summary, the study shows that OSNA application in sentinel or suspicious LN may be helpful in assessing nodal status in PTC patients.Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Management for Elderly Women With Advanced-Stage, High-Grade Endometrial Cancer. - Obstetrics and gynecology
To examine the treatment and survival of elderly women diagnosed with advanced-stage, high-grade endometrial cancer.We performed a retrospective cohort study of women diagnosed between 2003 and 2011 with advanced-stage, high-grade endometrial cancers (grade 3 adenocarcinoma, carcinosarcoma, clear-cell carcinoma, and uterine serous carcinoma) using the National Cancer Database. Women were stratified by age: younger than 55, 55-64, 65-74, 75-84, and 85 years old or older. Multivariate logistic regression models and Cox proportional hazards survival methods for all-cause mortality were used for analyses.Twenty thousand four hundred sixty-eight patients were included, 14.9% younger than 55 years, 30.9% 55-64 years, 31.1% 65-74 years, 18.8% 75-84 years, and 4.3% 85 years old or older. Patients younger than 55 years had surgery more frequently compared with patients 75-84 years (97.2% compared with 95.8%; P<.001) and 85 years or older (97.2% compared with 94.8%; P<.001) and a higher rate of lymph node dissection (78.7% compared with 70.5%; P<.001 and 78.7% compared with 59.5%; P<.001, respectively). Women younger than 55 years old were more likely to receive chemotherapy compared with those 75-84 years (63.9% compared with 42.2%; P<.001) and 85 years old or older (63.9% compared with 22%; P<.001). After adjusting for prognostic factors, women ages 75-84 and 85 years or older were less likely to have received chemotherapy compared with women younger than 55 years (odds ratio [OR] 0.34, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.29-0.38 and OR 0.12, 95% CI 0.10-0.14). The same was true with surgery (OR 0.63, 95% CI 0.45-0.88 and OR 0.46, 95% CI 0.30-0.70) and radiotherapy (OR 0.61, 95% CI 0.53-0.70 and OR 0.45, 95% CI 0.37-0.56). The Cox regression model showed that in women with stage III disease, women 75-84 years had a twofold higher risk of death (hazard ratio [HR] 2.38, 95% CI 2.14-2.65) and those 85 years or older had a threefold higher risk (HR 3.16, 95% CI 2.76-3.61) compared with patients younger than 55 years. Patients with stage IV and age 75-84 years had a 24% increased risk of death (HR 1.24, 95% CI 1.11-1.40) and those 85 years or older had a 52% increased risk (HR 1.52, 95% CI 1.29-1.79).Elderly women with high-grade endometrial cancer are less likely to be treated with surgery, chemotherapy, or radiation.II.
Sustained, low-dose intraperitoneal cisplatin improves treatment outcome in ovarian cancer mouse models. - Journal of controlled release : official journal of the Controlled Release Society
Intraperitoneal (IP) chemotherapy for ovarian cancer treatment prolongs overall survival by 16months compared to intravenous chemotherapy but is not widely practiced due to catheter-related complications and complexity of administration. An implantable, nonresorbable IP microdevice was used to release chemotherapeutic agent at a constant rate of approximately 1.3μg/h in vitro and 1.0μg/h in vivo. Studies conducted in two orthotopic murine models bearing human xenografts (SKOV3 and UCI101) demonstrate that continuous dosing reduces tumor burden to the same extent as weekly IP bolus drug injections. Treatment-induced toxicity was quantified via body weight loss and complete blood count. The microdevice resulted in significantly less toxicity than IP bolus injections, despite administration of higher cumulative doses (total area under the concentration-time curve of 3049ngday/mL with the microdevice vs. 2118ng-day/mL with IP bolus injections). This preclinical study supports the concept that reduced toxicity with similar efficacy outcomes can be achieved by continuous dosing in ovarian cancer patients currently treated with IP therapy.Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Progress and remaining challenges for cancer control in Latin America and the Caribbean. - The Lancet. Oncology
Cancer is one of the leading causes of mortality worldwide, and an increasing threat in low-income and middle-income countries. Our findings in the 2013 Commission in The Lancet Oncology showed several discrepancies between the cancer landscape in Latin America and more developed countries. We reported that funding for health care was a small percentage of national gross domestic product and the percentage of health-care funds diverted to cancer care was even lower. Funds, insurance coverage, doctors, health-care workers, resources, and equipment were also very inequitably distributed between and within countries. We reported that a scarcity of cancer registries hampered the design of credible cancer plans, including initiatives for primary prevention. When we were commissioned by The Lancet Oncology to write an update to our report, we were sceptical that we would uncover much change. To our surprise and gratification much progress has been made in this short time. We are pleased to highlight structural reforms in health-care systems, new programmes for disenfranchised populations, expansion of cancer registries and cancer plans, and implementation of policies to improve primary cancer prevention.Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Müllerianosis with Intestinal Metaplasia: A Case Report. - Türk patoloji dergisi
Müllerianosis or Müllerian choristomas are developmental alterations that consist of an organoid structure with normal Müllerian tissue. We present a 62-year-old patient diagnosed on ultrasound scanning and on CT scan of bilateral ovarian cysts. During surgery, a left ovarian cyst and retroperitoneal tumor (adhered to sigmoid serous surface) were found. On histological examination, the tumor corresponded with a Müllerian choristoma showing endometrial, endosalpingeal and endocervical epithelium, with foci of intestinal metaplasia, a phenomenon not described in the literature.
The Dynamic Genome and Transcriptome of the Human Fungal Pathogen Blastomyces and Close Relative Emmonsia. - PLoS genetics
Three closely related thermally dimorphic pathogens are causal agents of major fungal diseases affecting humans in the Americas: blastomycosis, histoplasmosis and paracoccidioidomycosis. Here we report the genome sequence and analysis of four strains of the etiological agent of blastomycosis, Blastomyces, and two species of the related genus Emmonsia, typically pathogens of small mammals. Compared to related species, Blastomyces genomes are highly expanded, with long, often sharply demarcated tracts of low GC-content sequence. These GC-poor isochore-like regions are enriched for gypsy elements, are variable in total size between isolates, and are least expanded in the avirulent B. dermatitidis strain ER-3 as compared with the virulent B. gilchristii strain SLH14081. The lack of similar regions in related species suggests these isochore-like regions originated recently in the ancestor of the Blastomyces lineage. While gene content is highly conserved between Blastomyces and related fungi, we identified changes in copy number of genes potentially involved in host interaction, including proteases and characterized antigens. In addition, we studied gene expression changes of B. dermatitidis during the interaction of the infectious yeast form with macrophages and in a mouse model. Both experiments highlight a strong antioxidant defense response in Blastomyces, and upregulation of dioxygenases in vivo suggests that dioxide produced by antioxidants may be further utilized for amino acid metabolism. We identify a number of functional categories upregulated exclusively in vivo, such as secreted proteins, zinc acquisition proteins, and cysteine and tryptophan metabolism, which may include critical virulence factors missed before in in vitro studies. Across the dimorphic fungi, loss of certain zinc acquisition genes and differences in amino acid metabolism suggest unique adaptations of Blastomyces to its host environment. These results reveal the dynamics of genome evolution and of factors contributing to virulence in Blastomyces.
Evidence for the Relationship Between Endometriosis and Epithelial Ovarian Cancer. - Obstetrical & gynecological survey
Endometriosis may be a precursor lesion for some epithelial ovarian cancers (EOCs), especially those of clear cell and endometrioid histologies. The causality of this relationship remains controversial and in need of further investigation because the high prevalence of endometriosis and high mortality of EOC carry significant public health implications if the association is real. Endometriosis-associated ovarian cancer (EAOC) often presents at an earlier stage and with lower-grade lesions than non-EAOC. After surgical resection, these patients also tend to have less residual disease than do patients with non-EAOC. Survival has been reported to be better for women with EAOC. The tumor suppression gene, ARID1A, is frequently disrupted in EAOC. The ARID1A mutation has been reported in preneoplastic lesions and may be an early marker in the transformation of endometriosis into cancer. The current evidence in respect to critical molecular pathways underscores the need to investigate possible role of targeted therapies in the treatment of EAOC.

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